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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5340 matches for " Olivier Dangles "
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Coupled Information Diffusion–Pest Dynamics Models Predict Delayed Benefits of Farmer Cooperation in Pest Management Programs
Fran?ois Rebaudo,Olivier Dangles
PLOS Computational Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002222
Abstract: Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' “diffusion of innovation theory”. In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations.
The Aerodynamic Signature of Running Spiders
Jér?me Casas, Thomas Steinmann, Olivier Dangles
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002116
Abstract: Many predators display two foraging modes, an ambush strategy and a cruising mode. These foraging strategies have been classically studied in energetic, biomechanical and ecological terms, without considering the role of signals produced by predators and perceived by prey. Wolf spiders are a typical example; they hunt in leaf litter either using an ambush strategy or by moving at high speed, taking over unwary prey. Air flow upstream of running spiders is a source of information for escaping prey, such as crickets and cockroaches. However, air displacement by running arthropods has not been previously examined. Here we show, using digital particle image velocimetry, that running spiders are highly conspicuous aerodynamically, due to substantial air displacement detectable up to several centimetres in front of them. This study explains the bimodal distribution of spider's foraging modes in terms of sensory ecology and is consistent with the escape distances and speeds of cricket prey. These findings may be relevant to the large and diverse array of arthropod prey-predator interactions in leaf litter.
Dynamics of Sylvatic Chagas Disease Vectors in Coastal Ecuador Is Driven by Changes in Land Cover
Mario J. Grijalva ,David Terán,Olivier Dangles
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002960
Abstract: Background Chagas disease is a serious public health problem in Latin America where about ten million individuals show Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Despite significant success in controlling domiciliated triatomines, sylvatic populations frequently infest houses after insecticide treatment which hampers long term control prospects in vast geographical areas where vectorial transmission is endemic. As a key issue, the spatio-temporal dynamics of sylvatic populations is likely influenced by landscape yet evidence showing this effect is rare. The aim of this work is to examine the role of land cover changes in sylvatic triatomine ecology, based on an exhaustive field survey of pathogens, vectors, hosts, and microhabitat characteristics' dynamics. Methodology and Principal Findings The study was performed in agricultural landscapes of coastal Ecuador as a study model. Over one year, a spatially-randomized sampling design (490 collection points) allowed quantifying triatomine densities in natural, cultivated and domestic habitats. We also assessed infection of the bugs with trypanosomes, documented their microhabitats and potential hosts, and recorded changes in landscape characteristics. In total we collected 886 individuals, mainly represented by nymphal stages of one triatomine species Rhodnius ecuadoriensis. As main results, we found that 1) sylvatic triatomines had very high T. cruzi infection rates (71%) and 2) densities of T. cruzi-infected sylvatic triatomines varied predictably over time due to changes in land cover and occurrence of associated rodent hosts. Conclusion We propose a framework for identifying the factors affecting the yearly distribution of sylvatic T. cruzi vectors. Beyond providing key basic information for the control of human habitat colonization by sylvatic vector populations, our framework highlights the importance of both environmental and sociological factors in shaping the spatio-temporal population dynamics of triatomines. A better understanding of the dynamics of such socio-ecological systems is a crucial, yet poorly considered, issue for the long-term control of Chagas disease.
Simulating Population Genetics of Pathogen Vectors in Changing Landscapes: Guidelines and Application with Triatoma brasiliensis
Francois Rebaudo ,Jane Costa,Carlos E. Almeida,Jean-Francois Silvain,Myriam Harry,Olivier Dangles
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003068
Abstract: Background Understanding the mechanisms that influence the population dynamics and spatial genetic structure of the vectors of pathogens infecting humans is a central issue in tropical epidemiology. In view of the rapid changes in the features of landscape pathogen vectors live in, this issue requires new methods that consider both natural and human systems and their interactions. In this context, individual-based model (IBM) simulations represent powerful yet poorly developed approaches to explore the response of pathogen vectors in heterogeneous social-ecological systems, especially when field experiments cannot be performed. Methodology/Principal Findings We first present guidelines for the use of a spatially explicit IBM, to simulate population genetics of pathogen vectors in changing landscapes. We then applied our model with Triatoma brasiliensis, originally restricted to sylvatic habitats and now found in peridomestic and domestic habitats, posing as the most important Trypanosoma cruzi vector in Northeastern Brazil. We focused on the effects of vector migration rate, maximum dispersal distance and attraction by domestic habitat on T. brasiliensis population dynamics and spatial genetic structure. Optimized for T. brasiliensis using field data pairwise fixation index (FST) from microsatellite loci, our simulations confirmed the importance of these three variables to understand vector genetic structure at the landscape level. We then ran prospective scenarios accounting for land-use change (deforestation and urbanization), which revealed that human-induced land-use change favored higher genetic diversity among sampling points. Conclusions/Significance Our work shows that mechanistic models may be useful tools to link observed patterns with processes involved in the population genetics of tropical pathogen vectors in heterogeneous social-ecological landscapes. Our hope is that our study may provide a testable and applicable modeling framework to a broad community of epidemiologists for formulating scenarios of landscape change consequences on vector dynamics, with potential implications for their surveillance and control.
Ecological factors related to the widespread distribution of sylvatic Rhodnius ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador
Mario J Grijalva, Victoria Suarez-Davalos, Anita G Villacis, Sofia Oca?a-Mayorga, Olivier Dangles
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-17
Abstract: Manual triatomine searches were conducted by skilled bug collectors in 23 communities. Sylvatic searched sites were selected by a) directed sampling, where microhabitats were selected by the searchers and b) random sampling, where sampling points where randomly generated. Domiciliary triatomine searches were conducted using the one man-hour method. Natural trypanosome infection was determined by microscopic examination and PCR. Generalized linear models were used to test the effect of environmental factors on the presence of sylvatic triatomines.In total, 1,923 sylvatic individuals were collected representing a sampling effort of 751 man-hours. Collected sylvatic triatomines were associated with mammal and bird nests. The 1,219 sampled nests presented an infestation index of 11.9%, a crowding of 13 bugs per infested nest, and a colonization of 80% of the nests. Triatomine abundance was significantly higher in squirrel (Sciurus stramineus) nests located above five meters from ground level and close to the houses. In addition, 8.5% of the 820 examined houses in the same localities were infested with triatomines. There was a significant correlation between R. ecuadoriensis infestation rates found in sylvatic and synanthropic environments within communities (p = 0.012). Parasitological analysis revealed that 64.7% and 15.7% of the sylvatic bugs examined (n = 300) were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli respectively, and 8% of the bugs presented mixed infections.The wide distribution of sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations may jeopardize the effectiveness of control campaigns conducted to eliminate domestic populations of this species. Also, the high T. cruzi infection rates found in sylvatic R. ecuadoriensis populations in southern Ecuador could constitute a risk for house re-infestation and persistent long-term Chagas disease transmission in the region.Chagas disease is caused by the hemoflagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is transmitted ma
And If Bell’s Inequality Were Not Violated  [PDF]
Olivier Serret
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.514137

It briefly recalls the theory of Bell’s inequality and some experimental measures. Then measurements are processed on one hand according to a property of the wave function, on the other hand according to the sum definition. The results of such processed measures are apparently not the same, so Bell’s inequality would not be violated. It is a use of the wave function which implies the violation of the inequality, as it can be seen on the last flowcharts.

Thermodynamics and Irreversibility: From Some Paradoxes to the Efficiency of Effective Engines  [PDF]
Olivier Serret
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2014.516159
Abstract: The traditional thermodynamic theory explains the reversible phenomena quite well, except that reversible phenomena are rare or even impossible in practice. Here the purpose is to propose an explanation valid for reversible and also irreversible phenomena, irreversibility being common or realistic. It previously exposed points tricky to grasp, as the sign of the work exchange, the adiabatic expansion in vacuum (free expansion) or the transfer of heat between two bodies at the same temperature (isothermal transfer). After having slightly modified the concepts of heat transfer (each body produces heat according to its own temperature) and work (distinguishing external pressure from internal pressure), the previous points are more easily explained. At last, an engine efficiency in case of irreversible transfer is proposed. This paper is focused on the form of thermodynamics, on “explanations”; it does not question on “results” (except the irreversible free expansion of 1845...) which remain unchanged.
How to Demonstrate the Lorentz Factor: Variable Time v.s. Variable Inertial Mass  [PDF]
Olivier Serret
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.63030
Abstract: For a century, hypothesis of a variable time is laid down by the Relativity Theory. This hypothesis can explain many Nature observations, experiments and formulas, for example the Lorentz factor demonstration. Because of such good explanations, the hypothesis of a variable time has been validated. Nevertheless, it remains some paradoxes and some predictions which are difficult to measure, as a reversible time or the time variation itself. The purpose of this article is to study another hypothesis. If it gives interesting results, it would mean that this alternative hypothesis can also be validated. The idea in this paper is to replace the variable time by a variable inertial mass. To the difference with the Theory of Relativity (where the inertial mass and the gravitational mass are equal and variable), the gravitational mass is here supposed to be constant. So, starting from the definition of the kinetic energy, it is introduced the Lorentz factor. And then it is demonstrated the value of the Lorentz factor thanks to a variable inertial mass. This variable inertial mass can also explain experiments, like Bertozzi experiment. If this alternative demonstration was validated, it could help to open doors, other physical effects could be explained like the addition of velocities.
Velocity Addition Demonstrated from the Conservation of Linear Momenta, an Alternative Expression  [PDF]
Olivier Serret
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.66077
Abstract: Is it possible to demonstrate the velocity addition without using a variable time (as it is done in theory of relativity)? The topic of this paper is to propose and demonstrate an alternative expres-sion based on the conservation of linear momenta. The method proposed here is to start from a physical object (and not from a mathematical point), i.e. from an object with a mass. And the hy-pothesis is inertial mass to be different from gravitational mass. Then, when impulses are added, we get an expression of the velocity addition itself. When numerical predictions are compared with experimental results, the differences are lower than the measures uncertainty. And these numerical results are much close to those predicts by the theory of relativity, nevertheless with a little difference at high velocities. If this demonstration and this expression were validated, it would allow giving an alternative explanation to some experiments and nature observations as Doppler Effect on light celerity. But first, it would be necessary to get from laboratories more precise experimental results, in order to validate or not this hypothesis of the sum of linear momenta with a Variable Inertial Mass.
A Chart of Conversion Supporting EPR Paradox vs. Bell’s Inequalities Violation  [PDF]
Olivier Serret
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613201
Abstract: Quantum Mechanics formalism remains difficult to understand and sometimes is confusing, especially in the explanation of ERP paradox and of Bell’s inequalities with entanglement photons. So a chart of conversion, in which elements are named differently, is proposed. Next, experiment about Bell’s inequalities violation is described in another way, and we hope a clearer one. Main result is Bell’s inequalities would not be violated! The explanation would come from confusion between the definition of the correlation function S1, and a property S2. And consequently, Einstein, Podolski and Rosen would be right on the local “hidden” variable.
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