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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4223 matches for " Olivia Nicola Auferkorte "
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GABAA Receptors Containing the α2 Subunit Are Critical for Direction-Selective Inhibition in the Retina
Olivia Nicola Auferkorte, Tom Baden, Sanjeev Kumar Kaushalya, Nawal Zabouri, Uwe Rudolph, Silke Haverkamp, Thomas Euler
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035109
Abstract: Far from being a simple sensor, the retina actively participates in processing visual signals. One of the best understood aspects of this processing is the detection of motion direction. Direction-selective (DS) retinal circuits include several subtypes of ganglion cells (GCs) and inhibitory interneurons, such as starburst amacrine cells (SACs). Recent studies demonstrated a surprising complexity in the arrangement of synapses in the DS circuit, i.e. between SACs and DS ganglion cells. Thus, to fully understand retinal DS mechanisms, detailed knowledge of all synaptic elements involved, particularly the nature and localization of neurotransmitter receptors, is needed. Since inhibition from SACs onto DSGCs is crucial for generating retinal direction selectivity, we investigate here the nature of the GABA receptors mediating this interaction. We found that in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of mouse and rabbit retina, GABAA receptor subunit α2 (GABAAR α2) aggregated in synaptic clusters along two bands overlapping the dendritic plexuses of both ON and OFF SACs. On distal dendrites of individually labeled SACs in rabbit, GABAAR α2 was aligned with the majority of varicosities, the cell's output structures, and found postsynaptically on DSGC dendrites, both in the ON and OFF portion of the IPL. In GABAAR α2 knock-out (KO) mice, light responses of retinal GCs recorded with two-photon calcium imaging revealed a significant impairment of DS responses compared to their wild-type littermates. We observed a dramatic drop in the proportion of cells exhibiting DS phenotype in both the ON and ON-OFF populations, which strongly supports our anatomical findings that α2-containing GABAARs are critical for mediating retinal DS inhibition. Our study reveals for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the precise functional localization of a specific receptor subunit in the retinal DS circuit.
Phylogenetic analysis of three genes of Penguinpox virus corresponding to Vaccinia virus G8R (VLTF-1), A3L (P4b) and H3L reveals that it is most closely related to Turkeypox virus, Ostrichpox virus and Pigeonpox virus
Olivia Carulei, Nicola Douglass, Anna-Lise Williamson
Virology Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-6-52
Abstract: Interest in the avipoxviruses, notably Fowlpox virus (FWPV) and Canarypox virus (CNPV) has increased due to their successful use as vaccines on commercial flocks and their extensive use and testing as vaccine vectors [1-8]. The genomes of both FWPV and CNPV have been sequenced and comparison reveals a high level of divergence with significant differences between orthologous ORFs and the terminal, variable genomic regions [9,10]. Analysis of the thymidine kinase gene showed only 64% amino acid identity between FWPV and CNPV compared to 97% amino acid identity amongst the orthopoxviruses and 84% within the Leporipoxvirus genus [11]. This level of divergence is commonly seen between different Chordopoxvirus genera suggesting that the species within the Avipoxvirus genus are highly divergent. A novel avipoxvirus, Penguinpox virus (PEPV) was isolated from an African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) that was brought into the Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds (SANCCOB) [12]. Lesions around the eyes, typical of avipoxvirus infection were noted and scrapings were taken. Virus was cultured from these scrapings and histological studies and restriction enzyme profile comparison to other known avipoxviruses, namely FWPV, CNPV, Turkeypox virus (TKPV) and Quailpox virus, confirmed that it was indeed a novel avipoxvirus [12]. Infectivity studies of different mammalian cell lines (CV-1, Vero, MDBK, RK-13, HeLa and HEF) and chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) showed that early stages of virus replication were supported, but no infectious progeny virus could be recovered [13]. It is currently unclear as to why PEPV cannot be successfully passaged in CEFs as CEFs have been shown to support replication of both FWPV and CNPV viruses. Also reported was the fact that PEPV transcriptases could recognize the Vaccinia virus (VACV) derived late promoter P11 linked to the β-galactosidase reporter gene, resulting in transient gene expression.One highly conserved gene, VL
Spectral Characterisation of Ancient Wooden Artefacts with the Use of Traditional IR Techniques and ATR Device: A Methodological Approach
Marcello Picollo,Eleonora Cavallo,Nicola Macchioni,Olivia Pignatelli
E-Preservation Science , 2011,
Abstract: This work presents a methodological approach to the study of ancient wooden artefacts using FT-IR techniques. Sampling is one of the most important steps during investigation of works of art. However, samples should be taken only when this operation does not appreciably modify any part, or change the integrity of the wooden artefact inquestion. Although it was invasive, a low-destructive method of sampling was used on wood meal in order to obtain reproducible results. Moreover, two modes of operation were compared, namely the transmission mode (carried out on pellets of wood meal mixed with KBr) and the Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) mode (carried outdirectly on wood meal). For the former, the effect of the concentration of wood in KBr was also considered. The results show a similar quality of spectra, although a different sensitivity between the two techniques in some spectral ranges was observed. The final focus of this research will be on validating the use of IR spectra to date wooden materials.
History as Contemporary History in the Thinking of Benedetto Croce  [PDF]
Nicola Conati
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.51007
Abstract: In this brief consideration of mine, trying to remain as faithful as possible to the texts taken into exam, I will first try to introduce the concept of history as contemporary history in the thinking of Benedetto Croce, whereas the second part of the reasoning will point toward proving and meditating on how such concept crosses the whole philosophical system of the Italian intellectual. What does contemporary history mean according to Benedetto Croce? Why is the spirit of the historian fundamental in the description of this concept? What kind of connection exists between story and contemporary history? What does pathology of history mean? How does the concept of contemporary history relate to that of awareness, of finished and thinking? These are but a few of the questions to which I tried to find an answer with this essay.
Episodic Memory and Appetite Regulation in Humans
Jeffrey M. Brunstrom, Jeremy F. Burn, Nicola R. Sell, Jane M. Collingwood, Peter J. Rogers, Laura L. Wilkinson, Elanor C. Hinton, Olivia M. Maynard, Danielle Ferriday
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050707
Abstract: Psychological and neurobiological evidence implicates hippocampal-dependent memory processes in the control of hunger and food intake. In humans, these have been revealed in the hyperphagia that is associated with amnesia. However, it remains unclear whether ‘memory for recent eating’ plays a significant role in neurologically intact humans. In this study we isolated the extent to which memory for a recently consumed meal influences hunger and fullness over a three-hour period. Before lunch, half of our volunteers were shown 300 ml of soup and half were shown 500 ml. Orthogonal to this, half consumed 300 ml and half consumed 500 ml. This process yielded four separate groups (25 volunteers in each). Independent manipulation of the ‘actual’ and ‘perceived’ soup portion was achieved using a computer-controlled peristaltic pump. This was designed to either refill or draw soup from a soup bowl in a covert manner. Immediately after lunch, self-reported hunger was influenced by the actual and not the perceived amount of soup consumed. However, two and three hours after meal termination this pattern was reversed - hunger was predicted by the perceived amount and not the actual amount. Participants who thought they had consumed the larger 500-ml portion reported significantly less hunger. This was also associated with an increase in the ‘expected satiation’ of the soup 24-hours later. For the first time, this manipulation exposes the independent and important contribution of memory processes to satiety. Opportunities exist to capitalise on this finding to reduce energy intake in humans.
Chungará (Arica) , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562010000100031
Abstract: sixteenth century sources associate the notion of labour in the andes with that of enjoyment, while most colonial spaniards and modern anthropologists see it as obligatory, ignoring its ritual dimensions. generally speaking, western theorists of labour, whether marxist or not, link labour and production with alienation. drawing on her fieldwork experience, the author notes that there is no aymara word for labour in general. more important is the purpose and beneficiary of labour. andeans not only value labour aimed at strengthening their own social networks, but more specifically labour that benefits the community to which they belong. the andean ethic of labour therefore leads it to be considered as a blessing, in opposition to judaeo-christian ways of considering it as a curse.
Pensadoras de peso: o pensamento de Judith Butler e Adriana Cavarero
Guaraldo, Olivia;
Revista Estudos Feministas , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-026X2007000300010
Abstract: the work presents the standpoint of two important contemporary feminist philosophers, adriana cavarero and judith butler, on subjectivity and relationality, showing how both moved away from the specific feminism motif in order to deepen and broaden their reflection on politics and ethics. calling tradition into question, cavarero agrees neither with the metaphysical binary, nor with the post-modern impersonality, combining a feminist and the arendtian perspectives of the subjectivity based on relationality. contrary to cavarero's thought, though, under butler's deconstructionist standpoint language shapes body and identity. subjectivity is "trapped" into social norms and values. both butler and cavarero rethink subjectivity based on relationality, that is, displacing politics from the immune individual and reallocating it on the vulnerable individual in relation with the other and with the social rules and values imposed on them.
Evaluación de un Sistema Discontinuo de Biodigestión Anaerobia para el tratamiento de desechos avicolas
Revista de la Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad Central de Venezuela , 2005,
Abstract: in the present study, carried out in guanare (venezuela), in the period between november 1998 and march 1999, the application of an anaerobic digestion process in a discontinuous flow (batch) system was evaluated for the treatment of hen manure and rice hulls, with the purpose of stabilization, biogas production and pathogen control. the main biogas production (0,249 m3/m3d) was obtained with a combination of the evaluated materials, in a retention time of 60 days. in the bacteriological study, we found bacteria of the escherichia, proteus, enterobacter and klebsiella groups. salmonella was not found. the parasitological study reported ascaridia, trichostrongylus, heterakis and eimeria. among the conclusions reached, we emphasize that the anaerobic mesophilic process exercises scarce control over bacteria of the enterobacteriaceae group, and no control was observed over the parasite eggs found. therefore, further studies into these aspects is considered important, so as to find alternatives of control and recommendations for a safe handling of manure.
Profile: Olivia Anderson
Olivia Anderson
Partnership : the Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research , 2011,
Les démographes et le temps Demographers and Time
Olivia Samuel
Temporalités , 2009,
Abstract: Cet article présente la fa on dont les démographes ont pris en compte la question du temps dans leurs travaux depuis l’après seconde guerre. Le temps, dimension centrale de la démographie, est à la fois un élément constitutif des instruments de mesure des phénomènes démographiques et un objet d’étude en soi. Les modalités de la prise en compte du temps ont considérablement évolué depuis les années 1950. L’approche synchronique, la plus fréquente alors, va être complétée par l’approche longitudinale, puis biographique et enfin multi-niveaux. A chacune de ces étapes, la question du temps (individuel ou collectif), de sa mesure et de sa signification, fait l’objet d’une réflexion qui rappellera la complexité de son appréhension. Après avoir mis en lumière ces étapes, l’article examine différents travaux démographiques qui ont pris le temps et les temporalités sociales comme objet d’étude, notamment au travers du repérage de l’age, de l’appartenance générationnelle ou encore des marqueurs de transitions. This article shows how demographers have dealt with the question of time since WWII. Time, a central dimension of demography, has been both a tool for measuring demographic phenomena and an object of study in itself, and the ways it has been taken into account have considerably developed since the 1950s. The most usual point of view at the time, which was synchronic, was later to be completed by a longitudinal, then biographical and finally multi-faceted approach. At each of these stages, the question of time (individual or collective), as well as of how to measure it and how to evaluate its significance, came under more scrutiny, reminding use how complex an object it is to grasp. After a review of these various stages, the paper examines those demographic studies that have focused on time and social temporalities, particularly through the factors of age, generation or transition markers.
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