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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 877 matches for " Olivia Gosseries "
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Theories of intergenerational justice: a synopsis
A. Gosseries
Surveys and Perspectives Integrating Environment and Society (SAPIENS) , 2008, DOI: 10.5194/sapiens-1-39-2008
Abstract: In this paper, the author offers a synoptic view of different theories of intergenerational justice, along two dimensions (savings/dissavings) and three modalities (prohibition, authorisation, obligation). After presenting successively the indirect reciprocity, the mutual advantage, the utilitarian and the Lockean approaches, special attention is given to the egalitarian theory of intergenerational justice. Two key differences between the egalitarian view on intergenerational justice and the sufficientarian interpretation of sustainability are highlighted.
Visual fixation in the vegetative state: an observational case series PET study
Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Caroline Schnakers, Mélanie Boly, Olivia Gosseries, Athena Demertzi, Steve Majerus, Gustave Moonen, Roland Hustinx, Steven Laureys
BMC Neurology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-10-35
Abstract: We here studied cerebral metabolism in ten patients with chronic post-anoxic encephalopathy and 39 age-matched healthy controls. Five patients were in a vegetative state (without fixation) and five presented visual fixation but otherwise showed all criteria typical of the vegetative state. Patients were matched for age, etiology and time since insult and were followed by repeated Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) assessments for at least 1 year. Sustained visual fixation was considered as present when the eyes refixated a moving target for more than 2 seconds as defined by CRS-R criteria.Patients without fixation showed metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal cortical network (with only sparing of the brainstem and cerebellum) which was not different from the brain function seen in patients with visual fixation. Cortico-cortical functional connectivity with visual cortex showed no difference between both patient groups. Recovery rates did not differ between patients without or with fixation (none of the patients showed good outcome).Our findings suggest that sustained visual fixation in (non-traumatic) disorders of consciousness does not necessarily reflect consciousness and higher order cortical brain function.It is still a matter of debate whether visual fixation indicates "automatic" subcortical processing (i.e., is compatible with the diagnosis of the vegetative state; VS [1,2]) or whether it is a cognitively mediated behavior that heralds consciousness and higher order cortical processing (i.e., sufficient for the diagnosis of the minimallyconscious state; MCS [3]). According to the Multi Society Task Force on PVS in "rare cases, patients who have no other evidence of consciousness over a period of months to years have some degree of briefly sustained visual fixation, which is believed to be mediated through brainstem structures"[1]. Similarly, UK guidelines state that "visual fixation of a target" is a "compatible but atypical feature" of the V
Dynamic Change of Global and Local Information Processing in Propofol-Induced Loss and Recovery of Consciousness
Martin M. Monti ,Evan S. Lutkenhoff,Mikail Rubinov,Pierre Boveroux,Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse,Olivia Gosseries,Marie-Aurélie Bruno,Quentin Noirhomme,Mélanie Boly,Steven Laureys
PLOS Computational Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003271
Abstract: Whether unique to humans or not, consciousness is a central aspect of our experience of the world. The neural fingerprint of this experience, however, remains one of the least understood aspects of the human brain. In this paper we employ graph-theoretic measures and support vector machine classification to assess, in 12 healthy volunteers, the dynamic reconfiguration of functional connectivity during wakefulness, propofol-induced sedation and loss of consciousness, and the recovery of wakefulness. Our main findings, based on resting-state fMRI, are three-fold. First, we find that propofol-induced anesthesia does not bear differently on long-range versus short-range connections. Second, our multi-stage design dissociated an initial phase of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical hyperconnectivity, present during sedation, from a phase of cortico-cortical hypoconnectivity, apparent during loss of consciousness. Finally, we show that while clustering is increased during loss of consciousness, as recently suggested, it also remains significantly elevated during wakefulness recovery. Conversely, the characteristic path length of brain networks (i.e., the average functional distance between any two regions of the brain) appears significantly increased only during loss of consciousness, marking a decrease of global information-processing efficiency uniquely associated with unconsciousness. These findings suggest that propofol-induced loss of consciousness is mainly tied to cortico-cortical and not thalamo-cortical mechanisms, and that decreased efficiency of information flow is the main feature differentiating the conscious from the unconscious brain.
Changes in Effective Connectivity by Propofol Sedation
Francisco Gómez, Christophe Phillips, Andrea Soddu, Melanie Boly, Pierre Boveroux, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Olivia Gosseries, Vincent Bonhomme, Steven Laureys, Quentin Noirhomme
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071370
Abstract: Mechanisms of propofol-induced loss of consciousness remain poorly understood. Recent fMRI studies have shown decreases in functional connectivity during unconsciousness induced by this anesthetic agent. Functional connectivity does not provide information of directional changes in the dynamics observed during unconsciousness. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in healthy humans during an auditory task, the changes in effective connectivity resulting from propofol induced loss of consciousness. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling for fMRI (fMRI-DCM) to assess how causal connectivity is influenced by the anesthetic agent in the auditory system. Our results suggest that the dynamic observed in the auditory system during unconsciousness induced by propofol, can result in a mixture of two effects: a local inhibitory connectivity increase and a decrease in the effective connectivity in sensory cortices.
The Impact of Political Reforms in Improving Quality Health Services: The Case Study of Shamva District  [PDF]
Olivia Gumbo
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2019.92023
Abstract: Zimbabweans continue to experience challenges in combating communicable diseases such as tuberculosis, diarrheal diseases, and HIV/AIDS. The country’s health sector decentralisation implementation is moving at a snail’s speed, triggering complaints of unsatisfactory service delivery at rural health centres. The study examined the impact of political reforms in improving quality health services in Shamva District. The identified political reforms were decentralisation and the second republic that emerged in November 2018 that embraced the 100-day plans approach, civil service reform agenda, development of transitional stabilisation plan and vision 2030 agenda. The study was guided by interpretive and critical post-modernist paradigms. Qualitative methodology was utilised; key informant interviews, focus group discussion and desk reviews were data generation tools that were utilised. The data generated were analysed using grounded theory. The key findings are that decentralisation enabled district health officials to interact with communities through social accountability strategies such as community scorecard, results-based financing and village health worker model that is implemented in Shamva District by Civil Society Organisations. The second republic political reforms enforced the user fee policy in the health sector and focused on improving primary health care. The political reforms led to improved health rights knowledge of communities and quality health services in Shamva District. The study concluded that lack of continuous funding and sustainable plans led to the reversal of positive results that were brought in by the political reforms. The major recommendation is that government should understand that service delivery is not poor by accident; rather it is a symptom of the
Antimicrobial Resistance and β-Lactamase Production among Hospital Dumpsite Isolates  [PDF]
Olivia Sochi Egbule
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2016.77094
Abstract:

Metallo-β-Lactamases (MBLs) and Extended Spectrum β-Lactamses (ESBLs) have emerged world-wide as a significant source of β-lactam resistance. The emergence of MBLs and ESBLs encoded on plasmids among Gram-negative pathogens in hospital dumpsites was investigated. Soils of different government and private hospitals were collected and processed following standard bacteriological techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by the disk-diffusion technique using Ceftazidime (30 μg), Cefuroxime (30 μg), Cefotaxime (30 μg), Cefixime (5 μg), Trimethprim-sulfamethoxazole (25 μg), Gentamycin (100 μg) Amoxicillin-Clavunalate (30 μg), Ciprofloxacin (5 μg), Ofloxacin (5 μg), Nitrofurantoin (300 μg) and Imipenem (10 μg). The role of plasmids in resistance was evaluated by subjecting isolates to curing using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS). ESBLs production by Double-Disk Synergy Test (DDST) was carried out. Isolates resistant to Imipenem were subjected to a confirmatory test using Modified Hodge’s test and to MBLs production by DDST. Eighty-two Gram-negative isolates comprising of 32 (39.02%) Escherichia coli, 20 (24.39%) Serratia marcescens, 14 (17.07%) Klebsiella pneumonia, 10 (12.28%) Proteus mirabilis and 6 (7.32%) Enterobacter aerogenes were obtained. Susceptibility results revealed a 100% resistance of all isolates to Ceftazidime, Cefuroxime, Cefixime, Amoxycillin-clavulanate and Cefotaxime. A total of 66 (80.48%) isolates harboured plasmids out of which 26 (31.71%) isolates were ESBL producers. MBLs production was observed in 8 (25.00%) E. coli, 2 (2.41%) Klebsiella pneumonia and 2 (2.41%) Proteus mirabilis isolates. All MBLs producing isolates were ESBLs producers. The finding of highly resistant isolates producing ESBLs and MBLs in a hospital environment is quite disturbing and should be addressed urgently.

Detection and Transfer of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Enzymes from Untreated Hospital Waste Water  [PDF]
Olivia Sochi Egbule
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.67051
Abstract: Untreated Hospital wastewater piped into septic tanks contributes to the spread of antibiotic resistance in developing countries. This study was conducted to determine the resistant profile, and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) production in isolates from hospital waste water, of 2 hospitals in Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 147 organisms were isolated from 32 waste water samples. One hundred and twenty three isolates were Gram negative and 24 were Gram positive. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent in the two locations. Antimicrobial susceptibility by standard disk diffusion method was performed. All isolates were resistant to 4 or more antimicrobial agents. Out of the 123 Gram negative Bacteria, 33 were pan drug resistant and were selected for plasmid curing, DNA extraction and phenotypic detection of ESBL. Transfer of resistant by broth mating technique was performed. Plasmid curing and extraction result indicated that isolates carried resistance on the plasmid and harboured similar multiple high molecular weight plasmids of 23.13 kb and 9.4 kb. ESBL production was detected in 15.15%. Transfer of resistant genes between ESBL producing and non-ESBL producing isolates was observed. Incidence of ESBL in untreated hospital waste water has public health implications. Therefore establishment of treatment plants in our hospital is paramount in achieving sustainable health.
"TROCABAN EL TRABAJO EN FIESTA Y REGOCIJO": ACERCA DEL VALOR DEL TRABAJO EN LOS ANDES HISTóRICOS Y CONTEMPORáNEOS
Harris,Olivia;
Chungará (Arica) , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562010000100031
Abstract: sixteenth century sources associate the notion of labour in the andes with that of enjoyment, while most colonial spaniards and modern anthropologists see it as obligatory, ignoring its ritual dimensions. generally speaking, western theorists of labour, whether marxist or not, link labour and production with alienation. drawing on her fieldwork experience, the author notes that there is no aymara word for labour in general. more important is the purpose and beneficiary of labour. andeans not only value labour aimed at strengthening their own social networks, but more specifically labour that benefits the community to which they belong. the andean ethic of labour therefore leads it to be considered as a blessing, in opposition to judaeo-christian ways of considering it as a curse.
Pensadoras de peso: o pensamento de Judith Butler e Adriana Cavarero
Guaraldo, Olivia;
Revista Estudos Feministas , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-026X2007000300010
Abstract: the work presents the standpoint of two important contemporary feminist philosophers, adriana cavarero and judith butler, on subjectivity and relationality, showing how both moved away from the specific feminism motif in order to deepen and broaden their reflection on politics and ethics. calling tradition into question, cavarero agrees neither with the metaphysical binary, nor with the post-modern impersonality, combining a feminist and the arendtian perspectives of the subjectivity based on relationality. contrary to cavarero's thought, though, under butler's deconstructionist standpoint language shapes body and identity. subjectivity is "trapped" into social norms and values. both butler and cavarero rethink subjectivity based on relationality, that is, displacing politics from the immune individual and reallocating it on the vulnerable individual in relation with the other and with the social rules and values imposed on them.
Evaluación de un Sistema Discontinuo de Biodigestión Anaerobia para el tratamiento de desechos avicolas
PALACIO,OLIVIA;
Revista de la Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad Central de Venezuela , 2005,
Abstract: in the present study, carried out in guanare (venezuela), in the period between november 1998 and march 1999, the application of an anaerobic digestion process in a discontinuous flow (batch) system was evaluated for the treatment of hen manure and rice hulls, with the purpose of stabilization, biogas production and pathogen control. the main biogas production (0,249 m3/m3d) was obtained with a combination of the evaluated materials, in a retention time of 60 days. in the bacteriological study, we found bacteria of the escherichia, proteus, enterobacter and klebsiella groups. salmonella was not found. the parasitological study reported ascaridia, trichostrongylus, heterakis and eimeria. among the conclusions reached, we emphasize that the anaerobic mesophilic process exercises scarce control over bacteria of the enterobacteriaceae group, and no control was observed over the parasite eggs found. therefore, further studies into these aspects is considered important, so as to find alternatives of control and recommendations for a safe handling of manure.
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