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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4648 matches for " Oliver Miltner "
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Injury rates of the German Women’s American Football National Team from 2009 to 2011
Marco Ezechieli,Stephan Berger,Christian-Heige Siebert,Oliver Miltner
Orthopedic Reviews , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/or.2012.e28
Abstract: American football is one of the leading causes of athletic-related injuries. Injury rates in female elite players are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the injury rates of female was comparable to those in men’s football during practice, as well as games. From 2009 to 2011, injury data were collected from the German female national team during training camps, World Championship 2010 and International friendly matches. The injury was categorized by location on the body and recorded as fracture/dislocation, strain, concussion, contusion or other injury. Injury rates were determined based on the exposure of an athlete to a game or practice event. The injury rate was calculated as the ratio of injuries per 1000 athlete exposures (AE). The rate of injury was significantly higher during games (58.8/1000 AE) than practices [16.3/1000 AE, (P<0.01)]. Furthermore, the injury rate in the tryouts was significantly higher (24.05/1000 AE) compared to other training sessions with the national team (11.24/1000 AE). Our findings show that the injury rates in female elite American football players can be compared to those described for male players. Higher injury rates during matches than in training should also be underlined.
Nitrogen fertilization did not affect decay of old lignin and SOC in a 13C-labeled arable soil over 36 years
A. Hofmann,A. Heim,P. Gioacchini,A. Miltner
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2009,
Abstract: Retardation of soil organic carbon (SOC) decay after nitrogen addition to litter or soil has been suggested in several recent studies and has been attributed to a retardation in lignin decay. With our study we tested the long-term effect of mineral nitrogen fertilization on the decay of the SOC component lignin in arable soil. To achieve this, we tracked 13C-labeled lignin and SOC in an arable soil that is part of a 36-year field experiment with two mineral nitrogen fertilization levels. We could show that nitrogen fertilization neither retarded nor enhanced the decay of old SOC or lignin over a period of 36 years, proposing that decay of lignin was less sensitive to nitrogen fertilization than previously suggested. However, for fresh biomass there were indications that lignin decay might have been enhanced by nitrogen fertilization, whereas decay of SOC was unaffected. A retardation of SOC decay due to nitrogen addition, as found in other experiments, can therefore only be explained by effects on lignin decay, if lignin was actually measured.
Renewing Oncological Hyperthermia—Oncothermia  [PDF]
Oliver Szasz
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2013.34030

Hyperthermia was the very first oncotherapy in human medicine, but its applicability in modern oncology was dubious. The discovery of electromagnetism gave new hope a century ago, however, until up to now, it has been suffering from lack of wide acceptance. Oncological hyperthermia suffers from multiple unsolved medical and technical problems. The accurate selection of malignant tissue and its proper heating in depth are real challenges together with the control and repeatability of the treatments. However, the center of the problems is not technical: the living system tries to keep its homeostatic equilibrium and creates active feedback mechanisms to eliminate or at least correct the constrain heating in depth. The proper reaction on the “gage of battle” has to involve the physiology, handle it complexly together with bioelectromagnetism and update connected technology. The solution has to be the integration of the natural bio-effects into the technological constrains, acting in synergy with the physiological feedback mechanisms, and without forcing effects out of the homeostatic control. The solution lies in strict selection and adequate action in nanoscopic range, without exciting the robust transport-mechanisms to operate against the energy delivery to the tumor. Together with the local

Innovation Clusters and Public Policy—The Case of a Research-Driven Cluster in Germany  [PDF]
Oliver Mauroner
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2015.512072
Abstract: Regional innovation clusters are spatial concentrations of interconnected firms, suppliers, service providers, state institutions, and research organisation in a particular field of innovation. The stimulation and support of clusters are important agendas for governments and other public actors. Cluster development initiatives are actually an important direction in economic policy, building on earlier efforts in macroeconomic stabilization, privatisation, and market opening, and reducing the costs of doing business. The purpose of this paper is to look on a specific type of innovative clusters in Germany, which are supported by the Fraunhofer Society, one of the leading, partly public-funded organisations for application-oriented research in Europe. Based on an overview over current issues in cluster literature—beginning with Porter 1990 to the point of actual global-value-chain-approach and the concept of knowledge hubs—the particular cluster approach of the German Fraunhofer Society is classified with regard to the academic literature. Fraunhofer clusters are, in the first instance, project clusters compared to simple communication networks. The case study presented in this paper is a valid example for a long-term and well-established industry cluster, which actually opens out in a project-oriented cluster approach. Finally, it is possible to draw practical implications for policy makers and industry regarding the support of regional innovation clusters.
Bioelectromagnetic Paradigm of Cancer Treatment—Modulated Electro-Hyperthermia (mEHT)  [PDF]
Oliver Szasz
Open Journal of Biophysics (OJBIPHY) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbiphy.2019.92008

One of the most frequently applied bioelectromagnetic effects is the deep heating of the living species with EMF energy. Despite its long history, hyperthermia is a rarely applied oncotherapy. The reason is its controversial results and complicated control. One of the solutions is concentrating the electromagnetic energy nanoscopically on the parts of the malignant cells instead of heating up the complete tumor-mass. This approach is a kind of non-uniform energy absorption, providing energy liberation only in the selected regions. The energy-absorption of the malignant cells targets the membranes and creates a situation far from thermal equilibrium. The selection of the malignant cells is based on their decided differences from their healthy counterparts. The distinguishing parameters are the electromagnetic properties of the components of the malignant tissue which are the physiologic differences between the malignant cells and their healthy counterparts. The targets realize nano-range heating, using natural nanoclusters on the cell-membrane without artificially implementing them. This energy absorption generates consequent reactions, like programmed cell-death (apoptosis) continued by immunogenic cell-death involving extended immune reactions.?

The applied radiofrequency current is amplitude modulated by time-fractal modulation pattern. The accurately matched impedance realizes the self-selective mechanisms which are promoted by stochastic resonances. This complex method is a new kind of hyperthermia, named mEHT. Our objective is to analyze the problems of the selective, non-equilibrium energy absorption, and present a solution by the electromagnetic mechanisms for an effective and controllable hyperthermia in oncology.

Event-related potentials when identifying or color-naming threatening schematic stimuli in spider phobic and non-phobic individuals
Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Frauke Musial, Stephan Kolassa, Wolfgang HR Miltner
BMC Psychiatry , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-6-38
Abstract: Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of the processing of schematic spider and flower images were investigated while participants performed a color (emotional Stroop) and an object identification task. Stimuli were schematic pictures of spiders and flowers matched with respect to constituting visual elements.Consistent with previous studies using photographic spider pictures, spider phobic persons showed enhanced LPPs when identifying schematic spiders compared to schematic flowers. In addition, spider phobic individuals showed generally faster responses than the control groups. This effect was interpreted as evidence for an increased general behavioral hypervigilance in this anxiety disorder group. Furthermore, both phobic groups showed enhanced P100 amplitudes compared to controls, which was interpreted as evidence for an increased (cortical) hypervigilance for incoming stimuli in phobic patients in general. Finally, all groups showed faster identification of and larger N170 amplitudes in response to schematic spider than flower pictures. This may reflect either a general advantage for fear-relevant compared to neutral stimuli, or might be due to a higher level of expertise in processing schematic spiders as compared to the more artificially looking flower stimuli.Results suggest that schematic spiders are sufficient to prompt differential responses in spider-fearful and spider-non-fearful persons in late ERP components. Early ERP components, on the other hand, seem to be modified by anxiety status per se, which is consistent with recent theories on general hypervigilance in the anxiety disorder spectrum.Spiders are genuinely feared stimuli for individuals with spider phobia, but they are also considered fear-relevant (ancestral) stimuli for humans in general, and it has been hypothesized that such stimuli are detected and processed preferentially to other stimuli [1-4]. In support of this hypothesis, ?hman, Flykt, and Esteves [5] reported faster detecti
Amygdala activation to threat under attentional load in individuals with anxiety disorder
Thomas Straube, Judith Lipka, Andreas Sauer, Martin Mothes-Lasch, Wolfgang HR Miltner
Biology of Mood & Anxiety Disorders , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2045-5380-1-12
Abstract: During functional magnetic resonance imaging, spider-phobicand healthy control subjects were presented with phobia-related and neutral stimuli while performing a distraction task with varying perceptual load (high vs low).Our data revealed a pattern of simultaneously increased amygdala and visual cortical activation to threat vs neutral pictures in phobic individuals, compared with controls, occurring regardless of attentional load.These results suggest that, in contrast to studies in healthy subjects, amygdala activation to clinically relevant threat stimuli is more resistant to attentional load.In accordance with theories suggesting a critical function of the amygdala in the processing of threat signals and the mediation of fear responses [1,2], several studies found increased amygdala activation to threatening vs neutral stimuli in individuals with anxiety disorders [3-8] and in healthy subjects [9-14]. Furthermore, there are strong theoretical accounts proposing an automatic response of the amygdala to threat signals even when target stimuli are presented during attentional distraction [1,2,14]. Whereas some studies indeed suggest an automaticity of amygdala activation to threat-related stimuli under conditions of attentional distraction [9,13,14], several recent studies in healthy subjects, however, indicated a complete inhibition of differential activation to threat vs neutral stimuli within the amygdala, given sufficiently strong perceptual load by a main task [15-18]. Thus, it seems that, at least in healthy subjects, automatic activation of the amygdala to emotional stimuli does not occur when demanding cognitive tasks exhaust the available processing resources.Bishop et al., for example, used a perceptual load task, while subjects were exposed to fearful and neutral faces. Perceptual load was induced by varying the number of task-relevant items [19,20] within a letter string presented along with the facial expression. When perceptual identification was eas
Mineral fertilization did not affect decay of old lignin and SOC in a 13C-labeled arable soil over 36 years
A. Hofmann, A. Heim, P. Gioacchini, A. Miltner, M. Gehre,M. W. I. Schmidt
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2009,
Abstract: Retardation of soil organic carbon (SOC) decay after nitrogen addition to litter or soil has been suggested in several recent studies and has been attributed to a retardation in lignin decay. With our study we tested the long-term effect of mineral fertilization (N+P) on the decay of the SOC component lignin in arable soil. To achieve this, we tracked 13C-labeled lignin and SOC in an arable soil that is part of a 36-year field experiment (conversion from C3 to C4 crops) with two mineral fertilization levels. We could show that fertilization neither retarded nor enhanced the decay of old SOC or lignin over a period of 36 years, proposing that decay of lignin was less sensitive to fertilization than previously suggested. However, for new, C4-derived lignin there were indications that decay might have been enhanced by the fertilization treatment, whereas decay of new SOC was unaffected.
Impaired Representation of Time in Schizophrenia Is Linked to Positive Symptoms and Cognitive Demand
Jutta Peterburs, Alexander M. Nitsch, Wolfgang H. R. Miltner, Thomas Straube
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067615
Abstract: Time processing critically relies on the mesencephalic dopamine system and striato-prefrontal projections and has thus been suggested to play a key role in schizophrenia. Previous studies have provided evidence for an acceleration of the internal clock in schizophrenia that may be linked to dopaminergic pathology. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between altered time processing in schizophrenia and symptom manifestation in 22 patients and 22 controls. Subjects were required to estimate the time needed for a visual stimulus to complete a horizontal movement towards a target position on trials of varying cognitive demand. It was hypothesized that patients – compared to controls – would be less accurate at estimating the movement time, and that this effect would be modulated by symptom manifestation and task difficulty. In line with the notion of an accelerated internal clock due to dopaminergic dysregulation, particularly patients with severe positive symptoms were expected to underestimate movement time. However, if altered time perception in schizophrenia was better explained in terms of cognitive deficits, patients with severe negative symptoms should be specifically impaired, while generally, task performance should correlate with measures of processing speed and cognitive flexibility. Patients underestimated movement time on more demanding trials, although there was no link to disease-related cognitive dysfunction. Task performance was modulated by symptom manifestation. Impaired estimation of movement time was significantly correlated with PANSS positive symptom scores, with higher positive symptom scores associated with stronger underestimation of movement time. The present data thus support the notion of a deficit in anticipatory and predictive mechanisms in schizophrenia that is modulated both by symptom manifestation and by cognitive demand.
Atheism and Humanism in a Globalized World: The Igbo Experience  [PDF]
Chizaram Onyekwere, Oliver Uche
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A015

Obnoxious labels are derogatory terms which speak extensively on the ignorant dispositions of scholars who either rush into faulty conclusions, or have prior decisions to promote class distinction through the uncomplimentary colours they paint of what others hold as divine, spiritual, and transcendental. For such derogatory terms to gain wide audience in a globalized age explain the frame of mind of discordant voices which have been based on arm-chair scholarship. The thrust of this article therefore, is to use Igbo experience to explore the problems of atheism and humanism in a globalized world. The exploratory research will help adopt cultural centred approach in analyzing the dichotomy between the various philosophical view points on God, spirits and man’s religious belief system in Igbo land in particular and Africa in general. It is hoped that the analyses of the challenges posed by atheism and humanism in a globalized world will balance ideas, views, attitudes and behaviour that will reposition Igbo religious beliefs, values and practices in line with the proposed theistic humanism associated with Igbo culture in particular and African culture in general. This will breach the persisted conflict between the sacred and the secular pointing to a dynamic and progressive Igbo culture.

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