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The instruments developed by the Clean Technology Network of Bahia (TECLIM) at the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA) (cited in Part 1 of this paper) are presented. Factors regarding water management in industry were examined, on the basis of experience acquired over the period of a decade in cooperative research projects with large industrial process plants located mostly in the Camacari Petrochemical Complex, Bahia State, Brazil. The main results consist of training about 1700 industry professionals in CP, the identification of about 500 ideas for the rationalization of water use, the presentation and publication of 90 articles in journals, conferences and other academic events, identification of ideas with potential water savings estimated at around 1400 t·h–1 and the reduction of at least 500 t·h–1 in effluents. Other sectors that make use of water, for example public buildings, commercial buildings, homes, shopping centers and airports can adapt and use the TECLIM method as will be exemplified.
Based on cleaner production concepts, a method for water use minimization has been developed by the Clean Technology Network of Bahia (TECLIM) at one of the largest industrial complexes in Latin America located in the State of Bahia, Brazil. This method is concerned with an area of secondary interest to the productive sector: the use of water. Based on the best cleaner production principles (CP), nine instruments have been developed during cooperative projects with chemical, petrochemical and copper metallurgical industries. These instruments are described in Part 2 of this paper . The main benefits derived from partnership schemes include: a reduction in water consumption and effluent generation; the development of a techno-operational culture to increase eco-efficiency; and the introduction of conceptual projects to ensure the continuity of the activities in the company after the projects have been completed. The specific consumption of water was reduced by 20% as a consequence of the application of this method in Company A; a specific reduction in the generation of effluents of more than 40% was observed in Company B; a 42% fall in fresh water consumption in Company C; and a 20% decrease in the cost of effluent treatment in Company D. Among the difficulties encountered were the limited time availability of the operators and engineers for the project, the lack of measurement and calibration of available flow meters and the lack of detailed technical data.
There are many instances when a group of people might want to choose a committee, a fixed number of individuals to undertake a particular collective function. At their AGM or annual conference, residents in a community group, shareholders of a limited company, members of a trades union, and those of a political party, may all want to elect an executive: one person to be chair, another secretary, a third treasurer, etc. All these posts require different talents and all the individual office bearers undertake necessary but separate functions for the successful operation of that committee. In like manner, a parliament may choose to elect a government of national unity (GNU). The only voting procedure so far devised by which a given electorate—those concerned at an AGM or members of parliament (MPs)—may elect, not only those whom they wish to be in cabinet, but also the ministerial posts in which each of those chosen will then serve, is the matrix vote. This paper describes 1) an experiment held at the Political Studies Association of Ireland (PSAI), undergraduate conference in Dublin on 23rd June 2012 inwhich participants, role playing as members of the Irish parliament, elected a GNU; and 2) the matrix vote methodology, such that others may also employ this voting system. An obvious instance would be for the election of an all-party power-sharing executive in a post-conflict zone.