Abstract:
We show that the category of Lie triple systems is equivalent to the category of Lie algebras graded by Z/(2Z) such that the odd component generates the algbera and the second graded cohomology group coefficients in any trivial module is zero. As a corollary we obtain an analogous result for symmetric spaces and Lie groups.

Abstract:
The radio interferometer measurement equation (RIME), especially in its 2x2 form, has provided a comprehensive matrix-based formalism for describing classical radio interferometry and polarimetry, as shown in the previous three papers of this series. However, recent practical and theoretical developments, such as phased array feeds (PAFs), aperture arrays (AAs) and wide-field polarimetry, are exposing limitations of the formalism. This paper aims to develop a more general formalism that can be used to both clearly define the limitations of the matrix RIME, and to describe observational scenarios that lie outside these limitations. Some assumptions underlying the matrix RIME are explicated and analysed in detail. To this purpose, an array correlation matrix (ACM) formalism is explored. This proves of limited use; it is shown that matrix algebra is simply not a sufficiently flexible tool for the job. To overcome these limitations, a more general formalism based on tensors and the Einstein notation is proposed and explored both theoretically, and with a view to practical implementations. The tensor formalism elegantly yields generalized RIMEs describing beamforming, mutual coupling, and wide-field polarimetry in one equation. It is shown that under the explicated assumptions, tensor equations reduce to the 2x2 RIME. From a practical point of view, some methods for implementing tensor equations in an optimal way are proposed and analysed. The tensor RIME is a powerful means of describing observational scenarios not amenable to the matrix RIME. Even in cases where the latter remains applicable, the tensor formalism can be a valuable tool for understanding the limits of such applicability.

Abstract:
Recent developments in optimization theory have extended some traditional algorithms for least-squares optimization of real-valued functions (Gauss-Newton, Levenberg-Marquardt, etc.) into the domain of complex functions of a complex variable. This employs a formalism called the Wirtinger derivative, and derives a full-complex Jacobian counterpart to the conventional real Jacobian. We apply these developments to the problem of radio interferometric gain calibration, and show how the general complex Jacobian formalism, when combined with conventional optimization approaches, yields a whole new family of calibration algorithms, including those for the polarized and direction-dependent gain regime. We further extend the Wirtinger calculus to an operator-based matrix calculus for describing the polarized calibration regime. Using approximate matrix inversion results in computationally efficient implementations; we show that some recently proposed calibration algorithms such as StefCal and peeling can be understood as special cases of this, and place them in the context of the general formalism. Finally, we present an implementation and some applied results of CohJones, another specialized direction-dependent calibration algorithm derived from the formalism.

Abstract:
Since its formulation by Hamaker et al., the radio interferometer measurement equation (RIME) has provided a rigorous mathematical basis for the development of novel calibration methods and techniques, including various approaches to the problem of direction-dependent effects (DDEs). This series of papers aims to place recent developments in the treatment of DDEs into one RIME-based mathematical framework, and to demonstrate the ease with which the various effects can be described and understood. It also aims to show the benefits of a RIME-based approach to calibration. Paper I re-derives the RIME from first principles, extends the formalism to the full-sky case, and incorporates DDEs. Paper II then uses the formalism to describe self-calibration, both with a full RIME, and with the approximate equations of older software packages, and shows how this is affected by DDEs. It also gives an overview of real-life DDEs and proposed methods of dealing with them. Applying this to WSRT data (Paper III) results in a noise-limited image of the field around 3C 147 with a very high dynamic range (1.6 million), and none of the off-axis artifacts that plague regular selfcal. The resulting differential gain solutions contain significant information on DDEs, and can be used for iterative improvements of sky models. Perhaps most importantly, sources as faint as 2 mJy have been shown to yield meaningful differential gain solutions, and thus can be used as potential calibration beacons in other DDE-related schemes.

Abstract:
Papers I and II of this series have extended the radio interferometry measurement equation (RIME) formalism to the full-sky case, and provided a RIME-based description of calibration and the problem of direction-dependent effects (DDEs). This paper aims to provide a practical demonstration of a RIME-based approach to calibration, via an example of extremely high-dynamic range calibration of WSRT observations of 3C 147 at 21 cm, with full treatment of DDEs. A version of the RIME incorporating differential gains has been implemented in MeqTrees, and applied to the 3C 147 data. This was used to perform regular selfcal, then solve for interferometer-based errors and for differential gains. The resulting image of the field around 3C 147 is thermal noise-limited, has a very high dynamic range (1.6 million), and none of the off-axis artefacts that plague regular selfcal. The differential gain solutions show a high signal-to-noise ratio, and may be used to extract information on DDEs and errors in the sky model. The differential gain approach can eliminate DDE-related artefacts, and provide information for iterative improvements of sky models. Perhaps most importantly, sources as faint as 2 mJy have been shown to yield meaningful differential gain solutions, and thus can be used as potential calibration beacons in other DDE-related schemes.

Abstract:
Paper I of the series re-derived the radio interferometry measurement equation (RIME) from first principles, and extended the Jones formalism to the full-sky case, incorporating direction-dependent effects (DDEs). This paper aims to describe both classical radio interferometric calibration (selfcal and related methods), and the recent developments in the treatment of DDEs, using the RIME-based mathematical framework developed in Paper I. It also aims to demonstrate the ease with which the various effects can be described and understood. The first section of this paper uses the RIME formalism to describe self-calibration, both with a full RIME, and with the approximate equations of older software packages, and shows how this is affected by DDEs. The second section gives an overview of real-life DDEs and proposed methods of dealing with them. This results in a formal RIME-based description and comparison of existing and proposed approaches to the problem of DDEs.

Abstract:
At present, an
investigation of the lunar ground at great depths is of paramount importance.
This investigation can be carried out using decameter and meter waves. This
article aims to analyze the variations of the reflectioncoefficient？at？decametric,？meter and decimeteric bands.？A？possibility
of determination？of lunar ground
characteristics by bistatic radar using powerful ground-based transmitters？at VHF and UHF bands and a receiver
aboard a？Moon’s satellite？is analysed. Appropriate algorithms
are considered for determinationof the regolith layer thickness,？dielectric permittivity, loss tangent,
and density of the regolith and bedrocks. Expected results of measurements have
been presented for a two-layer model of lunar ground, consisting of an upper
layer with the loose porous rocks (regolith), and the rocks situated more
deeply. Revealed regularities are a basis for determining the distribution of
the permittivity in subsurface layer.

Abstract:
The Radio Interferometer Measurement Equation (RIME) is a matrix-based mathematical model that describes the response of a radio interferometer. The Jones calculus it employs is not suitable for describing the analogue components of a telescope. This is because it does not consider the effect of impedance mismatches between components. This paper aims to highlight the limitations of Jones calculus, and suggests some alternative methods that are more applicable. We reformulate the RIME with a different basis that includes magnetic and mixed coherency statistics. We present a microwave network inspired 2N-port version of the RIME, and a tensor formalism based upon the electromagnetic tensor from special relativity. We elucidate the limitations of the Jones-matrix-based RIME for describing analogue components. We show how measured scattering parameters of analogue components can be used in a 2N-port version of the RIME. In addition, we show how motion at relativistic speed affects the observed flux. We present reformulations of the RIME that correctly account for magnetic field coherency. These reformulations extend the standard formulation, highlight its limitations, and may have applications in space-based interferometry and precise absolute calibration experiments.

Abstract:
The formulation of the radio interferometer measurement equation (RIME) by Hamaker et al. has provided us with an elegant mathematical apparatus for better understanding, simulation and calibration of existing and future instruments. The calibration of the new radio telescopes (LOFAR, SKA) would be unthinkable without the RIME formalism, and new software to exploit it. MeqTrees is designed to implement numerical models such as the RIME, and to solve for arbitrary subsets of their parameters. The technical goal of MeqTrees is to provide a tool for rapid implementation of such models, while offering performance comparable to hand-written code. We are also pursuing the wider goal of increasing the rate of evolution of radio astronomical software, by offering a tool for rapid experimentation and exchange of ideas. MeqTrees is implemented as a Python-based front-end called the meqbrowser, and an efficient (C++-based) computational back-end called the meqserver. Numerical models are defined on the front-end via a Python-based Tree Definition Language (TDL), then rapidly executed on the back-end. The use of TDL facilitates an extremely short turn-around time for experimentation with new ideas. This is also helped by unprecedented visualization capabilities for all final and intermediate results. A flexible data model and a number of important optimizations in the back-end ensures that the numerical performance is comparable to that of hand-written code. MeqTrees is already widely used as the simulation tool for new instruments (LOFAR, SKA) and technologies (focal plane arrays). It has demonstrated that it can achieve a noise-limited dynamic range in excess of a million, on WSRT data. It is the only package that is specifically designed to handle what we propose to call third-generation calibration (3GC), which is needed for the new generation of giant radio telescopes.

Abstract:
Kantor pairs arise naturally in the study of 5-graded Lie algebras. In this article, we begin the study of simple Kantor pairs of arbitrary dimension. We introduce Weyl images of Kantor pairs and use them to construct examples of Kantor pairs including a new class of central simple Kantor pairs.