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Enhanced Mucosal Antibody Production and Protection against Respiratory Infections Following an Orally Administered Bacterial Extract
Christian Pasquali,Olawale Salami,Koshika Yadava,Jacques Bauer,Benjamin J. Marsland
Frontiers in Medicine , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2014.00041
Abstract: Secondary bacterial infections following influenza infection are a pressing problem facing respiratory medicine. Although antibiotic treatment has been highly successful over recent decades, fatalities due to secondary bacterial infections remain one of the leading causes of death associated with influenza. We have assessed whether administration of a bacterial extract alone is sufficient to potentiate immune responses and protect against primary infection with influenza, and secondary infections with either Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice. We show that oral administration with the bacterial extract, OM-85, leads to a maturation of dendritic cells and B-cells characterized by increases in MHC II, CD86, and CD40, and a reduction in ICOSL. Improved immune responsiveness against influenza virus reduced the threshold of susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections, and thus protected the mice. The protection was associated with enhanced polyclonal B-cell activation and release of antibodies that were effective at neutralizing the virus. Taken together, these data show that oral administration of bacterial extracts provides sufficient mucosal immune stimulation to protect mice against a respiratory tract viral infection and associated sequelae.
Targeting IL-1β and IL-17A Driven Inflammation during Influenza-Induced Exacerbations of Chronic Lung Inflammation
Anke Sichelstiel, Koshika Yadava, Aurélien Trompette, Olawale Salami, Yoichiro Iwakura, Laurent P. Nicod, Benjamin J. Marsland
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098440
Abstract: For patients with chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), exacerbations are life-threatening events causing acute respiratory distress that can even lead to hospitalization and death. Although a great deal of effort has been put into research of exacerbations and potential treatment options, the exact underlying mechanisms are yet to be deciphered and no therapy that effectively targets the excessive inflammation is available. In this study, we report that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) are key mediators of neutrophilic inflammation in influenza-induced exacerbations of chronic lung inflammation. Using a mouse model of disease, our data shows a role for IL-1β in mediating lung dysfunction, and in driving neutrophilic inflammation during the whole phase of viral infection. We further report a role for IL-17A as a mediator of IL-1β induced neutrophilia at early time points during influenza-induced exacerbations. Blocking of IL-17A or IL-1 resulted in a significant abrogation of neutrophil recruitment to the airways in the initial phase of infection or at the peak of viral replication, respectively. Therefore, IL-17A and IL-1β are potential targets for therapeutic treatment of viral exacerbations of chronic lung inflammation
Nursing Students’ Medication Errors and Adherence to Medication Best-Practice  [PDF]
Ibrahim Salami
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.85024
Abstract: Background: Nursing students are at risk for committing medication administration errors (MAEs), which significantly alter the delivery of safe and effective healthcare. Purpose: To identify the medications most frequently involved in medication errors as reported by Jordanian nursing students, as well as to identify the level of nursing students’ adherence to best-practice when administering high-risk medications. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used among a convenience sample of 74 nurses. Results: A total of 74 of 110 (67.3%) questionnaires were returned. The most frequent medications subjected to MAEs were Dopamine, Dobutamine, and Insulin continuous intravenous infusion (17.2%, 16.0% and 13.5% respectively). Regarding the adherence to best-practice, nursing students adhered the most to the following best-practices: checking the patient armband prior to medication administration with a mean of 3.81 (±0.6) and bringing the MAR sheet with them when preparing a medication with a mean of 3.46 (±1.1). Conclusion: Developing an effective medication training programs in all undergraduate nursing programs in Jordanis is vital to ensure patient safety. Nursing educators in clinical and academic settings need to reinforce the importance of adherence to medication management best-practice in all courses. Close and effective supervision of students needs to be maintained throughout nursing students’ clinical training, especially during medication preparation and administration.
Total Harmonic Distortion Minimization of Multilevel Converters Using Genetic Algorithms  [PDF]
A. Salami, B. Bayat
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.47139

This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization technique to find the optimum switching angles of 11-level inverter with minimum number of dc sources and switches in comparison with the cascade multilevel inverter in order to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD) of their output voltage waveform. Theoretical and simulation results for an 11-level converter show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm to determine the optimum angles in order to decrease the undesired harmonics and produce very high quality output voltage waveform.

Solid state transformation of cis and trans methylcyclopentadienyl molybdenumdicarbonyltriphenylphosphineiodide on pelleting utilizing different diluents  [PDF]
Olalere G. Adeyemi, Umaru Salami
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (OJIC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojic.2012.22005
Abstract: [(η5-C5H4Me)Mo(CO)2PPh3I] undergoes solid state transformation on the formation of a good pellet for FT IR measurement. There was a formation of the products mixture on pelleting using different diluents of group I metal salts on either the cis or the trans isomer of the [(η5-C5H4Me)Mo(CO)2PPh3I] complex. The cis or the trans isomer gave the same IR spectra i.e. a mixture of cis and trans isomer of the complex. It does not matter the isomer started with in the course of solid state transformation reaction, an equilibrium ratio of 30/70 (trans/cis) will still be achieved. The solid state IR spectra show very strong peaks at νco 1957, 1947 and strong peaks at 1867, 1853 cm–1. The individual IR cis/trans isomer will therefore show at 1947 and 1853/1957 and 1867 cm–1. The solution IR spectra gave, cis = 1961, 1875 and trans = 1963, 1882 cm–1 in dry CHCl3. Hence, most of the solid state IR measurement of the organometallic complex of the type (η5-C5H4Me)Mo(CO)2(PPh3)I on pelleting will give isomer mixture.
Factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo state, Nigeria
LI Salami
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2006,
Abstract: The superiority of breast milk compared to other types of milk for the nourishment of the human infant offering better health benefits, has been established by various research publications. Early childhood is characterized by rapid growth, maturation of tissues and remodeling of organs. Breastfeeding is the optimal method for feeding infants. All the nutritional needs for most of these children are provided by breast milk in the right amounts and duration. In Nigeria however, young infants may not benefit from such a practice as a result of poor early initiation and the use of other liquids undermining breast milk. The purpose of this study was to determine factors influencing breastfeeding practices in Edo State, Nigeria. A questionnaire and group interviewed were the instruments used. Data was collected from 600 randomly selected mothers of children aged 4–24 months, who visited four antenatal and children clinics. The data obtained were analysed using percentiles, means and standard deviations. Although the findings indicated that 82 per cent of the mothers practiced breastfeeding, 66 per cent supplemented with corn gruel and glucose water, and 14 per cent used herbal brew. Only 20 per cent practiced exclusive breastfeeding. Of the possible variables affecting breastfeeding practices, proximity to baby with a mean score of 4.63 (SD ± 0.66) out of 5.00 was the most influential, and the least, family background, had a mean score of 2.32 (SD ± 0.92). The findings of the study have implications for health education programmes and breastfeeding practices. Efforts must be intensified to educate prospective mothers on the need and benefits of breastfeeding, and that the UNICEF-WHO Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative must go beyond the designated University Teaching Hospitals to other public and privately owned hospitals. The provision of crèches at the work place or market place will reduce the distance between babies and their mothers and subsequently increase the levels of breastfeeding.
HIV-TB co-infection: pathogenesis, diagnosis and management in adults
AK Salami
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2006,
Taxation, revenue allocation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria: Issues, challenges and policy options
Salami Adeleke
Economic Annals , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/eka1189027s
Abstract: Taxation is one of the most important and easy sources of revenue to any government, as the government possesses inherent power to impose taxes and levies. Nigeria tax system has been weak due largely to inadequate data of the tax base and heavy reliance on oil revenue. With the volatility in oil prices and excruciating impacts of the recent global financial crisis, taxation deserves more attention now than ever before in Nigeria. One issue that is critical to domestic resource mobilization and utilization is the issue of fiscal federalism. Nigeria operates three tiers of government; Federal, State and Local Governments with separate revenue, expenditure, and assigned responsibilities each. However, all decisions including resources are controlled from the centre and the vertical revenue allocations tilt more towards the direction of federal government, contrary to the tenets of federalism the country is practicing. Both vertical and horizontal revenue in Nigeria is engulfed in controversy. The paper presents key issues, trend and challenges of taxation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria. In addition, the paper highlights a number of suggestions that would stimulate increase in tax revenue and guarantee fiscal assignment acceptable to the federal and sub-national government.
The Contradictory Nature of the Ghost in Hamlet
Ismail Salami
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The present study shows how Shakespeare seeks to manipulate the reader's response in Hamlet by using contradictions and ambiguities and how the reader eventually reconstructs a palpable world in the impalpable world of the text. These contradictions compel the reader to participate in the composition of the text and make him keep changing his own approach to the work with the result that the more he reads the play, the deeper he finds himself entrenched in contradictions. As he fails to grasp the logic of events, the reader relates his own world to the text instead of relating the events to his world and recreates his own world. Therefore, he can easily detach himself from the text and let his imagination run loose as the play proves too vague for him to comprehend. Eventually, the reality achieved by the reader in the course of reading the play is only the reality, which dwells in the innermost recesses of his mind.
Electro-pump Fault Diagnosis of Marine Ship by Vibration Condition Monitoring
Payman Salami
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The objective of this research is to investigate the correlation between vibration analysis and fault diagnosis. This was achieved by vibration analysis of an electro-pump of marine ship. The vibration analysis was initially run under regular interval during electro-pump life. Some series of tests were then conducted under the operating hours of stone crasher. Vibration data was regularly collected. The overall vibration data produced by vibration analysis was compared with previous data, in order to quantify the effectiveness of the results of vibration condition monitoring technique. Numerical data produced by vibration analysis were compared with vibration spectra in standard condition of healthy machine, in order to quantify the effectiveness of the vibration condition monitoring technique. The results of this paper have given more understanding on the dependent roles of vibration analysis in predicting and diagnosing machine faults.
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