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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 11451 matches for " Okello George Otieno "
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Indigenous Knowledge Used in Breeding and Management of Capra hircus Populations in Kajiado and Makueni Counties, Kenya  [PDF]
Okello George Otieno, Joseph Owino Junga, M. S. Badamana, Joshua O. Amimo
Open Journal of Genetics (OJGen) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojgen.2015.53009
Abstract: The aim of this project was to study indigenous breeding practices used in management of Capra hircus (Galla and Small East African goats) populations in Kajiado County in Rift valley province and Makueni County in Eastern province. Data were obtained through a field survey using questionnaires (Appendix I) and personal observations between 1st September, 2013 and 2nd December, 2013. This study covered key characteristics of goats production and areas of goat breeding, such as general farm details, number of goats, main activities of the farmers, farming types, breeds, flock structure, feeding, housing, catastrophes, selection, mating systems, breeding systems, average age at parturition, breeding problems, and the importance of goats. Results showed that the average number of goats in Kajiado was 100.65 ± std 49.88 while in Makueni it was 12.28 ± std 6.46. The main activity of the people interviewed was farming as 58 people (96.67%) in Kajiado and 42 people (61.60%) chose farming as their main activity because this was their main source of livelihood. Flocks were dominated by breeding females at a mean of 39.06 ± std 16.75 in Kajiado and a mean of 5.62 ± std 3.50 in Makueni because females were kept to reproduce to increase the size of the flock and the males were kept majorly for cash and only one or two were left to reproduce with the females. Drought was the major catastrophe as it killed an average number of goats of 6.33 ± std 4.36. Pneumonia and diarrhoea were the major diseases according to 28 farmers (46.66%) in Kajiado and 31 farmers (51.66%) in Makueni. Ticks and fleas were the major parasites according to 42 farmers (70%) in Kajiado and 4 farmers (63.34%) in Makueni. Treatment was mostly done by the farmers individually as 54 farmers (90%) in Kajiado and 46 farmers (76.67%) in Makueni treated the animals by themselves. This was so because it was either not easy to get a veterinarian or expensive for them to hire veterinarian doctors. Some farmers used traditional medicine like mavuavui; Steganotaenia araliacea was used to treat pneumonia. Farmers also devised feeding methods during drought as 48 farmers (80.00%) in Kajiado and 23 farmers (38.33%) in Makueni cut leaves from up trees to feed the goats. When doing selection of breed, 58 farmers (96.67%) and 57 farmers (95%) considered large body size and drought resistance respectively in Kajiado. The farmers in Makueni considered age and drought resistance at equal chances of 59 farmers (98.33%). The main mating system was naturally uncontrolled as 113
Estimation of Population Variance Using the Coefficient of Kurtosis and Median of an Auxiliary Variable under Simple Random Sampling  [PDF]
Tonui Kiplangat Milton, Romanus Otieno Odhiambo, George Otieno Orwa
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2017.76066
Abstract:

In this study we have proposed a modified ratio type estimator for population variance of the study variable y under simple random sampling without replacement making use of coefficient of kurtosis and median of an auxiliary variable x. The estimator’s properties have been derived up to first order of Taylor’s series expansion. The efficiency conditions derived theoretically under which the proposed estimator performs better than existing estimators. Empirical studies have been done using real populations to demonstrate the performance of the developed estimator in comparison with the existing estimators. The proposed estimator as illustrated by the empirical studies performs better than the existing estimators under some specified conditions i.e. it has the smallest Mean Squared Error and the highest Percentage Relative Efficiency. The developed estimator therefore is suitable to be applied to situations in which the variable of interest has a positive correlation with the auxiliary variable.

Integration of Ground Magnetics and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy in Ilmenite Prospection in Magaoni, Kenya  [PDF]
George Oduor Otieno, John Gitonga Githiri, Willis Jakanyango Ambusso
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.62008
Abstract: The geology of Magaoni area is associated with the presence of heavy minerals [1]. Magaoni’s neighbours Maumba and Nguluku where ilmenite was discovered by Tiomin Resource Inc. in 1996, using drilling and chemical analysis [2]. Ilmenite mineral is known to be magnetically weak, but provides observable magnetic response [3]. In this study, ground magnetic survey method was carried out to map magnetic anomalies of established stations, associated with ilmenite bearing formations. The magnetic contour map plotted showed weak and shallow magnetic signatures spread throughout the study area. 2D Euler deconvolution solutions revealed presence of magnetised formations from near surface to a maximum depth of about 450 m at some points. The weak magnetic formations of near surface indicated presence of ilmenite. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was done on soil samples collected randomly from the study area to determine the percentage of iron and titanium oxides. The results showed elevated values of titanium dioxide, ranging from 1.5% to 13% which is way above the global average of about 0.7% [4]. The percentage of iron oxide was low, ranging from 1.5% to 4%, this being the reason for weak magnetisation of the study area.
NONPARAMETRIC MIXED RATIO ESTIMATOR FOR A FINITE POPULATION TOTAL IN STRATIFIED SAMPLING
George Otieno Orwa,Romanus Odhiambo Otieno,Peter Nyamuhanga Mwita
Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operation Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1234/pjsor.v6i1.149
Abstract: We propose a nonparametric regression approach to the estimation of a finite population total in model based frameworks in the case of stratified sampling. Similar work has been done, by Nadaraya and Watson (1964), Hansen et al (1983), and Breidt and Opsomer (2000). Our point of departure from these works is at selection of the sampling weights within every stratum, where we treat the individual strata as compact Abelian groups and demonstrate that the resulting proposed estimator is easier to compute. We also make use of mixed ratios but this time not in the contexts of simple random sampling or two stage cluster sampling, but in stratified sampling schemes, where a void still exists.
GENERALISED MODEL BASED CONFIDENCE INTERVALS IN TWO STAGE CLUSTER SAMPLING
Christopher Ouma Onyango,Romanus Odhiambo Otieno,George Otieno Orwa
Pakistan Journal of Statistics and Operation Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1234/pjsor.v6i2.128
Abstract: Chambers and Dorfman (2002) constructed bootstrap confidence intervals in model based estimation for finite population totals assuming that auxiliary values are available throughout a target population and that the auxiliary values are independent. They also assumed that the cluster sizes are known throughout the target population. We now extend to two stage sampling in which the cluster sizes are known only for the sampled clusters, and we therefore predict the unobserved part of the population total. Jan and Elinor (2008) have done similar work, but unlike them, we use a general model, in which the auxiliary values are not necessarily independent. We demonstrate that the asymptotic properties of our proposed estimator and its coverage rates are better than those constructed under the model assisted local polynomial regression model.
Human Bocavirus Infection in Children with Acute Respiratory Infection in Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
Samwel Morris Lifumo Symekher, George Gachara, James Maylor Simwa, Jane Gichogo, Moses Rotich, Musa Otieno Ng’ayo, Japheth Magana
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.34035
Abstract: Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age in developing countries with viruses contributing significantly to this problem. The recently identified parvovirus, Human Bocavirus (HBoV), has also been associated with ARI. Objective: To determine the frequency of HBoV in patients with ARI. Materials and Methods: Samples from 125 consenting patients with influenza like illness signs and symptoms were collected. DNA was extracted from these samples using the QIAamp DNA blood mini kit (Qiagen, Germany). Conventional PCR was carried out and the amplicons were examined in 2% agarose gels stained with ethidium bromide. This was followed by sequencing of the HBoV positive samples. Results: Twenty one (16.8%) patients were found to have HBoV infection. Males (n = 61.9%) were mainly infected with HBoV. Local HBoV strains had 98.9% - 100% similarities and were found to cluster together with other strains obtained elsewhere. Conclusion: These findings suggest that HBoV plays a role in respiratory tract infections in children in Kenya just like it has been found elsewhere. It also sheds light on multiple infections associated with HBoV infections in Kenya.
Evaluation criteria for the district health management information systems: lessons from the Ministry of Health, Kenya
George W. Odhiambo-Otieno, Wilson WO Odero
African Health Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Background: The District Health Management Information Systems (DHMISs) were established by the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Kenya more than two decades ago. Since then, no comprehensive evaluation has been undertaken. This can partly be attributed to lack of defined criteria for evaluating them. Objective: To propose evaluation criteria for assessing the design, implementation and impact of DHMIS in the management of the District Health System (DHS) in Kenya. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in three DHSs in Kenya: Bungoma, Murang'a and Uasin Gishu districts. Data was collected through focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and documents' review. The respondents, purposely selected from the Ministry of Health headquarters and the three DHS districts, included designers, managers and end-users of the systems. Results: A set of evaluation criteria for DHMISs was identified for each of the three phases of implementation: pre-implemen-tation evaluation criteria (categorised as policy and objectives, technical feasibility, financial viability, political viability and administrative operability) to be applied at the design stage; concurrent implementation evaluation criteria to be applied during implementation of the new system; and post-implementation evaluation criteria (classified as internal – quality of information; external – resources and managerial support; ultimate – systems impact) to be applied after implementation of the system for at least three years. Conclusions: In designing a DHMIS model there is need to have built-in these three sets of evaluation criteria which should be used in a phased manner. Pre-implementation evaluation criteria should be used to evaluate the system's viability before more resources are committed to it; concurrent (operational) – implementation evaluation criteria should be used to monitor the process; and post-implementation evaluation criteria should be applied to assess the system's effectiveness
Local perceptions of intermittent screening and treatment for malaria in school children on the south coast of Kenya
George Okello, Sarah N Ndegwa, Katherine E Halliday, Kara Hanson, Simon J Brooker, Caroline Jones
Malaria Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-185
Abstract: Six out of the 51 schools receiving the IST intervention were purposively sampled, based on the prevalence of Plasmodium infection, to participate in the qualitative study. Twenty-two focus group discussions and 17 in-depth interviews were conducted with parents and other key stakeholders involved in the implementation of school health programmes in the district. Data analysis was guided by the framework analysis method.High knowledge of the burden of clinical malaria on school children, the perceived benefits of preventing clinical disease through IST and previous positive experiences and interactions with other school health programmes facilitated the acceptability of IST. However, lack of understanding of the consequences of asymptomatic parasitaemia for apparently healthy school children could potentially contribute to non-adherence to treatment, and use of alternative anti-malarial drugs with simpler regimens was generally preferred. The general consensus of stakeholders was that health workers were best placed to undertake the screening and provide treatment, and although teachers’ involvement in the programme is critical, most participants were opposed to teachers taking finger-prick blood samples from children. There was also a strong demand for the distribution of mosquito nets to augment IST.School-based malaria control through IST was acceptable to most parents and other stakeholders, but careful consideration of the various roles of teachers, community health workers, and health workers, and the use of anti-malarial drugs with simpler regimens are critical to its future implementation.
Exit, voice and loyalty in Kenya’s French bean industry: What lessons can we learn from smallholder farmers’ past response to international food safety standards?
JJ Okello
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Kenya is one of the leading exporters of fresh vegetables to Europe. Kenyan exporters have since the 1990s targeted the leading European supermarkets with their produce. However, the food safety scandals of the 1980s and 1990s led these supermarkets to adopt stringent food safety protocols relating to pesticide use, hygiene, and traceability. These standards were then passed on to Kenyan exporters. In turn, many leading fresh export companies in Kenya developed their own stringent private protocols relating to food safety standards. Others adopted the European Retail Group’s Good Agricultural Practices or their European buyers’ private food safety standards. In both cases, Kenyan exporters required full compliance with the food safety standards in order to continue buying beans from their suppliers. This study examined how Kenyan smallholder growers responded to the standards and how their response affected their continued participation in the supermarket business. It applies Hirschman’s concept of exit, voice and loyalty to assess the strategies used by Kenyan smallholder French bean farmers in response to international food safety standards (IFSS). It then assesses the factors that influence the success or failure of such strategies. Data obtained in this study suggest that smallholder farmers used different strategies to respond to IFSS. The initial overwhelming response was to exit production. Other farmers resorted to voice strategy: complaints, petitions, threats,lobbying, in attempt to influence buyers/exporters to relax or change the standards. Such farmers largely failed. The rest of the farmers, however, proactively complied with the standards by using collective action and were able to stay in the fresh export business. This strategy of compliance with IFSS has since become the model in smallholder export horticulture in Kenya. This study, therefore, demonstrates role that collective action and proactive response to standards can play in maintaining their participation of smallholder in fresh vegetable export business and suggests the need for assisting the poor smallholder farmers to keep their share of market.
Use of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) for salinity assessment of Vaal-Harts irrigation scheme, South Africa
George M Ochieng, Olumuyiwa I Ojo, Fredrick AO Otieno and Beason Mwaka
Environmental Systems Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/2193-2697-2-4
Abstract: Soil salinity is a critical environmental problem in many countries around the world especially the arid and semi-arid countries like South Africa. This problem has great impact on soil fertility which in turns has a great effect on soil productivity. Landsat enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+) data of Vaal-Harts irrigation scheme acquired were analyzed along with other field data sets and topographical maps to show the spectral classes and salt-affected areas for the years under assessment (1991 to 2005). False colour composite and supervised classified image shows that most of the salinity problems are located along the entire scheme. The results of the study indicated that a serious salinity problem exists and may get worse. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) tends to be higher along the irrigation canals. There is therefore an urgent need for management program to control the spread of the menace and therefore reclaim the damaged land in order to make the scheme more viable.
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