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Appreciation of Igbo Folktales and Songs Versus Realism
UJ Ogbalu
UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities , 2011,
Abstract: Igbo folktales are fiction. Folktales are regarded as fictitious, senseless and totally devoid of truth and reality and totally removed from real life situation and events. Nevertheless in their functionality, one discovers that folktales exhibit some elements of truth that somehow translate them into realism and true life situation. For instance while appreciating folktales, real people laugh, shout, cry, hiss, and clap hands as if in real life situation. An observation of folktale story telling sessions shows that Igbo people are so much attached to this literary genre. The author feels that there must be some natural compelling forces behind this phenomenon which make Igbo people appreciate their folktales (fiction) as if they were true life stories. This paper identifies and discusses these forces that make Igbo people appreciate their folktales so.
Partial Inhibitory Effect of Ethanol Extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides (Vahl) on Spermatogenesis in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Orlu, Eme Efioanwan,Ogugua K. Ogbalu
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides on spermatogenesis in mammalian system. Thirty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this investigation and were divided into six groups of six rats each (A-F). Groups B-F were administered ethanol extracts of L. alopecuroides orally at a daily dose of 50-250 mg/kg body weight respectively, for 35 days. Testicular sections 5 μ thickwere embedded with paraffin and stained according to standard Hematoxylineosin protocol. Computer-assisted histometric analysis was carried out on testicular seminiferous epithelium. Morphometric evaluation of the reproductive organs showed that there was significant (p<0.05) reduction in paired testes weights of the treated rats at higher concentrations, while the body weight, epididymal and Tunica albuginea weights were comparable (p>0.05) to those of the control rats. From analysis of the volumetric proportions of spermatogenic cells, extract interfered with the spermatogenic process in the treated rats inducing over 50% reduction in the number of preleptotene/leptotene primary spermatocytes, 57% decline in the number of advance primary spermatocytes at pachytene, about 60% reduction of secondary spermatocytes and 80% decrease in the expected number of spermatids against the number of spermatogonia. The progressive decline in the number of the various spermatogenic elements on critical examination of the seminiferous epithelium especially at concentrations 200-250 mg/kg bodyweight and the reduction of the spermatogenic efficiency to 20% shows that Lepidagathis alopecuroides possesses anti-spermatogenic properties in rats without the accompanying systemic toxicity reported in the catfish Clarias gariepinus.
Litter Size, Sex Ratio and Some Liver Biomarkers in Sprague-Dawley Rats Recovering From Exposure to Ethanol Extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides
Eme Efioanwan Orlu,Oguguo K. Ogbalu
Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study was aimed at assessing reproductive recovery of Sprague-Dawley rat after cessation of treatment with ethanol extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides (Vahl). Thirty sexually mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were previously divided into six groups (A-F). Groups B-F administered ethanol extract of Lepidagathis alopecuroides orally at a daily dose of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/kg body weight, respectively, for 35 days were tested for fertility following 35 days recovery period. Each male was kept with two mature females for mating purposes and observed. Upon delivery the sex, litter sizes and weight of pups were taken. Results showed significant (p<0.01) increase in litter size in the 35 days recovery groups. The mean birth weight and the weaning weights of the pups were comparable (p>0.05) to the control group. There was small but non-significant (p>0.05) increase in Sex ratio in the recovery group and no morphological abnormalities were observed in the pups. Liver function Transaminases (Alanine Transaminase ALT, Aspartate Transaminase AST) elevated during the treatment period reduced to control levels. Phosphatases (Alkaline Phosphatase ALP, Acid Phosphatase) assessed after the recovery period were also reduced to control values 35days after cessation of treatment. Similar reversion to control values was observed in serum total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea and total bilirubin. This investigation reveals that the toxic and reproductive inhibitory effect of Lepidagathis alopecuroides is reversible in mammals after cessation of the treatment. Chronic use of the extract is not recommended. However, caution in the use of the plant as an herbal medicine is advocated.
Larvicidal properties of Lepidagathis alopecuroides and Azadirachta indica on Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus
FG Obomanu, OK Ogbalu, UU Gabriel, GK Fekarurhobo, BI Adediran
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2006,
Abstract: Comparative analysis of the larvicidal properties of aqueous extracts of leaves of Lepidagathis alopecuroides and Azadirachta indica (neem) was carried out on Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Assays showed that L. alopecuroides was more toxic to both larvae, while C. quinquefasciatus was more susceptible to extracts of both plants. For extracts from 500 mg of leaves in 1 L of water, the lethal time (LT50) for C. quinquefasciatus and A. gambiae with L. alopecuroides extract was in the ratio 1:4.5, while it was 1:21.8 with neem extract. No mortality was recorded in A. gambiae exposed to neem at all the concentrations until the emergence of the adult. The results suggest that L. alopecuroides is more potent than neem and could be developed as a cheap, effective and renewable resource that could be incorporated into the Roll Back Malaria program in Nigeria and other countries
Life-history and ecological distribution of chameleons (Reptilia, Chamaeleonidae) from the rain forests of Nigeria: conservation implications
Akani, G. C.,Ogbalu, O. K.,Luiselli, L
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation , 2001,
Abstract: Five species of chameleons were observed in the continuous forest zone of southern Nigeria: Chamaeleo gracilis gracilis Hallowell, 1842, Chamaeleo owenii Gray, 1831, Chamaeleo cristatus Stutchbury, 1837, Chamaeleo wiedersheimi Nieden, 1910, and Rhampholeon spectrum (Bucholz 1874). Many original locality records are presented for each species. One species is apparently rare and confined to montane habitats (C. wiedersheimi), another species is relatively common and its habitat is generalist (C. gracilis), and the other three species are vulnerable and limited to specific micro-habitats. Female R. spectrum had clutch sizes of two eggs each and exhibited a prolonged reproductive season with oviposition likely occurring during the late phase of the dry season. Females of both C. cristatus (clutch sizes: 11-14 eggs) and C. owenii (clutch sizes: 15-19 eggs) have a shorter reproductive season with oviposition occurring most probably at the interphase between the end of the wet season and the onset of the dry season, and female C. gracilis (clutch sizes: 14-23 eggs) appeared to exhibit two distinct oviposition periods (one at the interphase between the end of the wet season and the onset of the dry season, and one at the peak phase of the dry season). Diets of four sympatric species of chameleons consisted almost exclusively of arthropods. There were significant inter-group differences at either intra-specific level (with the females of the two best studied species, i.e. R. spectrum and C. gracilis, having a wider food niche breadth than males) or inter-specific level (with a continuum of dietary specialization from the less generalist (C. cristatus) to the more generalist (C. gracilis). However, 'thread-trailing' experiments indicated that activity patterns of Nigerian chameleons were relatively similar among species. The overall abundance of chameleons (as estimated from the number of specimens observed in the time unit of field effort) was relatively similar in three contrasted habitat types, but lizards were more abundant in the mature secondary forest. When greatly altered by massive logging activity, the overall abundance of chameleons in the mature secondary forest habitat declined only slightly, whereas the species diversity declined drastically. This was an effect of (i) the simultaneous extinction of three of the four species originally present in the forest plot, and of (ii) the rapid increase in abundance of a single species (C. gracilis) as a response to habitat alteration. The conservation implications of all these data are also discussed.
Human Myiasis in Neonates and Children of the Niger Delta Wetlands and South-East Nigeria  [PDF]
Ogugua Kasiemobi Ogbalu, Ted George Achufusi, Eme Efiowan Orlu, Dorcas Sauta Bawo, Chika Harriet Adibe, Lekia Kumbe, Obioma Azuonwu, Emmanuel Amadi
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2011.14026
Abstract: Background: Myiasis is characterized by larval infestation of body tissues or cavities of living hosts. Although most frequently observed in underdeveloped and tropical countries, reports of human myiasis have been encountered throughout the world including temperate zones. Cases of human myiasis in Nigeria and most African countries are most probably underreported because many remain undiagnosed, unidentified or unpublished. We had conducted studies on myiasis earlier in 2006. Here we conducted preliminary studies in 2009 and went in the main studies between January and December 2010. Objectives: We assessed the infection rates of neonates and children of two ecological zones in Nigeria [Niger Delta and South-east]. Patients and Methods: We studied a cohort of 400 patients presenting different cases of myiasis in children within the age bracket 0-12 years. We extracted maggots from different parts of neonates, toddlers and children and our therapeutic approach was the application of cholesterol-free oil for extraction and the use of antibiotics to seal up the openings of wounds. Results: Dermatological data showed in neonates an overall infection rate of 16% in Enugu state [CI 95%, 15.2 - 16.2]; 4% in Anambra [CI 95%, 3.4 - 4.7]; 7% in Abia State [CI 95%, 6.1 - 7.4]; 11% in Imo [CI 95%, 10.3-11.7]; 20% in Ebonyi [CI 95%, 18.4 -2 1.6]; 7% infection in Rivers [CI 95%, 6.8 - 7.8]; 17% in Bayelsa [16.1 - 17.5] and 18% in Akwa Ibom [CI 95%, 17.7 - 18.8]. Based on their sites of infection, five different types of myiases were diagnosed. in neonates and children of the Niger Delta and South-east zones of Nigeria.
Fungi of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.)-Their Deteriorative Ability, Quality Stability and the Role of the Fungus-Eating Insects
E.C. Chuku,O.K. Ogbalu,J.A. Osakwe
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Studies on the deteriorative ability and quality stability of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the effect of the fungus-eating insects (Necrobia rufipes, Alphitobius diaperinus, Crematogaster sp. and Tenebrio molitor) were carried out in the Post Graduate Entomology and Plant Pathology Laboratories of the Department of Applied and Environmental Biology and also in Food Science Laboratory of the Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt. Results showed Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Rhizopus stolonifer Lind and Penicillium italiucum Wehmer as the seed-borne fungi of coconut. Frequency of occurrence was 80% for Aspergillus niger and 100% for both Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium italicum. On storage stability, heat drying offered significantly higher protection to coconut copra. Percentage consumption of fungal hyphae by the fungus-eating insects varied with Tenebrio molitor consuming 100% of the three aforementioned fungi. A. diaperinius contributed up to 84.1% reduction of A. niger as against 80.3% reduction by Necrobia rufipes of A. niger, Crematogaster sp. offered the least reduction (64.2%).
Studies on Effects of Artificial Diets on Pre-oviposition, Oviposition Period, Fecundity and Longevity of Atherigona orientalis (Schiner) (Diptera, Muscidae)
O.K. Ogbalu,J.J. Emelike,C.C. Obunwo
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: The study on the effects of artificial diets on some aspects of the biology of Atherigona orientalis was undertaken in order to establish a rearing diet for the dipterous pest of peppers and tomatoes in Nigeria. Establishing a rearing diet for the pest will lead to having a detailed study of other aspects of the biology of the pest. Two artificial diets (3% honey solution and a diet mixture of dry baker`s yeast, sugar and water) were used to assess their effects on pre-oviposition, oviposition periods, fecundity and longevity of Atherigona orientalis. Mean pre-oviposition period was shortest for flies fed on the diet mixture with an average of 1.77 ± 0.2 days (range: 1-3 days), whereas mean pre-oviposition periods for adults fed on 3% honey solution was longer (2.8 ± 0.2; range: 2-5 days). A total of 2465 eggs were recorded for 21 mated females fed on the diet mixture as against 1204 from 21 mated females fed on 3% honey solution. A very loose relationship ( = 9.43 + 0.04 x; r = 0.35) was observed between longevity and fecundity of females of A. orientalis.
Piscicidal Effects of Lepidagathis alopecuroides on Mudskipper, Periophthalmus papillio from the Niger Delta
F.G. Obomanu,O.K. Ogbalu,U.U. Gabriel,S.G.K. Fekarurhobo,S.U. Abadi
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The piscicidal effects of dried leaves of Lepidagathis alopecuroides (1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 g L 1) on mudskipper, Periophthalmus papillio (mean total weight, 17.29 5.69 g, SD) were assessed in a non-renewable bioassay after 12 h exposure. Exposed fish showed dose-dependent hyperactivity with increased opercular and tail beat frequency with copious accumulation of mucus on the gills and skin. Time to death ranged from 18-37 min and the cidal action of the plant were influenced by the exposure concentration (p< 0.001) and weight of the fish (p< 0.01). Pathological changes were recorded only in the gill, stomach and brain of exposed fish and appeared to be dose-dependent. There was necrosis of epithelial cells of the mucosa lining, extensive loss of mucosa glands, oedema of submucosa and loss of fatty tissues in the intestine. The gill lamellae were clubbed and atrophied with extensive necrosis, hyperaemia and hyperplasia of mucus cells. The oedematous distensions in the lamellae were infiltrated by mono- and polymorpholonuclear leucocytes. Mild to severe oedamatous distensions were observed in the brain of exposed fish. However, the gill appeared to be the main site of action of the plant material. The high toxicity of the plant material to mudskipper seems to suggest that non-target species may not be spared during application in the environment.
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