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Determinants of Breast-Feeding Initiation Time among Newborns Delivered in a Tertiary Baby Friendly Health Facility in Enugu, Nigeria  [PDF]
Christopher Bismarck Eke, Israel Odutola Odetunde, Samuel Nkachukwu Uwaezuoke, Uzoamaka Vivian Muoneke, Nnamdi Benson Onyire, Uchenna Ekwochi, Chika Nwanma Onwasigwe
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2019.91006
Abstract: Background: The importance of early breastfeeding initiation to both the mother and infant is enormous as it reduces the likelihood of neonatal mortality as well as maternal postpartum haemorrhage. The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence and determinants of correct breastfeeding initiation time among newborns delivered at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study. Relevant maternal and new-born birth characteristics were obtained using a pretested semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors that are significantly associated with correct breastfeeding initiation time with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Results: A total of 321 mother-newborn pairs were studied. 86 (26.8%) of the respondents correctly initiated breastfeeding within 1 hour of delivery. Planned pregnancy, pre-pregnancy decision on infant feeding options, primiparity, vaginal delivery and breast milk as first food given to the neonate post-delivery were associated with increased likelihood of correct breastfeeding initiation time. Conclusion: Correct breastfeeding initiation time among respondents is low. Planned pregnancy, pre-pregnancy decision on infant feeding option before pregnancy, primiparity, vaginal delivery and breast milk as first food given to the neonate after delivery were associated with having correct breastfeeding initiation time among respondents. Efforts should be made to
Outcome of Late Presentation of Posterior Urethral Valves in a Resource-Limited Economy: Challenges in Management
Odutola Israel Odetunde,Oluwatoyin Arinola Odetunde,Adesoji Oludotun Ademuyiwa,Henrietta Uche Okafor,Uchenna Ekwochi,Jonathan Chukwuemeka Azubuike,Nene Elsie Obianyo
International Journal of Nephrology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/345298
Abstract: Delayed presentation of patients with posterior urethral valve with complications like severe urosepsis, uremia, and anemia are seen in our setting. Renal replacement therapy which should have been offered to these patients is not readily available for children in our country. The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of late presentation and outcome of management of posterior urethral valve in a resource-limited setting. A descriptive retrospective study (1997–2009) was conducted. Data including pattern of presentation, duration of symptoms, complications, and outcome of initial management were analyzed. Twenty-one patients were seen. The median age was 3 years (2 days–13 years). The mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 2.6 years. Nineteen patients (91%) presented with urosepsis while 8 patients (36%) presented with significant renal insufficiency. Laboratory findings varied from-mild-to marked elevation in serum creatinine. Radiological findings confirmed the diagnosis of posterior urethral valve. We concluded that late presentation is common in our setting. This is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Efforts at improving awareness and early diagnosis among the health team should be made to stem the tide. 1. Introduction Posterior urethral valves (PUV) are the commonest cause of lower urinary tract obstruction in male infants [1–3]. The incidence of this congenital anomaly in our setting is unknown, although reports from Unites States and Europe indicates that it occurs in about 1?:?8000 and 1?:?25,000 male live births [1, 3, 4]. Prolonged and unrelieved lower urinary tract obstruction leads to back pressure effects on the kidneys resulting in obstructive uropathy with renal impairment [5]. PUVs are also a common cause of chronic renal failure in children if treatment is delayed [6–8]. Late presentation in patients with PUV is associated with urosepsis, uremia, and anemia and these form the bulk of patients seen in our centre. Early diagnosis and prompt commencement of treatment is therefore germane to the overall outcome of these patients [9, 10]. This is particularly important in a resource—limited environment like ours where facilities for renal replacement therapy in children is not readily available. The aim of this study is to document the pattern of presentation in our centre and outcome of management. 2. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Records of patients with PUV at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (1997–2004) and Enugu State University of Technology Teaching
Perinatal mortality in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospitan (UNTH) Enugu at the end of the last millenium
GN Adimora, IO Odetunde
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: This study was designed to determine the Perinatal Mortality Rate at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria at the end of the last millennium. There had been no comprehensive study on this since the inception of the institution in the early seventies. Methods: A five-year retrospective, hospital based study of the births and deaths of infants under one week of age was carried out. This was done using the birth records in the Labour Ward (LW), and the New Born Special Care Unit (NBSCU) of the hospital. The UNTH is a referral centre in Enugu covering five states in Eastern Nigeria. However, for the purpose of this study, all babies referred from other hospitals, maternity homes etc (BBA's), were not included. All births and deaths from twenty two weeks gestational age to one week after birth were included in the study. The data were collected by the doctors involved in the study from January 1995 to December 1999 inclusive. Result: 6376 babies were recruited into the study. Out of this number, 5942 were live births, 434 were still births while 411 were early neonatal deaths. 74 babies were dropped from the study (1.16%), due to insufficient information and mutilation of some parts of the records. The total perinatal deaths was 845 giving a perinatal mortality rate (PMR) of 133.94/1000, a high PMR when compared with similar centers in and outside Nigeria.
Selected Lipid Profile in the Serum & Tissues of Weaned Male Albino Rats Fed on Processed Atlantic Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus)  [PDF]
Olaoluwa T. Adeyemi, Odutola Osilesi, Olugbenga O. Adebawo, Funmilayo D. Onajobi, Sunday O. Oyedemi
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.64028
Abstract: Trachurus trachurus (locally called kote) is a low cost table fish in south-west Nigeria. Study was conducted to determine the effect of processed kote on total triglycerides (TG) & cholesterol (Chol) in the serum as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine (CRT), Chol and glucose (Gluc) in selected tissues of weaned male albino rats using standard methods. Chemical analyses were carried out on processed fillet; skin, head & bone (SHB) diets under standard conditions. 40 male rats were fed with processed fillet or SHB diets for 14 days to assay TG & Chol in serum as well as the activities of LDH & CRT in the heart, kidney, brain, spleen and small intestine; in addition to Chol and Gluc levels in the brain and liver. All data were subjected to analysis of variance by Duncan’s multiple range test. Results indicated that levels of serum triglycerides and total cholesterol, as well as LDH and Gluc in the liver, heart, kidney and brain were reduced (p < 0.05) in rats fed on test diets compared to the controls, but within accepted limit. Levels of LDH and CRT in the kidney, stomach and small intestine were elevated (p < 0.05) compared to the controls, but within the accepted limit. Overall the coal smoked SHB was the best diet in terms of reduced levels of Chol & TG as well as healthy growth of the rats, followed by wood smoked diets. Thus, processed kote SHB could be a useful source of valuable nutrients in animal feed.
Bootstrap Approach to Comparison of Alternative Methods of Parameter Estimation of a Simultaneous Equation Model
OE Olubusoye, JO Olaomi, OO Odetunde
African Research Review , 2008,
Abstract: A bootstrap simulation approach was used to generate values for endogenous variables of a simultaneous equation model popularly known as Keynesian Model of Income Determination. Three sample sizes 20, 30 and 40 each replicated 10, 20 and 30 times were considered. Four different estimation techniques: Ordinary Least Square (OLS); Indirect Least Square (ILS); Two-Stage Least Square (2SLS) and Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) methods were employed to estimate the parameters of the model. The estimators were then evaluated using the average parameter estimates; absolute bias of the estimates and the root mean square error of the estimates. The result shows that generally, ILS provided the best estimates.
Foetal haemoglobin (HbF) status in adult sickle cell anaemia patients in Ibadan, Nigeria
JA Olaniyi, OG Arinola, AB Odetunde
Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Aim: - Elevated HbF, among other biological and environmental factors, is responsible for decrease in mortality in sickle cell anaemia (SCA). This study determined the levels of HbF in adult SCA patients in steady state compared with HbAA controls. HbF was discussed in line with the clinical course of the disease so as to emphasize the relevance of hydroxyurea in the management of adult SCA patients. Materials and methods: - The HbF levels of 66 confirmed SCA patients and 31 HbAA controls were estimated using Betke method and HbF percentage was calculated using formula: %HbF percentage = A413 filtrate x 100A413 standard x 20. Result: - A statistical significant difference in the mean of the levels of HbF in patients (5.16±4.04) compared to controls (1.04±0.44) (p = 0.000) was observed. The mean levels of HbF for males (4.71±3.49) compared to that of females (4.99) were statistically similar (p =0.773). It was also observed that the mean HbF level appears to be declining as age advances. SCA patients were classified to three categories viz: HbF <2% (21.2% SCA patients); HbF of 2.1% -10%, (68.2% SCA patients); and HbF of 10.1% -16%, (10.6% SCA patients). Conclusion: - Substantial proportion of our patients actually will require treatment with hydroxylurea to stimulate HbF production especially those with HbF percentage of <2 and some with HbF percentage of 2.1 – 10%. HPFH may be considered rare since only 10. 6% had HbF at the range of 10.1-16%. This study showed that in treating our SCA patients in Nigeria we need to adopt and encourage the use of HbF activating agents like hydroxyurea or any other safe agent that will be found to stimulate HbF production in SCD patients.
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus in a population of pregnant women and commercial sex workers in South Western Nigeria
J C Forbi, A B Odetunde
African Health Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Over 20 million persons are infected with HTLV-I/II globally.The virus is endemic in Africa and it is also transmitted sexually. Continued identification of high risk groups is important for the control of the disease. Objectives:To determine the prevalence of HTLV infection amongst two highly sexually active groups, pregnant women and CSWs in South Western Nigeria. Methods: Serum samples were tested for the presence of HTLV-I/II antibodies using the Vironostika HTLV-I/II micro ELISA system. Results:A total of 364 serum samples collected from pregnant women, commercial sex worker (CSW) and secondary school students (control group) from Ibadan.While only 4 (5.1%) of 78 secondary school students (average age: 13years) were reactive for HTLV infection, 20 (16.7%) of 120 pregnant women (average age: 26years) and 38 (22.9%) of 166 CSWs (average age: 23years) were found to have antibodies against HTLV in their sera.The results of this study thus show that HTLV infection is active in the population although higher in pregnant women (although not statistically significant) and CSWs (p>0.05). Pregnant women and CSWs are therefore at a higher risk of HTLV transmission than other members of the population. Conclusion: Routine screening for HTLV infection may go a long way to understanding the epidemiology of HTLV infection in Nigeria and subsequently provide tools for its prevention and control.
Reduced Mechanism Approach of Modeling Premixed Propane-Air Mixture using Ansys Fluent
Lucky Anetor,Edward Osakue,Christopher Odetunde
Engineering Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.4186/ej.2012.16.1.67
Abstract: In computational analysis of combustion, reduced mechanisms are often used in place of detailed kinetic chemistry because the computational costs of including all the species in the reactor model are always prohibitively high; for this reason, many different reduced mechanisms have been developed for hydrocarbon oxidation. In this study we employed ANSYS Fluent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) package, (hereinafter referred to as Fluent) to analyze propane oxidation mechanism in a conical reactor. The model employed for this work is based on the results of Westbrook and Dryer [15]. This simplified model consists of 5 chemical reactions and 12 species, namely, C3H8, CO2, CO, H2O, NO, O2, O, H, N, OH, N2 and H2. The computed mass fractions of the species, C3H8, CO2, CO and H2O were found to be in qualitative agreement with measured values presented in [26]. The results of the present study show that the bulk of the turbulent kinetic was produced in the inlet jet. The turbulent viscosity was found to be an excellent ”mixer” of the species. The computed results of y* were found to confirm that the use of the law-of-the-wall functions was valid and it also showed that the computational mesh used was adequate for resolving the flow dynamics in the near wall region.
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Activities in Selected Tissues of Rats Fed on Processed Atlantic Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus)  [PDF]
Olaoluwa T. Adeyemi, Odutola Osilesi, Olugbenga O. Adebawo, Funmilayo D. Onajobi, Sunday O. Oyedemi, A. J. Afolayan
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2015.63014
Abstract: Trachurus trachurus (locally called kote) is a table fish that has become increasingly important in the Nigerian diet because of its low price. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of processed kote on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in selected tissues of weaned male albino rats using standard methods. Chemical analyses were carried out on processed fillet, skin, head & bone (SHB) diets under standard conditions. 40 male rats (40.76 ± 2.42 g) were fed with processed fillet or SHB diets for 14 days to assay for the activities of ALP in harvested samples of brain, liver, kidney, heart, stomach, small intestine and spleen; ALT and AST in the liver and heart. All data were subjected to analysis of variance by Duncan’s multiple range test and considered significant at a minimum of p < 0.05. Levels of ALP & AST in the liver, heart, kidney and brain were reduced (p < 0.05) in rats fed on test diets compared with the controls, but within accepted limit. The level of ALT in the kidney, stomach and small intestine were elevated (p < 0.05) compared to the controls, but within the accepted limit. In conclusion, coal smoked fillet and SHB greatly improved healthy growth of the rats, followed by the wood smoked and poached diets. Results suggested that processed kote SHB could be a veritable source of valuable nutrients for human food and animal feed.
Heart failure complicating tetralogy of Fallot
OO Ogunkunle, RE Omokhodion, RE Oladokun, AA Odutola
West African Journal of Medicine , 2004,
Abstract: Background: Heart failure is considered to be an unusual complication of uncorrected tetralogy of Fallot. Patients and method: Three adolescents with tetralogy of Fallot, presenting in congestive cardiac failure are presented. Two died. Myocardial infarction was found in the only patient that underwent autopsy, and is thought to be an important aetiological factor in the development of the heart failure in the patients. Conclusion: The cases presented illustrate the fact that heart failure complicating tetralogy of Fallot may not be as uncommon as was previously thought to be the case, especially in older children. There is a need for early diagnosis and expeditious institution of appropriate management before such complications occur. Key Words: Tetralogy of Fallot, Heart failure, Myocardial infarction Résumé L'arrêt cardiaque est considéré d'être une complication peu commune de la tetrelogie non corigée et Fallot. Trois adolescents atteints de la tetralogie de Fallot, avec l'arrêt cardiaque congestif sont l'objet de cet etude. Deux étaient mort. L'infarctus du myocarde était trouvé chez le seule patient qui a subi l'autopsie, et il est envisagé d'être un facteur étiologique très considérable dans le développement d'arrêt cardiaque chez des patients. Les cas ici présentes montrent le fait que la complication de la tetralogie de Fallot d'arrêt cardiaque pourrait ne pas etre peu commun comme on l'avait envisagé auparavant, surtout chez des enfants plus agés. C'est nécessaire d'avoir un diagnostic precoce et la prise en charge rapide et prendre les mesures indiquées avant que telle complication eut lieu. West African Journal of Medicine Vol.23(1) 2004: 75-78
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