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Hepatoprotective effect of the solvent fractions of the stem of Hoslundia opposita Vahl (Lamiaceae) against carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats
Akah Peter,Odo Casmir
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The hepatoprotective potentials of the stem solvent fractions of Hoslundia opposita Vahl were investigated. The fractions were prepared and tested for hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) and paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Changes in the levels of biochemical markers of hepatic injury viz; -aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin were determined in both treated and control groups of rats. The effects of the extracts were compared with that of sylimarin (100 mg/kg). Phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity studies of the extract were also performed. The results showed that CCl 4 and paracetamol (2 g/kg) elevated the levels of AST, ALT, ALT and bilirubin. Treatment with the methanol extract and methanol and ethyl acetate fractions of Hoslundia opposita (100 mg/kg) ameliorated the effects of the hepatoxins and significantly (P>0.05) reduced the elevated levels of the biochemical marker enzymes, while the chloroform and hexane fractions showed no significant (P< 0.05) hepatoprotective effect. The extracts showed good toxicity profile with an LD50 value above 5000 mg/kg for the methanol extract. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of resins, flavonoids, sterols/triterpenes, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides and proteins in the solvent fractions. These results suggest that the stem of Hoslundia opposita contains bioactive principles with hepatoprotective effect.
Re-Examination of Igbo Values System, and the Igbo Personality: A Kantian and African Comparative Perspective  [PDF]
K. C. Ani Casmir, Emmanuel Ome, Ambrose Nwankwo
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.43043
Abstract:

The primordial Igbo personality is subsumed in a world view of metaphysical reality in which God, as the Supreme Being, plays a central role. The construction of the model Igbo personality starts with an adequate appreciation of the communal role of the individual in maintaining societal balance, peace, prosperity and moral transparency. It is impossible to think of the individual as different from the community. There is a pre-existing metaphysical and social bond that inextricably links one to the other. The interests of the individual are concomitant with that of community. His aspirations, dreams and hopes for a better future and a fulfilled life are dialectically tied to the communal apron strings of what is good for the community. Thus it is “alu”, “nso ani” and “ajoomume” (evil and evil conduct in the Igbo moral sphere) for the individual to even think or act against the metaphysical and cosmological position of his indigenous Igbo community. With this attunement between the individual and his community, it becomes easier to build personalities who see themselves as members of the community. Most importantly, these personalities do exhibit values and virtues which strengthen the spiritual, ethical, social and economic heritage and resources in the Igbo communities. The conception of the Igbo personality, primordially speaking, is a conception in which the individual radiates, as it were, communal values. These communal values are the structural principles and powers that define the identity, integrity and inner self of the Igbo person. When an Igbo man reflects a personal behavior pattern filled with these action-values he is seen to be on the path of a dignified existence. He becomes, as it were, the embodiment of the universal merited dignity of humanity as we say in Igbo lore—“Onyenkabummadu” (this person has human dignity and lives it in his conduct). We can then re-examine to what extent the Igbo communal values are in attunement with the Kantian concept of human dignity. This paper posits that the Igbo communal system has the best indigenous ethical and environmental structure for the restoration of man’s dignity as posited by Kant and, has, for ages before Kant, been at the forefront of this restoration, ethicalization and construction of values for human dignity.

Effects of replacement of soya bean meal by bambara nut sievate on the carcass and organ parameters of finisher broiler chicks  [PDF]
B. U. Ekenyem, B. I. Odo
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2011.13012
Abstract: Eighty 4-weeks old broiler chicks (Anak 2000 strain) were used in a 28 days feeding trial to determine the effects of replacement of soya bean meal (SBM) by bambara nut sievate (BNS) on the carcass and organ characteristics of fin- isher broiler chicks. BNS replaced soya bean meal by weight for weight at levels 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% for treatments 1,2, 3 and 4; respectively which were replicated four times in a completely randomized design. Feed and potable water were supplied ad libitum to the birds. Also, ap- propriate medication, sanitation and other stan- dard management practices were strictly adopt- ed. At the 28th day, one bird was randomly picked from each replicate, starved of food for 24 hours and then slaughtered and eviscerated for carcass and organ evaluation. Weights were measured with digital weighing scale. Results of analysis of variance of carcass parameters showed significant (P < 0.05) difference in the final live weight, carcass weight and dressed weight. Birds on 10% BNS and 5% BNS were not statistically different (P > 0.05) in the values above but only varied with birds on 10% and 15% BNS. Other carcass parameters were simi- lar (P > 0.05) in value between treatments. The liver, heart, gizzard and intestine significantly varied (P < 0.05) between their treatments. How- ever, kidney values did not differ significantly. From the results, it appeared that 5% BNS in- clusion is optimal for carcass and organ char- acteristics of finisher broilers.
A Pilot Clinical Trial on L-Carnitine Supplementation in Combination with Motivation Training: Effects on Weight Management in Healthy Volunteers  [PDF]
Satoshi Odo, Koji Tanabe, Masamitsu Yamauchi
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.42030
Abstract:

A 4-week low dosage (500 mg/day) L-carnitine supplementation in combination with motivation training was carried out in 24 overweight (BMI 25.8 - 26.6 kg/m2) Japanese males in the course of a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. L-carnitine motivated group showed significant body weight loss and a decrement of serum triglyceride level vs. the non-motivated placebo group. Serum adiponectin levels increased in both L-carnitine supplemented groups. The beneficial effects of L-carnitine were amplified by motivation training. For clinical evaluation of supplements, whose efficacy is potentially affected by inter-individual life style variability, supportive motivation training might be advisable for future clinical trials.

Current trends in malarial chemotherapy
EC Ibezim, U Odo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Malaria is a tropical disease caused by the genus Plasmodium. The sexual stage of the plasmodium is carried by mosquito while the asexual stage is carried by man. Transmission from the mosquito to man is through mosquito bite. Commonly presented symptoms of malarial attack include fever, weakness, anorexia, and anaemia. Some complications such as convulsion (in children) and acute pulmonary edema are common. The conventional drugs used in malarial chemotherapy include, chloroquin, sulfadoxine/pyramethamine, quinine and primaquine. Newer drugs in use include artemisine and its derivatives (such as dihydroartemisinine, artesunate, artemether), halofantrine, atovaquine, malaria vaccines, and artemisinine combinations (such as artemether/lumenfantrine, artesunate/mefloquine). These newer drugs were developed based on some shortcomings of the conventional drugs such as drug resistance and unbearable side effects. Of all the drugs available for the first line treatment of malaria, the artemisinine combinations are the drugs of choice as they possess reduced recrudescence and relapse when given for 3 days. Some new combinations are still on trial and include fosmidomycin/clindamycin. Malaria vaccines which show some promising features are also still undergoing more trials.
Conference Report: Conflict and Human Security in West Africa
Matt Pollard and Godwin Odo
Essex Human Rights Review , 2004,
Abstract: The authors summarize discussions and recommendations concerning conflicts and human security in West Africa, arising from a conference on 1 March 2004 at the University of Essex, which included participants from across Africa and the United Kingdom. A number of inter-connected causes of conflict were identified, including the struggle between different groups in the region for control of natural resources, particularly diamonds and oil, the continuing cycle of recurring conflicts based on grievances arising from earlier conflicts, a deficit of democracy, unequal distribution of economic resources, unemployment and the need for development, the supply of arms by North America, Europe, and other regions outside West Africa, and varying concepts of citizenship. With regard to prevention and resolution of conflicts, a primary need is to disarm and demobilize armed groups, and reintegrate ex-combatants into society. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society can play a role in preventing and resolving conflicts, although NGOs must recognize the limits to their own capacities and expertise, as negligent interventions can make situations worse. Regional structures such as Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) were also seen as potentially positive forces. With regard to justice and conciliation, the reluctance of states to take action against other states with respect to human rights issues is a key and continuing problem, thus trans-national institutions, open to individual or non-state group complaints, are important. Truth and Reconciliation Commissions must be victim-centred. They should balance legal approaches with other approaches, they require commitment from national leaderships, both executive and parliamentary, to function effectively, they need to have authority to require testimony and production of documents, and to impose penalties for non-compliance, and they must be accompanied by fundamental changes to state structures such as police systems, that were implicated in previous abuses.
The Impact of High School Exit Exams on ESL Learners in British Columbia
Dennis Murphy Odo
English Language Teaching , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v5n9p1
Abstract: This essay explores the validity of including ELL students in British Columbia provincial high school exit exams. Data and a sample exam from the BC Ministry of education are used to scrutinize the practice of using BC provincial exams for high school exit decisions regarding ELLs. A comparison of failure rates of ELLs and mainstream students provides evidence for the inappropriateness of the BC provincial exams for ELLs. Ministry statistics reveal ELL failure rates ranging from twice to four times those of all students. An analysis of a sample exam found on the ministry website reveals confounding of content and language in the exam such that it is impossible to determine whether the exam is measuring language proficiency or content area knowledge. This exam shortcoming casts serious doubt on the legitimacy of using the provincial exam as an assessment for ELL learners. Possible negative consequences of including ELLs in these exams such as increased likelihood of school disappearance are discussed. Suggestions including providing alternative forms of assessment for ELLs are provided to facilitate managing the challenge of assessing ELLs attempting to obtain a high school diploma in BC.
L-Carnitine Contents in the Tissues of Rabbits Fed Urea as an Alternative of Dietary Protein  [PDF]
Seizi Sukemori, Satoshi Odo
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2017.71001
Abstract: The present study was aimed to observe the effects of urea ingestion, non-protein nitrogen, on the disorder of nitrogen metabolism with the L-carnitine contents using the blood, kidney, liver, and femoral muscle as markers. A total of 8 Japanese white rabbits were used in this experiment. They were fed a basal diet prepared for the control group and the nitrogen volume proportionated to one-third of CP 14%, was replaced with urea in the feed of the experimental group for 7 days. On the final day, the animals were fasted from the previous evening and sacrificed. Blood was collected into a test tube at the same time of the sacrifice and their heart, kidney, liver and femoral muscle were collected. The L-carnitine contents in each sample and the urea in the blood were determined. The results of the growth test showed that there was no significant difference. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the contents of L-carnitine and urea in each sample. It was concluded that nitrogen replacement of the diet with urea, in the range of 1/3 of dietary protein, had neither effect on the maintenance of body weight nor nitrogen balance, including the de novo synthesis of L-carnitine.
Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis of “XB Field”, Central Swamp Depobelt, Niger Delta Basin, Southern Nigeria  [PDF]
Samuel Okechukwu Onyekuru, Emmanuel Chukwudi Ibelegbu, Julian Chukwuma Iwuagwu, Akan Godfrey Essien, Casmir Zanders Akaolisa
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2012.31027
Abstract: Well logs and biostratigraphic data from six wells in the “XB Field”, central Swamp Depobelt, Niger Delta were integrated to carry out a sequence stratigraphic analysis of depositional systems in the field. The analysis revealed four 3rd order depositional sequences (SEQ1 to 4) bounded by three erosional unconformities interpreted as Sequence Boundaries (SB1 to 3). Transgressive Surfaces of Erosion (TSE1 to 3) that mark the onset of marine flooding and turnarounds from progradational facies to retrogradational facies during sequence build-up were delineated. Three 3rd order Maximum Flooding Surfaces (MFS1, MFS2 and MFS3) characterized by marker shales, high faunal abundance and diversity were also delineated and dated 15.9, 17.4 and 19.4 Ma, respectively. The delineated sequences comprised Lowstand Systems Tracts (progradational packages), Transgressive Systems Tracts (retrogradational packages) and Highstand Systems Tracts (aggradational packages), which reflect depositional systems deposited during different phases of base level changes. The Lowstand Systems Tract (LST) consists of Basin Floor Fans (BFF), Slope Fans and Channel Sands deposited when sea level was low and accommodation space lower than rate of sediment influx. Transgressive Systems Tract (TST) consists of retrogradational marine shales deposited during high relative sea levels and when accommodation space was higher than rate of sediment influx. Highstand Systems Tracts (HST) consisted of shoreface sands displaying mostly aggradational to progradational stacking patterns. The sands of LST and HST show good reservoir qualities while the shales of the TSTs could form potential reservoir seals. The above recognized sequences, were deposited within the Neritic to Bathyal paleoenvironments and are dated mid-Miocene (15.9 - 20.4 Ma) in age.
Design and development of a Virtual Instrument for Bio-signal Acquisition and Processing using LabVIEW
PATTERSON CASMIR D’MELLO,SANDRA D’SOUZA
International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: The increased performance of personal computers and their reduced cost has made it possible for development of PC based signal processing systems.Hospitals need several measurement systems that can measure physiological parameters of the patients. Although diagnostic medical instruments have been widely used, combining virtual instrument technology to achieve the purpose of physiological measurement has several benefits. These systems are efficient and cost-effective for acquiring and analyzing biomedical signals. Utilizing virtual instrumentation to achieve physiological measurement will largely decrease the cost and increase the flexibility of the instruments.This workaims at designing a virtual instrument for acquiring and processing of Electrooculogram signal. Electrooculography (EOG) is a technique for measuring the resting potential of the retina.
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