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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 536952 matches for " O.A. Alawode "
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On the Construction of Balanced Incomplete Block Designs Using Lotto Designs
O.A. Alawode,G.N. Amahia,A.A. Eludire
Journal of Modern Mathematics and Statistics , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/jmmstat.2010.50.52
Abstract: Researchers present two algorithms for constructing Balanced Incomplete Block Designs (BIBD); the first, for determining the BIBDs that qualify to be Lotto Designs (LD) and the second for generating BIBDs from the LD parameters (n, k, p, t). The algorithms are tested using (υ = 6, b = 20, r = 10, k = 3, λ = 4) and (υ = 13, b = 130, r = 30, k = 3, λ = 4) BIBDs. One of the results, the (υ = 4, b = 4, r = 3, k = 3, λ = 2) BIBD which is pair wise balanced is shown to be D-optimal. Also, the (13, 130, 30, 3, 5) BIBD yielded (13, 56, 21, 3, 6), (13, 84, 28, 3, 7), (13, 120, 36, 3, 8) and (13, 165, 45, 3, 9) BIBDs; the first three being less cumbersome and more economical for experimental purposes. In general, a BIBD that qualifies as a LD can be used to generate other BIBDs.
Carcass quality and cost-benefit of rabbits fed cassava peel meal
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2011, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922011000300063
Abstract: a study was conducted to assess the effects of dietary inclusion of processed cassava peel meals (cpm) on the carcass characteristics, meat quality and economy of production of thirty-two growing rabbits. the rabbits, aged 6-week old with an initial average weight of 567±23 g, were allocated to a completely randomized design in a 9-week experiment. there were four diets consisting of a control (without cassava peel meal) and 200 g kg-1 of ensiled cassava peel meal (ecpm), sun-dried cassava peel meal (scpm) and retted cassava peel meal (rcpm), respectively. the hydrogen cyanide (hcn) contents of processed cpm followed this rank order: rcpm (98.10mg/kg)< scpm (165 mg/kg)< ecpm (299.21 mg/kg)< unprocessed cassava peel meal (710.98 mg/kg). live, slaughter and dressed weights, dressing percentage, meat to bone ratio, and pelt, shoulder, loin and leg expressed as the percentage of the dressed weight were lower (p<0.05) in ecpm than other diets. other carcass parameters, meat organoleptic properties and savings on cost of feeding were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. feed cost/kg body weight gain (bwg) decreased (p<0.05) with inclusion of 200 g/kg cpm in the diets. differential cost/kg bwg and relative cost benefit/kg bwg showed similar trend and followed this rank order: rcpm >scpm >ecpm (all p<0.05). meat to bone ratio was positively and significantly (p<0.0001, r2= 0.9996) influenced by live, slaughter and dressed weights. the results indicate the efficacy of the processing methods in cassava peels detoxification, cost effectiveness of the 200 g kg-1 cpm diets and absence of negative effect of residual hcn contents of the detoxified cpm on the meat quality of the experimental rabbits.
Tocopherol supplementation on stocking density of broiler: effect on performance characteristics and serum enzymes
Adebiyi, O.A;
Tropical and subtropical agroecosystems , 2011,
Abstract: a total of two hundred and seventy day-old arbor acre strain of broiler chicks were used for this research. five treatment: t1- positive control (10 birds/m2), t2 - negative control, t3, t4 and t5 had 20 birds/m2. t1 and t2 had no supplementation with vitamin e (dl-a-tocopheryl acetate). t3, t4 and t5 had 50mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 150 mg/kg vitamin e supplementations respectively. feed intake, feed conversion ratio (fcr) and weight gain and serum enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase (ast) and alanine aminotransferase (alt)) were determined. there were no significant changes in the weight gain and final weight of the birds fed the different dietary treatments. the feed intake increased significantly in birds fed t2 (1.91kg) and compared to their counterpart on vitamin e supplementation (from 1.58 to 1.60 kg). however, fcr of birds on diets tl (2.50), t4 (2.77) and t5 (2.50) was similar (p>0.05). the total protein and aspartate aminotransferase (ast) values were neither affected by increased stocking density nor with or without vitamin e supplementation. however, increased stocking density without vitamin e supplementation (t2) (0.97 u.i/1) resulted in a significant reduction in the albumin values. although alt values increased significantly with increase in vitamin e supplementation, the birds on dietary tl (8.00 u.i/1) had similar level of alt with their counterpart on t4 (7.50u.i/1) and t5 (8.50 u.i/1). in conclusion broiler chicks could be stocked up to 20 birds/m2 only if the diet is supplemented with 100mg/kg vitamin e.
Determination of toxicity levels of some savannah plants using Brine Shrimp Test (BST)
O.A Adoum
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Twenty plant species belonging to 15 families were selected in this study on the bases of their uses in Hausa and Kanuri folk medicine to cure malaria and cancer diseases. Extracts prepared form the plants were solvent partitioned and screened for activity in the brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality test (BST). Aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of the roots of Cochlospermum tinctorium A. Rich and the chloroform soluble fraction (F2) of stem bark of Entada sudanica Schweinf exhibited very high lethality on brine shrimp larvae at LC50 values 8 (26 – 3), 10(32 – 6), and 6(15 – 0) μg/ml respectively. Sclerocaria birrea, Momordica charantia, Borehaavia diffusa and Nauclea aculeata extracts also exhibited potent activity at LC50 values <60 μg/ml. The lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined at 95% confidence intervals by analyzing the data on a computer loaded with “Finney Programme.”
Water Temperature a Determinant of Fertilization and Hatchability Rates in Artificiallly Induced Breeding of Clarias Gariepinus (Teleostei: Clariidae)
O.A. Oyelese
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study is aimed at determining the effect of water temperatures on fertilization and hatchability rates of artificially induced Clarias gariepinus. Sixty six (665 broad-stock 132 females and 34 males) were purchased from Agodi fish farm, Ibadan of average weight 398 g and conditioned for two weeks after which some were sacrificed for fresh pituitary hormone and milt. Four trials were carried out. Injection of females was done at different periods of the day (8.00 am, 4.30, 8.00 and 12.00 pm) that is 0800, 1630, 2000 and 2400 h at an average temperature of 26.00, 24.30, 27.66 and 25.00°C, respectively and stripped after 10 h for eggs. Significant variations exist (p<0.05) between water temperature at the time of injection and hatchability/fertilization rates, this is further confirmed by the strong positive correlation of r = 0.95 in both cases. The highest hatchability rate of 77.84% and highest fertilization rate of 66.65% was recorded at 8.00 p.m with water temperature of 27.66°C this is followed by 75.51% at 26.00°C hatchability rate/51.23% fertilization rate for fish infected at 8.00 a.m and stripped 6.00 p.m (10 h later).
Prey/Predation Relationship of Clarias gariepinus on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Populations
O.A. Oyelese
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study was carried out to monitor the suitability of Clarias gariepinus as a predator on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) populations. In order to (a) recommend a stocking ratio for Tilapia-clarias prey-predation relationship, (b) determine the size/level at which the prey is most vulnerable to predation and (c) to determine whether sudden cohabitation with or without feeding/sparing feeding will trigger predation. Four different treatments of (1) 10 Clarias juveniles/100 Tilapia fingerlings fed to satiation (2) 10 Clarias juveniles/100 Tilapia fingerlings fed sparingly (3) 50 Clarias fingerlings/50 Tilapia fingerlings fed sparingly (4) 15 Clarias fingerlings/90 Tilapia fingerlings fed to satiation and (5) 15 Clarias fingerlings/90 Tilapia fingerlings fed sparingly were monitored over a period of 12 weeks. Predation occurred only in Treatments 1 and 2 where the predator was bigger than the prey and the highest level of predation of 71% Tilapia fingerlings occurred in Treatment 2 compared to 26% in Treatment 1. The predation level was highest during the first 6 weeks of the study due to increasing size of the prey. Hence growth performance from 7th-12th week depended solely on the feed fed for Treatments 1 and 2. However, since virtually no predation was recorded for Treatments 3 (0%), 4 (0%) and 5 (2.22%) growth performance for these 3 treatments from weeks 1-12 was dependent solely on the feed fed whether fed to satiation or not. The Analysis of Variance test (ANOVA) to test significance in the predation level showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the treatments (at least for treatments 1 and 2) and Duncan`s Multiple range tests puts the order of predation as Treatment 2 (71a)>1(26b)>3(0c)>4 (0cd) and > 5 (0cde), but there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among 3, 4 and 5 where the prey and predator were of similar sizes. Treatment 1 recorded the best growth performance in both species of fish with respect to mean weight gain, food conversion ratio and increase in total length. The order of growth performance is Treatment 1>2>4>3>5. The food conversion ratio among treatments 2 and 1 (where predation occurred) showed that it is higher in Treatment 1 where the level of predation was lowest. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) shows growth rate of prey and predator were significant at (p<0.05), respectively. The correlation coefficients `r` between the size of the prey and predator in all the treatments were all positive viz: Treatment 1 (1.00), 2(0.96), 3(0.88), 4(0.95) and 5(0.81), this implying the size of the predator increased as the pray size increases. The sudden cohabitation of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with or without feeding did not trigger predation because the initial number stocked in Treatments 4 and 5 (each specie of fish raised separately and the two brought together at the end of 2 weeks) were recovered at the end of the 12 weeks experiment. The best level of growth performance and fairly ba
Fry Survival Rate under Different Anoxic Conditions in Clarias gariepinus
O.A. Oyelese
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the best dissolved oxygen level and culture medium for the survival of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus fry.The experiment was carried out for a period of 8 weeks, out of which the brood stock used to produce the fry were maintained for 4 weeks on a diet of 40% crude protein. The study was carried out in four plastic bowls subjected to different treatments in the departmental laboratory. The plastic bowls were designated I, II, 8.III, IV respectively each representing a treatment with bowl I containing deionised spring water unaerated kept in the laboratory, bowl II contain sprung water without aeration kept in the laboratory, bowl III contain constantly aerated spring water also kept in the laboratory and bowl IV contain spring water without aeration kept outside the laboratory under ambient conditions to serve as the control. The acclimatized Clarias broodstock were semi-induced under hatchery management conditions to produce Clarias gariepinus fry on a weekly basis for 4 weeks (as when required for experiment). Each experimental treatment bowl contain 100 Clarias gariepinus fry. The experimental treatment replicates was carried out for four weeks. The mean dissolved oxygen levels and survival rates of swim up fry values obtained for the 4 weeks are:- Oxygen levels 6.57, 7.04, 7.29 and 7.06 mg L-1 for treatments I, II, III and IV, respectively, survival rates were 84.80, 95.30, 100.00 and 96.80%, respectively for each experimental treatment. Analysis of variance shows that there is significant difference in the mean survival rate values of p<0.05 level of significance. Despite the anoxic conditions r was shown to be positively correlated (r = 0.99) for survival rate implying generally that the survival rate for Clarias gariepinus fry increases with increase in oxygen level in the water. Treatment III gave the highest percentage survival rate of 100% which coincided with a 7.29 mg L -1 oxygen level and ranking second to it is the survival rate/oxygen level of treatment IV with the values 96.80%/7.06 mg L-1.
Hypoxanthine Levels, Chemical Studies and Bacteria Flora/Count of Frozen/Thawed Market Simulated Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) under Cold Sotrage Temperature Conditions
O.A. Oyelese
Research Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Hypoxanthine levels, chemical studies, organoleptic assessment and bacteria flora/count were studied for a 12 week period on market simulated fresh samples of the Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in order to assess its keeping quality and shelflife under cold storage conditions of 40C. Twenty-two (22) fresh samples of average weight of 260gm were used for the study. Two pieces were exposed for 12 hours to thaw and defroze biweekly to simulate market conditions before taken them for further chemical analysis and microbiological assessment. Initial proximate analysis were carried out on the fresh fish and also final proximate analysis at the end of the 12 week experiment. The chemical parameters analysed are Hypoxanthine levels, trimethylamine (TMA), peroxide value (PV), free fatty acid (FFA) (fortnightly) and bacteria identification and count (monthly). Organoleptic assessment was also carried out on the fresh and cooked fish samples forthnightly. The final proximate analysis showed increase (74.36%) in the moisture content compared to (69.25%) the initial. There were decreases observed in crude fibre (2.42% as against 2.78%), ether extract (fat) (16.89% as against 17.38%) and ash (2.86% as against 3.18%), but increase in crude protein content from 19.65% to 21.34%. The other chemical parameters assessed increased e.g peroxide value (PV from 26.40 to 34.60 Meq/kg), trimethylamine (TMA from 29.62 to 39.20mg/100gm fish), free fatty acid (% FFA from 1.74 to 2.32%) over the assessment period. The hypoxanthine level also increased considerably from 28.24mg/100gm fish to 37.54mg/100gm fish at the end of the experiment (hence the increasing bitter taste with length of study). The organoleptic assessment also ranged from very good (2.0) to just fair (6.0) quality at the end of the 12 week study. The number of bacteria identified also increased with storage time. The overall bacteria total viable count varied from 0 week (1.82 Cfu/gm) 14.70 Cfu/gm) in the 12th week with 29.36 Cfu/gm overall count recorded for the 12 weeks. A total of 10 bacteria specie were detected in the study with Lactoccocus acidophilus showing the highest prevalence of 6.14 Cfu/gm fish) also showing its presence from the 0 week (1.82 Cfu/gm fish) to 1.60cfu/gm fish recorded in the 12th week. Second to it is Pseudomonas aureginosa (3.50cfu/gm) detected from (8th 12th week), while the third bacteria prevalent was Clostridium welchii with 2.72 Cfu/gm detected at the end of the 4th week and 12th week of study. The other bacteria species detected (arranging them in their order of prevalence) include Bacillus substilis (2.40 cfu/gm), Proteus morganii (2.40 Cfu/gm); Eschericha coli (2.36 Cfu/gm fish); Bacillus cereus (2.10 cfu/gm), Micrococcus acidiophilus (1.50 Cfu/gm), Staphylococcus aureus (1.30 Cfu/gm) and lastly Streptococcus faecium (1.10 Cfu/gm). All parameters measured showed drastic rises in their values as from the 8th week to the 12th week. Hence the limit of acceptability
Organoleptic and Chemical Studies on the Storage Characteristict of the Skip Jack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis)
O.A. Oyelese
Journal of Fisheries International , 2012,
Abstract: Sixteen samples of Skip Jack Tuna (Katswonus pelamis) with a size range of 9.58-1.62 gm werecollected at the Lagos Jetty of the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine research, Victoria Island, Lagos and stored at a cold storage temperature of-21 for a period of 13 weeks. Samples were kept in the cold room for 6 weeks before the commencement of the experiment using one piece of fish per week for both organoleptic and chemical studies (Trimethy lamine (TMA), Total Volatile Bases (TVB) and Free Fatty Acids (FFA). This is in a bid to determining the level of spoilage and limit of acceptability (Shelf life) of the fish. Organoleptic assessments of a five-man panel, showed the general conditions (appearance, taste and odour) of the fish was unsatisfactory at the end of the 12th week of storage, with an average score of 3.9`0.30. However the uncooked fish was still acceptable (4.5`0.33) up till the 11th week of storage. Also for the cooked specimen the general conditions (texture, odour and taste) of the fish were unsatisfactory at the and of 12th week, with an average score of (4.6`0.38). The chemical assessment results were significant (p<0.05) and there was a strong positive linear correlation (TMA = 0.9823, TVB = 0.9855 and FFA = 0.9847) between the chemical indices and the length of storage. For the TMA and TVB, the limit of acceptability was the 8th week of storage with values of 4.0 mg 100 g-1 fish and 3.75 mg 100 g-1 fish, respectively. With FFA as a chemical index of spoilage, (a less sensitive index) acceptability limit of 1.07% was recorded at the 11th week of cold storage. The limit of acceptability (shelf life) for the cold storage of Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) as shown in this study is between the 8th and 11th week of storage at-21 C using the chemical assessment (as the lower limit) and organoleptic assessment results (as the upper limit) as indicators. However using Least Significant Difference (LSD) to test, the shelf life of Tuna under cold storage of-21 C is 2 months.
Implication of Organ and Tissue Weight to the Processing of Some Selected Fresh Water Fish Families
O.A. Oyelese
Journal of Fisheries International , 2012,
Abstract: The implications of organ weight to body (tissue) weight to the consumers preservations and processors was studied using the following representative members of five selected fresh water fish families. They are family. Clariidae example used is Clarias gariepinus, Mochokidae example used is Synodontis clarias, Cichlidae example used is Tilapia niloticus, Bagridae example used is Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus, Channidae example used is Channa obscure, Four replicates (including 2 females and 2 males of fish were used in each case) were dissected after taking their initial total body weights. Each internal organ (the gonad, liver, heart, gall bladder, spleen, kidney and gut) were weighed using a sensitive accoulab weighing scale. The percentage organ weight of the total body weight was calculated for each representative member of the five families. Also the total organ weight was deducted from the total body weight to five the actual fleshy edible tissue weight for each family. From this the productive potential fish yield factor (PPFYF) was calculated. The productive potential fish yield factor was not significantly (p>0.05) different among the 5 fish families with the highest value of 0.9695 recorded for Chrysichthys (Bagndae), second is Tilapia (Chichlidae) with 0.9692, this is followed by Channa (channidae) 0.9639 fourth is Synodontis (Mochokidae) 0.9543, while the least PPFYF of 0.9422 was recorded in Clarias (Clariidae). The least total organ weight of 3.05% was recorded in Chrysichthys, while the highest total organ weight of 5.78% was recorded in Clarias also with the second highest values of 4.57% recorded in Synodontis. The lowest PPFYF (0.9422) recorded for Clarias gariepinus is as a result of the gonad weight (1.95%) and heart weight (0.11%) while the PPFYF value (0.9543) recorded for Synodontis clarias was as a result of the liver weight (1.09%), kidney weight (0.67%) and gut weight (2.33%) of total body weight. This implied total overall body weight does not determine fish yield (PPFYF) as in this study Clarias gariepinus had the highest total mean weight of 402.50 gm but the highest total organ weight of 23.28 gm (i.e., 5.78% of total body weight). Also a high proximate Crude Protein (C.P) composition of a fish does not necessarily imply a proportional or corresponding laying of fish flesh as shown in this study with Clarias gariepinus having the highest crude protein of 62.00% followed by Syodontis clarias with 53.38%.
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