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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 111867 matches for " O. Rader "
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Endothelial Lipase Concentrations Are Increased in Metabolic Syndrome and Associated with Coronary Atherosclerosis
Karen O Badellino ,Megan L Wolfe,Muredach P Reilly,Daniel J Rader
PLOS Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030022
Abstract: Background Endothelial lipase (EL), a new member of the lipase family, has been shown to modulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) metabolism and atherosclerosis in mouse models. We hypothesized that EL concentrations would be associated with decreased HDL-C and increased atherosclerosis in humans. Methods and Findings Healthy individuals with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (n = 858) were recruited as part of the Study of the Inherited Risk of Atherosclerosis. Blood was drawn in the fasting state before and, in a subgroup (n = 510), after administration of a single dose of intravenous heparin. Plasma lipids were measured enzymatically, lipoprotein subclasses were assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) was quantified by electron beam computed tomography. Plasma EL mass was measured using a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median EL mass in pre-heparin plasma was 442 (interquartile range = 324–617) ng/ml. Median post-heparin mass was approximately 3-fold higher, 1,313 (888–1,927) ng/ml. The correlation between pre-heparin EL mass and post-heparin EL mass was 0.46 (p < 0.001). EL mass concentrations in both pre- and post-heparin plasma significantly correlated with all NCEP ATPIII-defined metabolic syndrome factors: waist circumference (r = 0.28 and 0.22, respectively, p < 0.001 for each), blood pressure (r = 0.18 and 0.24, p < 0.001 for each), triglycerides (r = 0.22, p < 0.001; and 0.13, p = 0.004), HDL cholesterol (r = –0.11, p = 0.002; and –0.18, p < 0.001), and fasting glucose (r = 0.11 and 0.16, p = 0.001 for both). EL mass in both routine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, p = 0.01) and post-heparin (OR = 2.42, p = 0.003) plasma was associated with CAC as determined by ordinal regression after adjustment for age, gender, waist circumference, vasoactive medications, hormone replacement therapy (women), and established cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions We report, to our knowledge for the first time, that human plasma EL concentrations, in both post-heparin and routine pre-heparin plasma, are significantly associated with metabolic syndrome features and with subclinical atherosclerosis. EL may be a pro-atherogenic factor in humans, especially in overweight individuals and those with metabolic syndrome.
Massless Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene on Fe(110)
A. Varykhalov,J. Sánchez-Barriga,P. Hlawenka,O. Rader
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: Graphene grown on Fe(110)by chemical vapor deposition using propylene is investigated by means of angle-resolved photoemission. The presence of massless Dirac fermions is clearly evidenced by the observation of a fully intact Dirac cone. Unlike Ni(111) and Co(0001), the Fe(110) imposes a strongly anisotropic quasi-one-dimensional structure on the graphene. Certain signatures of a superlattice effect appear in the dispersion of its \sigma-bands but the Dirac cone does not reveal any detectable superlattice or quantum-size effects although the graphene corrugation is twice as large as in the established two-dimensional graphene superlattice on Ir(111).
Rashba splitting of 100 meV in Au-intercalated graphene on SiC
D. Marchenko,A. Varykhalov,J. Sánchez-Barriga,Th. Seyller,O. Rader
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Intercalation of Au can produce giant Rashba-type spin-orbit splittings in graphene but this has not yet been achieved on a semiconductor substrate. For graphene/SiC(0001), Au intercalation yields two phases with different doping. Here, we report the preparation of an almost pure p-type graphene phase after Au intercalation. We observe a 100 meV Rashba-type spin-orbit splitting at 0.9 eV binding energy. We show that this giant splitting is due to hybridization and much more limited in energy and momentum space than for Au-intercalated graphene on Ni.
Topological surface state under graphene for two-dimensional spintronics in air
A. Varykhalov,D. Marchenko,M. R. Scholz,E. Rienks,T. K. Kim,O. Rader
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.066804
Abstract: Spin currents which allow for a dissipationless transport of information can be generated by electric fields in semiconductor heterostructures in the presence of a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling. The largest Rashba effects occur for electronic surface states of metals but these cannot exist but under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Here, we reveal a giant Rashba effect ({\alpha}_R ~ 1.5E-10 eVm) on a surface state of Ir(111). We demonstrate that its spin splitting and spin polarization remain unaffected when Ir is covered with graphene. The graphene protection is, in turn, sufficient for the spin-split surface state to survive in ambient atmosphere. We discuss this result along with evidences for a topological protection of the surface state.
Restricted Cell Surface Expression of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase ROR1 in Pediatric B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Suggests Targetability with Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies
Hema Dave, Miriam R. Anver, Donna O. Butcher, Patrick Brown, Javed Khan, Alan S. Wayne, Sivasubramanian Baskar, Christoph Rader
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052655
Abstract: Background Despite high cure rates for pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), short-term and long-term toxicities and chemoresistance are shortcomings of standard chemotherapy. Immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target cell surface antigens with restricted expression in pediatric B-ALL may offer the potential to reduce toxicities and prevent or overcome chemoresistance. The receptor tyrosine kinase ROR1 has emerged as a candidate for mAb targeting in select B-cell malignancies. Methodology and Principal Findings Using flow cytometry, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, we analyzed the cell surface expression of ROR1 across major pediatric ALL subtypes represented by 14 cell lines and 56 primary blasts at diagnosis or relapse as well as in normal adult and pediatric tissues. Cell surface ROR1 expression was found in 45% of pediatric ALL patients, all of which were B-ALL, and was not limited to any particular genotype. All cell lines and primary blasts with E2A-PBX1 translocation and a portion of patients with other high risk genotypes, such as MLL rearrangement, expressed cell surface ROR1. Importantly, cell surface ROR1 expression was found in many of the pediatric B-ALL patients with multiply relapsed and refractory disease and normal karyotype or low risk cytogenetics, such as hyperdiploidy. Notably, cell surface ROR1 was virtually absent in normal adult and pediatric tissues. Conclusions and Significance Collectively, this study suggests that ROR1 merits preclinical and clinical investigations as a novel target for mAb-based therapies in pediatric B-ALL. We propose cell surface expression of ROR1 detected by flow cytometry as primary inclusion criterion for pediatric B-ALL patients in future clinical trials of ROR1-targeted therapies.
High spin polarization and circular dichroism of topological surface states on Bi2Te3
M. R. Scholz,J. Sánchez-Barriga,D. Marchenko,A. Varykhalov,A. Volykhov,L. V. Yashina,O. Rader
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Topological insulators have been successfully identified by spin-resolved photoemission but the spin polarization remained low (~20%). We show for Bi2Te3 that the in-gap surface state is much closer to full spin polarization with measured values reaching 80% at the Fermi level. When hybridizing with the bulk it remains highly spin polarized which may explain recent unusual quantum interference results on Bi2Se3. The topological surface state shows a large circular dichroism in the photoelectron angle distribution with an asymmetry of ~20% the sign of which corresponds to that of the measured spin.
Tolerance of topological surface states towards magnetic moments: Fe on Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3
M. R. Scholz,J. Sánchez-Barriga,D. Marchenko,A. Varykhalov,A. Volykhov,L. V. Yashina,O. Rader
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.256810
Abstract: Topological insulators(1-8) are a novel form of matter which features metallic surface states with quasirelativistic dispersion similar to graphene(9). Unlike graphene, the locking of spin and momentum and the protection by time-reversal symmetry(1-8) open up tremendous additional possibilities for external control of transport properties(10-18). Here we show by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy that the topological sur-face states of Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 are stable against the deposition of Fe without opening a band gap. This stability extends to low submonolayer coverages meaning that the band gap reported recently(19) for Fe on Bi2Se3 is incorrect as well as to complete monolayers meaning that topological surface states can very well exist at interfaces with ferromagnets in future devices.
Observation of Hubbard Bands in $γ$-Manganese
S. Biermann,A. Dallmeyer,C. Carbone,W. Eberhardt,C. Pampuch,O. Rader,M. I. Katsnelson,A. I. Lichtenstein
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: We present angle-resolved photoemission spectra of the $\gamma$-phase of manganese as well as a theoretical analysis using a recently developed approach that combines density functional and dynamical mean field methods (LDA+DMFT). The comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions allows us to identify effects of the Coulomb correlations, namely the presence of broad and undispersive Hubbard bands in this system.
Graphene for spintronics: giant Rashba splitting due to hybridization with Au
D. Marchenko,A. Varykhalov,M. R. Scholz,G. Bihlmayer,E. I. Rashba,A. Rybkin,A. M. Shikin,O. Rader
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2227
Abstract: Graphene in spintronics has so far primarily meant spin current leads of high performance because the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of its pi-electrons is very weak. If a large spin-orbit coupling could be created by a proximity effect, the material could also form active elements of a spintronic device such as the Das-Datta spin field-effect transistor, however, metal interfaces often compromise the band dispersion of massless Dirac fermions. Our measurements show that Au intercalation at the graphene-Ni interface creates a giant spin-orbit splitting (~100 meV) in the graphene Dirac cone up to the Fermi energy. Photoelectron spectroscopy reveals hybridization with Au-5d states as the source for the giant spin-orbit splitting. An ab initio model of the system shows a Rashba-split dispersion with the analytically predicted gapless band topology around the Dirac point of graphene and indicates that a sharp graphene-Au interface at equilibrium distance will account for only ~10 meV spin-orbit splitting. The ab initio calculations suggest an enhancement due to Au atoms that get closer to the graphene and do not violate the sublattice symmetry.
Endothelial Lipase Concentrations Are Increased in Metabolic Syndrome and Associated with Coronary Atherosclerosis.
Badellino,Wolfe,Reilly,Rader
PLOS Medicine , 2005,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Endothelial lipase (EL), a new member of the lipase family, has been shown to modulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) metabolism and atherosclerosis in mouse models. We hypothesized that EL concentrations would be associated with decreased HDL-C and increased atherosclerosis in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Healthy individuals with a family history of premature coronary heart disease (n = 858) were recruited as part of the Study of the Inherited Risk of Atherosclerosis. Blood was drawn in the fasting state before and, in a subgroup (n = 510), after administration of a single dose of intravenous heparin. Plasma lipids were measured enzymatically, lipoprotein subclasses were assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) was quantified by electron beam computed tomography. Plasma EL mass was measured using a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median EL mass in pre-heparin plasma was 442 (interquartile range = 324-617) ng/ml. Median post-heparin mass was approximately 3-fold higher, 1,313 (888-1,927) ng/ml. The correlation between pre-heparin EL mass and post-heparin EL mass was 0.46 (p < 0.001). EL mass concentrations in both pre- and post-heparin plasma significantly correlated with all NCEP ATPIII-defined metabolic syndrome factors: waist circumference (r = 0.28 and 0.22, respectively, p < 0.001 for each), blood pressure (r = 0.18 and 0.24, p < 0.001 for each), triglycerides (r = 0.22, p < 0.001; and 0.13, p = 0.004), HDL cholesterol (r = -0.11, p = 0.002; and -0.18, p < 0.001), and fasting glucose (r = 0.11 and 0.16, p = 0.001 for both). EL mass in both routine (odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, p = 0.01) and post-heparin (OR = 2.42, p = 0.003) plasma was associated with CAC as determined by ordinal regression after adjustment for age, gender, waist circumference, vasoactive medications, hormone replacement therapy (women), and established cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: We report, to our knowledge for the first time, that human plasma EL concentrations, in both post-heparin and routine pre-heparin plasma, are significantly associated with metabolic syndrome features and with subclinical atherosclerosis. EL may be a pro-atherogenic factor in humans, especially in overweight individuals and those with metabolic syndrome.
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