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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 113594 matches for " O. Karim "
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Effects of sulphiting and osmotic pre-treatments on the effective moisture diffusion coefficients DEFF of air drying of pineapple slices
O.R Karim
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2010,
Abstract: Air dehydration of fruits has been reported to be limiting in some factors especially on the drying kinetics and quality of the dried fruits. Removal of moisture during drying is attributed to these. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of sulphiting and osmotic pretreatments on effective diffusion coefficient (Deff) of air drying pineapple slices at 50o and 70 oC temperatures. Smooth cayenne pineapple obtained from Ajanla farms, Ibadan, Nigeria was used for the study. The fruits were hand peeled and sliced to spherical slices of 5 cm radius and 0.5 cm thickness. Pineapple fruit slices were pretreated at three levels of sulphiting and sucrose/osmosis and two conditions of drying (50 oC at 16 h and 70 oC at 10 h), resulting in 18 treatments in a factorial experimental design. Changes in moisture were monitored hourly and Fick’s second law was used to describe the rate of moisture transfer to determine the Deff as the slices were dried using a cabinet dryer. Results showed that the Deff was strongly affected by sulphiting at 2500 ppm equalling 9.10+ 0.13 x 10-6 and 6.78 + 0.53 x 10-6cm/s for 70 oC and 50 oC drying temperatures, respectively. The osmotic pretreatment at 40% sucrose recorded 4.91 + 0.15 x 10-6cm/s and 6.93 + 0.03 x 10-6cm/s for 70 oC and 50 oC drying temperature respectively. The control samples had 3.14 + 0.23 x 10-6 and 4.19 + 0.21 x 10-6 at 70 oC and 50 oC drying temperature, respectively. The high values obtained from the pretreated samples may be due to the restructuring of the cell walls. The combination of sulphiting and osmotic pretreatments also exhibited significant impact on the Deff value, ranging between 5.13 to 8.42 x 10-6, though not as pronounced as with the single pretreatment method. Furthermore, drying at 70 oC influenced the Deff value more than drying at 50 oC with both pretreatment methods. The study, therefore, showed that pretreatment methods improved the Deff of the pineapple slices, with the sulphiting pretreatment at 2500 ppm having the highest value.
Air-Oven Drying of Pre-Treated Fruit Slices: A Promising Solution to Post-Harvest Losses
O.R. Karim
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2010,
Abstract: Reports have shown that over 25% of fruit are lost during their season and virtually out of the market during off season due to their high moisture content couple with poor preservation methods practiced in Nigeria. Smooth cayenne pineapple specie obtained from Ajanla Farms, Ibadan was used for the study. A two factor-factorial experimental design of 3-levels of 3 pre-treatment methods (sucrose, blanching and sulphiting) and 3-levels of drying conditions (80oC/8 h, 70oC/10 h and 50oC/16 h) resulting into 81 treatments was used. The treatments were reduced to 18 by stratified sampling method from the results of the moisture and ascorbic acid content obtained from the pre-treated slices before drying. The slices were dried in a cabinet dryer; the moisture and ascorbic acid content of the dried slices were monitored during drying and after. All the samples exhibited combinations of falling and increase in drying with increasing in drying time. The dried slices were stored for 18 weeks, at which they were analyzed at 3 week intervals. The results obtained revealed that there were significant effects (p<0.05) of the pre-treatments on the ascorbic acid and moisture content of the dried slices. The 60%S/60oCB/2500ppm SO2 at 70oC/10 h had the least value of moisture content of 8.75% and 25.16 mg/100 g of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the results indicated that drying at 70oC/10 h is suitable for drying of pineapple slices than other drying conditions. During storage, there was continuous reduction in moisture content during the early weeks of storage. However, after 9 weeks of storage the moisture content of the samples increased showing significant differences between the mean values of the samples at different weeks of storage. Though, the samples pretreated with SO2 showed a little variation over the storage period. Drying condition of 70oC/10 h and pre-treatment of 2500 ppm SO2/60% sucrose was found to have minimal reduction of quality and thus the most appropriate treatment for air-oven drying of pineapple slices. The study therefore, recommends that production of pre-treated dried fruit slices could be used to reduce the enormous post-harvest losses of fruits.
Using Software Quality Attributes to Classify Refactoring to Patterns
Karim O. Elish,Mohammad Alshayeb
Journal of Software , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/jsw.7.2.408-419
Abstract: Refactoring to patterns allows software designers to safely move their designs towards specific design patterns by applying multiple low-level refactorings. There are many different refactoring to pattern techniques, each with a particular purpose and a varying effect on software quality attributes. Thus far, software designers do not have a clear means to choose refactoring to pattern techniques to improve certain quality attributes. This paper takes the first step towards a classification of refactoring to pattern techniques based on their measurable effect on software quality attributes. This classification helps software designers in selecting the appropriate refactoring to pattern techniques that will improve the quality of their design based on their design objectives. It also enables them to predict the quality drift caused by using specific refactoring to pattern techniques.
Estereótipos linguísticos: quest es tradutórias derivadas do tratamento de fraseologismos em dicionários bilíngues
Angélica Karim Garcia Sim?o
Tradu??o & Comunica??o : Revista Brasileira de Tradutores , 2012,
Abstract: Reconhecer as unidades fraseológicas de um texto ao traduzi-lo representa para o tradutor uma das grandes dificuldades impostas à sua tarefa de interpreta o. Para além do simples reconhecimento, a identifica o de um equivalente apropriado na língua de chegada, considerando seu registro de uso e a carga metafórica que encerra, dentre outros aspectos presentes em tais unidades, imp em ao tradutor um árduo trabalho de pesquisa e análise linguística. Analisamos aqui, além da organiza o da mega, macro e microestrutura, a tradu o para o português de unidades fraseológicas em três dicionários bilíngues na dire o espanhol/português, a saber: Se as – Diccionario para la ense anza de la lengua espa ola para brasile os (Universidad Alcalá de Henares), Diccionario Bilíngüe de Uso Espa ol-Portugués/Português-Espanhol e o Gran Diccionario Espa ol/Portugués/ Português/Espanhol. A análise é feita a partir de um levantamento abrangendo as unidades agrupadas pelo campo semantico 'nome de animal', especificamente as organizadas na entrada 'gato'. Embora a express o de idéias afins seja comum a diferentes línguas e culturas, o maior ou menor grau de idiomatismo de algumas express es pode ocasionar ao tradutor diferentes níveis de dificuldade ao tentar estabelecer equivalentes para os dois idiomas.
Conceptual Analysis and Fieldwork in Macroeconometric Methodology: Modeling Unemployment, Inflation and Production  [PDF]
Karim Errouaki
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2014.53015

The recent failure of commonly accepted, inductive, econometric models to provide insights into real, macroeconomic phenomenon during economic crises has provoked a debate concerning contemporary econometric methodology. Based on the foundations laid by Haavelmo, and Hollis and Nell, an assessment of Edward J. Nell’s (1998) “unifying methodological framework” (UMF) is offered. Nell’s UMF places socioeconomic institutions and interdependencies, and technological realities as basis of analysis. Using “conceptual analysis” and “fieldwork” Nell presents an alternative to generally accepted, mainstream, econometric methodology. The purpose of this paper is to look at some examples of the way, and this can help develop useful theory and improve macroeconometric model building. Applying Nell’s UMF to unemployment, inflation, and production reveals a methodological advance that promises more realistic insights into macroeconomic phenomena than is offered by contemporary, mainstream, econometric models.

Real-time flood forecasting by employing artificial neural network based model with zoning matching approach
M. Sulaiman,A. El-Shafie,O. Karim,H. Basri
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/hessd-8-9357-2011
Abstract: Flood forecasting models are a necessity, as they help in planning for flood events, and thus help prevent loss of lives and minimize damage. At present, artificial neural networks (ANN) have been successfully applied in river flow and water level forecasting studies. ANN requires historical data to develop a forecasting model. However, long-term historical water level data, such as hourly data, poses two crucial problems in data training. First is that the high volume of data slows the computation process. Second is that data training reaches its optimal performance within a few cycles of data training, due to there being a high volume of normal water level data in the data training, while the forecasting performance for high water level events is still poor. In this study, the zoning matching approach (ZMA) is used in ANN to accurately monitor flood events in real time by focusing the development of the forecasting model on high water level zones. ZMA is a trial and error approach, where several training datasets using high water level data are tested to find the best training dataset for forecasting high water level events. The advantage of ZMA is that relevant knowledge of water level patterns in historical records is used. Importantly, the forecasting model developed based on ZMA successfully achieves high accuracy forecasting results at 1 to 3 h ahead and satisfactory performance results at 6 h. Seven performance measures are adopted in this study to describe the accuracy and reliability of the forecasting model developed.
Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: This work involved developing an intelligent model for sales and inventory management aimed at bridging the substantial gap between the theory and the practice of inventory management. The system developed has the capability of providing automatic demand and lead time pattern identification for inventory management. The intelligent inventory model was formulated using the concept of fuzzy logic. The identified patterns and the formulated model were translated into a rule based package developed with Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE).The developed system can work perfectly with any small scale and medium enterprise, but NOBIS super market (a reputable super market within Makurdi metropolis, Benue State of Nigeria) was used to test run the working principle of the system. The multi-branching nature of the system and its client server relationship even made itdeployable for manufacturing and airline industries around the globe.
Study on the Effect of Plant Spacing on the Production of Turmeric at Farmer`s Field
F. Islam,M. R. Karim,M. Shahjahan,M. O. Hoque
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The research work was conducted to find out the optimum plant spacing for maximizing the yield of turmeric. Four plant spacing i.e., 45 x 10, 45 x 20, 45 x 30 and 60 x 30 cm2 were considered in the study. The highest average yield (17.87 t ha -1) was obtained from 45 x 10 cm2 plant spacing which was closely followed (16.77 t ha -1) by 45 x 20 cm2 plant spacing. While the lowest average yield (13.42 t ha -1) was recorded from 60 x 30 cm2 plant spacing in respective two years. So, in agronomic point of view, 45 x 10 cm2 plant spacing is suitable but economically 45 x 20 cm2 plant spacing is viable for turmeric production.
An Asymmetric Steklov Problem With Weights: the singular case
A. Anane,O. Chakrone,B. Karim,A. Zerouali
Boletim da Sociedade Paranaense de Matemática , 2009,
Abstract: We prove the existence of a rst nonprincipal eigenvalue for an asym-metric Steklov problem with weights. We are interested in the singular case (in where one of the weights has meanvalue zero), this case requires some special attention in connection with the Palais Smale (PS) conditions and with the mountain pass geometry.
On the Delay Limited Secrecy Capacity of Fading Channels
Karim Khalil,Moustafa Youssef,O. Ozan Koyluoglu,Hesham El Gamal
Mathematics , 2009,
Abstract: In this paper, the delay limited secrecy capacity of the flat fading channel is investigated under two different assumptions on the available transmitter channel state information (CSI). The first scenario assumes perfect prior knowledge of both the main and eavesdropper channel gains. Here, upper and lower bounds on the secure delay limited capacity are derived and shown to be tight in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime (for a wide class of channel distributions). In the second scenario, only the main channel CSI is assumed to be available at the transmitter. Remarkably, under this assumption, we establish the achievability of non-zero secure rate (for a wide class of channel distributions) under a strict delay constraint. In the two cases, our achievability arguments are based on a novel two-stage approach that overcomes the secrecy outage phenomenon observed in earlier works.
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