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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 537102 matches for " O. A. Sowonola "
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Quality Evaluation of Ebiripo using Cocoyam/Soybean/Soyresidue Blends
O. A. Sowonola, O. A. Ashaye, B. A Akinde
Journal of Food Technology in Africa , 2002,
Abstract: An attempt was made to evaluate the nutritional status of ebiripo using cocoyam/soyflour/soyresidue blends. Ebiripo fortified with 40% soyflour was significantly higher in protein (28%) and fat (8.4%) than the other ebiripo samples. Unfortified ebiripo was the highest in ash (7.23%) and total carbohydrate (28.77%). Ebiripo fortified with 10% soyflour was significantly higher in K (1.53%) and Ca (0.62%). Generally, unfortified ebiripo was higher in general acceptability and ebiripo fortified with soyflour was better accepted than ebiripo fortified with soy residue. The Journal of Food Technology in Africa Volume 7 No.1, 2002, pp. 30-32 KEY WORDS: Ebiripo, Fortified, soyflour, soyresidue.
Finite Element Analysis of Von-Mises Stress Distribution in a Spherical Shell of Liquified Natural Gas (Lng) Pressure Vessels  [PDF]
O. A. Adeyefa, O. O. Oluwole
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.310125
Abstract: This research work investigated the modeling of Von Mises stress in LNG Spherical Carbon Steel Storage tank using assumed displacement Finite Element analysis based on shallow shell triangular elements. Using equations of elasticity, constant thickness carbon steel spherical storage tanks were subjected to different loading conditions. This paper stresses the need for proper definition of shallow element using sector angles to obtain the shallowness. The shallow spherical triangular element has five degrees of freedom at each of its corner node, which are the essential external degrees of freedom. The assumed displacement fields of these shallow triangular elements satisfied the exact requirement of rigid body modes of motion. The FORTRAN 90 programming language was used for the programme coding to solve finite element equations resulting from the model while Von Mises stresses distribution within the spherical storage tank shell subjected to different internal pressures were determined. The results showed that the use of non-shallow elements due to improper sector angles resulted in unreliable results while real shallow elements produced results that tallied with ASME Section VIII Div 1, Part UG values.
Preliminary Studies on the Microbial Degradation of Plastic Waste Using Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas sp.  [PDF]
A. O. Ogunbayo, O. O. Olanipekun, I. A. Adamu
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2019.105037
Abstract: The possibility of microbial degradation of plastic waste was investigated by isolating microorganisms present in dumpsite containing low-density polyethylene (LDP). Aspergillus niger (fungi) and Pseudomonas sp. (bacteria) were identified and subsequently used to biodegrade plastic waste. The medium was made up of 0.2 g of MgSO4, 1.0 g of KH2PO4, 1.0 g of K2HPO4, 1.0 g of NH4NO3, 0.02 g of CaCl2, 0.05 g of FeCl3 in 1000 ml water. 10 ml of the medium containing the bacteria and/or fungi was poured into test tubes and 0.1 g of the plastic sample (Pure water sachet) pre-treated with ethanol was introduced into the tubes. The pH of the medium was adjusted to 7.2, 5.4 and 6.0 for Pseudomonas sp., Aspergillus niger and the mixed culture respectively. Each experiment was carried out aerobically at room temperature and incubated on a rotary shaker at 120 rpm. The weight loss in each experiment was monitored at 10 days interval for 60 days. The total weight loss after 60 days was 7.2%, 12.4%, 15% for degradation with Pseudomonas sp., Aspergillus niger and the mixed culture respectively. From this study it can be inferred that Pseudomonas sp. and Aspergillus niger have the ability to degrade plastics. It can also be inferred that Aspergillus niger degraded plastics better than Pseudomonas sp. and there was synergy between the two microorganisms since the mixed culture gave a higher degradation.
Comparative Study of the Effect of Temperature on the Corrosion Behaviour of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel and 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel in Acidic Chloride Environment  [PDF]
O. A. Olaseinde
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2015.55019
Abstract: The 2205 duplex stainless steel and 316 austenitic stainless steels were studied in 1 M sulphuric acid and 1% NaCl solution. The microstructures of the specimens were investigated with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. X-ray Diffraction analysis was used for phase analysis. The electrochemical behaviour was evaluated using potentiodynamic method. The results show that the critical current density is higher for 316 austenitic stainless steels than 2205. The passive range was longer for 316 than 2205 at all the temperatures understudy. 2205 was found to have better corrosion resistance than 316.
Evaluation of Nutrition and Physical Activity Knowledge, Attitudes, Self Efficacy and Behaviors in Teachers and Children after Implementation of the “Healthy Active Kids” Online Program in Australian Elementary Schools  [PDF]
Jennifer A. O’Dea
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.84031
Abstract: The aims were to examine change in nutrition and physical activity knowledge, self efficacy and attitudes in a cohort of 23 teachers and 304 year 5 and 6 children after the “Healthy Active Kids” online program and to assess any behavioral change in children’s self reported nutrition and physical activity behaviors and investigate the predictors of nutrition knowledge gain in teachers and children. Results found significant (p < 0.0001) increases in teacher and student knowledge of the five food groups; key nutrients provided by each food group, The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating; food labelling laws, identification of common names for fats, sugars and salts on food labels, food proportions on the Healthy Food Plate and the level and percentage of water in the human body and human brain. Teacher attitudes towards the importance of nutrition and diet and self efficacy related to teaching nutrition in class improved (p < 0.01). The final regression model for predictors of the dependent variable, knowledge gain in students was R = 0.53, Adjusted R square = 0.28 (F = 4.76, p < 0.01) indicating that 28% of the variation in knowledge gain was predicted by the negative (low) Time 1 knowledge. Changes to eating habits reported by children were “drinking more water each day” (89.1%) and “eating foods from the five food groups each day” (76.2%); “sharing information about food labels with your family” (52.4%); “reading food labels when you go shopping” (50.0%); “changing what is on your dinner plate each night” (44.2%); “vegetables that you eat now that you didn’t eat before” (42.1%) and “fruits that you eat now” (39%). Results suggest that the development of basic nutrition knowledge is still very important for both teachers and students, but that other factors such as self efficacy, empowerment and skill development also contribute to nutrition behavior change in children.
Accurate Symbolic Solution of Ginzburg-Landau Equations in the Circular Cell Approximation by Variational Method: Magnetization of Ideal Type II Superconductor  [PDF]
O. A. Chevtchenko
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2017.86062
Abstract: In this paper I access the degree of approximation of known symbolic approach to solving of Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations using variational method and a concept of vortex lattice with circular unit cells, refine it in a clear and concise way, identify and eliminate the errors. Also, I will improve its accuracy by providing for the first time precise dependencies of the variational parameters; correct and calculate magnetisation, compare it with the one calculated numerically and conclude they agree within 98.5% or better for any value of the GL parameter k and at magnetic field \"\", which is good basis for many engineering applications. As a result, a theoretical tool is developed using known symbolic solutions of GL equations with accuracy surpassing that of any other known symbolic solution and approaching that of numerical one.
Using the Dual Energy Gamma-Ray Transmission Technique to Measure Soil Bulk Density and Water Content of Central Southwestern Nigerian Soils  [PDF]
O. O. Adejumo, F. A. Balogun
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.311160
Abstract: In this work, a radiological technique which simultaneously measures soil bulk density and water contents accurately and quickly in a non-destructive manner at different depths of the soil profile of the major soil series of Central Southwestern Nigeria is developed. Undisturbed samples from Iwo, Ondo, Egbeda, Itagunmodi, Okemessi, Mamu, Origo and Jago soil series of Southwestern Nigeria were collected on monthly intervals from June 2006 to May 2007. Using gamma-ray energy pairs of 122 and 1112 keV; and 344 and 1408 keV obtained from europium-152 (152Eu) radionuclide, the attenuation coefficients for soil and water, μs, μw and consequently ρs and θv at varying soil depths of these series were calculated. Comparative gravimetric measurements of these soil parameters were carried out. Using the XCOM computer algorithm with the soil elemental concentrations obtained using the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (EDXRF) technique, theoretical estimates of μs for the various soil series were obtained and compared with the experimental values. The result of the developed dual energy gamma-ray transmission technique was compared with the gravimetric measurement method and Pearson correlation coefficient (0.987, p < 0.001) was obtained for ρs and (0.996, p < 0.001) for θv. The results of the measurements showed that θv minima with values 0.1931, 0.1987, 0.2377, 0.2111, 0.1738, 0.1701, 0.2334, 0.2341 and minima ρs values of 1.21 g/cm3, 1.20 g/cm3, 1.02 g/cm3, 1.38 g/cm3, 1.12 g/cm3, 1.14 g/cm3, 0.64 g/cm3, 1.33 g/cm3 were obtained respectively for the soil series stated above in January. The maxima θv with values 0.3621, 0.4212, 0.3962, 0.3794, 0.3049, 0.2811, 0.4415, 0.4416 and maxima ρs values of 1.52 g/cm3, 1.67 g/cm3, 1.74 g/cm3, 1.69 g/cm3, 1.70 g/cm3, 1.68 g/cm3, 1.08 g/cm3, 1.54 g/cm3 occurred for these soil series respectively in July except for Mamu soil series which occurred in May. These correlated very well with the occurrence of the Dry and Rainy seasons in the study area. The results of the EDXRF analysis showed that maxima Iron, Fe concentrations of 5.0890 ppm at the depth of 90 - 120 cm into the soil profile, was obtained for Iwo series, 4.4691 ppm at 50 - 70 cm for Ondo, 6.3438 ppm at 15 -
Development of Insulating Refractory Ramming Mass from Some Nigerian Refractory Raw Materials  [PDF]
O. A. Olasupo, J. O. Borode
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2009.89058
Abstract: Insulating refractory ramming mass was developed from suitable Nigerian refractory raw materials. Rammed samples from several ratios of clay, silica, mica, bentonite and calcium aluminate cement (Durax) were prepared using the American Foundrymen Society (AFS) standard rammer. They were thereafter tested for such properties as apparent porosity, volumetric firing shrinkage, cold compression strength, green compression strength, loss on ignition, thermal shock resistance and refractoriness. Results indicate that eight ramming cycles were just enough for the production of the ramming masses. Two optimal ratios obtained from the experiments have a refractoriness of 1500℃ , good compression strength and excellent thermal shock resistance. They are therefore recommended for lining of rotary furnaces and crucible furnaces for the melting of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. It could be concluded that the ramming mass serve as a viable alternative to foreign ramming mass at the same temperature application.
Tomonaga-Luttinger Unusual Exponents around Fermi Points in the One-Dimensional Hubbard Model  [PDF]
Nelson O. Nenuwe, John O. A. Idiodi
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.52012
Abstract: We study the correlation functions of one-dimensional Hubbard model in the presence of external magnetic field through the conformal field method. The long distance behaviour of the correlation functions and their unusual exponents for the model in the presence of a magnetic field are developed by solving the dressed charge matrix equations and setting the number of occupancies \"\"?to one, as alternative to the usual zero used by authors in literatures. This work shows that the exponent of the correlation functions is a monotonous function of magnetic field and the correlation functions decay as powers of these unusual exponents. As the magnetic field goes to zero, we obtain the exponents as 8.125, 11.125, 17.125, 26.125 and 38.125 at kF, 3kF, 5kF, 7kF and 9kF. Our analytical results will provide insights into criticality in condensed matter physics.
Assessments of Some Simultaneous Equation Estimation Techniques with Normally and Uniformly Distributed Exogenous Variables  [PDF]
O. O. Alabi, B. A. Oyejola
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.611167
Abstract: In each equation of simultaneous Equation model, the exogenous variables need to satisfy all the basic assumptions of linear regression model and be non-negative especially in econometric studies. This study examines the performances of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS), Two Stage Least Square (2SLS), Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) and Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) Estimators of simultaneous equation model with both normally and uniformly distributed exogenous variables under different identification status of simultaneous equation model when there is no correlation of any form in the model. Four structural equation models were formed such that the first and third are exact identified while the second and fourth are over identified equations. Monte Carlo experiments conducted 5000 times at different levels of sample size (n = 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 250 and 500) were used as criteria to compare the estimators. Result shows that OLS estimator is best in the exact identified equation except with normally distributed exogenous variables when \"\". At these instances, 2SLS estimator is best. In over identified equations, the 2SLS estimator is best except with normally distributed exogenous variables when the sample size is small and large, \"\" and \"\" ; and with uniformly distributed exogenous variables when n is very large, \"\" , the best estimator is either OLS or FIML or 3SLS.
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