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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 536964 matches for " O. A. Awoyinka "
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In-Vitro Metabolite Colonic Production from Otili (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) as Influenced by Selected Gastrointestinal Microbes  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, T. R. Omodara, F. C. Oladele, O. O. Aina, O. E. Ajayi
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.911041
Abstract: In human nutrition, dietary fibers are un-degradable by mammalian enzymes, and are therefore potentially available for fermentation by micro-organisms living in the gastrointestinal tract. It is thought that these fermentable carbohydrates affect fermentation by stimulating the growth or metabolism of specific bacterial species, which are potentially beneficial for health. Hence in this study three gut associated microbes—Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus were made to ferment the non-digestible fraction of OtiliSphenostylis stenocarpa, a well-established underutilized wild bean with high economic importance. After 18 hours’ fermentation period short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) were detected and evaluated by GC-MS analysis. Metabolic products were relatively dependent on the fermenter. This present study affirmed butyric acid as the main SCFAs after 18 hours’ fermentation. The clinical significance of thirteen other MCFAs detected and quantified was also explored thus conferring a valuable prebiotic on Otili.
In-Vitro Measurement of pH and Antioxidant Capacity during Colonic Fermentation of Selected Underutilized Wild and Edible Beans  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, T. R. Omodara, F. C. Oladel, O. O. Aina, O. Akinluyi
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.812065
Abstract: Human gut flora-mediated non-digestible fraction of wild edible and common edible was observed for pH at every 6 hours regime. The antioxidant ability was measured up to 18 hours of fermentation with different associated gut microbes. Changes in pH provide an overview of the fermentation process. In the in-vitro study of antioxidant activity by DPPH test, anti-oxidants values showed differences, depending on the substrate and microbial fermenters used for fermentation. At first 6 hours interval, it was observed that the wild bean-Feregede fermented by Enterococcus feacalis exerts the highest antioxidant capacity of 0.0043 Cathechin equivalents. It also exerts lowest antioxidant capacity of 0.0034 Cathechin equivalents after 18 hours fermentation. These data provided preliminary evidence that consumption of beans diet such as the wild bean—Otili, Feregede, pakala and edible bean—oloyin is limiting factor to liberation of antioxidant components during the gastrointestinal digestion. Thus, disruption of normal cellular homeostasis by redox signaling may result in the development of various gastrointestinal pathological conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases.
Profile of Turbidity and Glucose Formation from Underutilised Wild, Edible Bean during In-Vitro Gastro Intestinal Digestion and Fermentation  [PDF]
T. R. Omodara, O. A. Awoyinka, F. C. Oladele, O. O. Aina, M. E. Olaiya
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.812067
Abstract: Fermentation takes place throughout the gastrointestinal tract of all animals, but the intensity and products of fermentation depend on number and types microbes, which are generally highest in the large bowel. Large intestinal epithelial cells do not produce digestive enzymes, but contain huge numbers of bacteria which have the enzymes to digest and utilize many substrates. The seeds of beans (Otili, Feregede, Pakala and Oloyin) analyzed in this present study contain indigestible fraction called dietary fiber which helps to maintain functioning of the digestive system. Fermentation of indigestible fraction (IF) of these beans was mimicked through in-vitro method which leads to biochemical changes in the samples. During this experiment, increase in acidity and turbidity was observed. The glucose concentration decreases with some exceptions, such as Pakala fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus which had the value of 6.260 mmol/L at 6 hr and increased to 6.616 mmol/L after 18 hours fermentation, Otili fermented by various microorganisms which had its turbidity increased by 50%. Lactobacillus acidophilus fermenting Pakala had the highest glucose concentration during the fermentation period. The increase in turbidity could be as a result of increase in microbial flora or production of metabolites, such as glucose. The approach followed here may be used as a predictive model to assess the metabolic implications of food substrates present in the traditional Nigerian orphan beans.
Interaction of Glucose/Sucrose Binding Lectin Isolated from Nigeria Wild Bean with E. coli and S. aureus  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, J. O. Awe, O. A. Omosebi, O. Osukoya, F. C. Oladele, B. A. Olofinbiyi, M. F. Asaolu
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.812080
Lectin purified from wild underutilized local bean—Otili, Feregede, Pakalai was comparatively characterized and further evaluated for interaction with gastrointestinal bacteria—Esherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The purified lectin in all the bean samples showed to be glucose and sucrose binding. The hemagglutinating activity, was non selective to type of blood group (A, B, AB and O). Anti-bacteria interaction with Escherichia coli showed clear zone of inhibition of about 1.5 ± 0.5 mm with lectin from Feregede and Otili while there was slight agglutination with lectin from Pakala. Staphylococcus aureus sensitivity to the lectin extracted from Otili with clear zone of inhibition of 2.0 ± 0.5 mm was also found in the control chloramphenicol. However there was pronounced agglutination with lectin from Feregede and Pakala with Staphylococcus auereus. This may be a clear indication that lectin from local underutilized wild bean understudy will agglutinate and interact with a gram positive bacteria more than gram negative bacteria.
Comparison of Phytochemicals and Anti-Nutritional Factors in Some Selected Wild and Edible Bean in Nigeria  [PDF]
Awoyinka O. A., Ileola A. O., Imeoria C. N., Tijani T. D., Oladele F. C., Asaolu M. F.
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.72012
Abstract: This work aims at analyzing the bioactive and anti-nutritional compounds of edible and wild beans when unprocessed and malted. Qualitative screening of phytochemicals in the various bean samples was determined in ethanol and petroleum ether solvents. Results of the anti-nutritional compositions of unprocessed wild bean extracted with petroleum ether showed there were no traces of saponin and polyphenol, in Feregede and also in edible bean-IT07K-243-1-10 which also had no traces of saponin and tannin. After malting, saponin was totally absent in Pakala, Mucuna, IT97k-499-35, IT07k-243-1-10, and IT04k-333-2 respectively. Polyphenol was also found to be absent in IT07k-243-1-10. Mucuna has the highest phytic acid level (7.8867 ± 0.011) while Feregede has the lowest phytic acid level (2.9810 ± 0.004). Otili has the highest anti-trypsin level (12.001 ± 0.0013). This study showed varying levels of anti-nutrients on the respective bean samples when unprocessed but decreased marginally after malting. It was keenly noted that values derived, either before and after malting were not significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from each other. In all, this study had further shown that malting process enhanced removal of anti-nutrients which invariably would lead to availability of nutrient for animal and human consumption.
Comparative Effects of Selected Underutilized Wild Beans on Plasma Lipid Profile and Liver Function of Rats Fed with High Fats Diet  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, T. R. Omodara, F. C. Oladele, D. D. Ajayi, H. A. Babalola, B. A. Olofinbiyi, G. S. Adeleye, E. O. Odesanmi
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.104034
Abstract: Dietary fiber content of beans is known to be responsible in the management of metabolic syndrome by delaying the degree of glucose as fuels, changing fat utilization, and controlling appetite through increased satiety, thus lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hence some selected varieties of underutilized wild beans were evaluated to study their anti-lipidemic effects. Prior to this, attempts were made to ferment the non-digestible fractions of the beans with fermentable micro-organism and the respective gut metabolites were determined. Lipid profile result carried out in the blood showed high density lipoprotein to be significantly (p ≤ 0.05) high in Pakala group with a value of 2.2 ± 0.02 compared to other groups. While for low density lipoprotein (LDL); rats with Otili in their diet had the highest LDL with a value of 0.45 ± 0.01. However, the group of rats fed with Feregede had the least cholesterol level compared to other groups of rats fed with respective wild beans and the negative control group. Otili had the highest ALP with value of 89 ± 1.0. Otili group also had a significant lower value of both aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase. The biochemical indices reported in this study vary from one type of wild bean to another.
Comparative Study of the Haemagglutination Capabilities of Lectin Extracted from Submerged Cultures of Wild and Mutant Strains of Schizophyllum commune  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, D. A. Aina, J. K. Oloke, O. N. Majolagbe, O. I. Akoni
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100993
Abstract: Haemagglutination studies on lectin from both wild (SCW) and mutant strains (SCM1, SCM2, SCM3) of Schizophyllum commune using human blood were explored in this study after six days of submerged fermentation. Haemagglutination assay showed that the lectin from all the strains showed slight discrimination in their haemmaglutinating activity against human blood group with strong exhibition of agglutination with blood group O while SCM3 and SCW showed the highest and lowest haemaglutinating activity respectively with a titre score from 4 - 256 HA. Absolute loss of haemagglutination activity was shown by all the four S. commune strains tested following exposure to CuSO4 and NH4SO4 at 800 mM but optimized by KCl, MgCl2 at 100 mM. Optimal pH for maximal haemagglutination activity was observed at 7.0 for SCW, 6.0 for SCM1 and 8.0 for SCM2 while SCM3 distinctly showed 5.5 and 8.5. Except for SCM3 the thermo stability of haemagglutinating activity was found to improve with the duration of UV irradiation. Inhibitory study in the presence of sugar showed that the partially purified protein from all the strains of S. commune in this study was mannose dependent lectin.
Effects of Livelihood Strategies and Sustainable Land Management Practices on Food Crop Production Efficiency in South-West Nigeria
Y.A. Awoyinka,J.A. Akinwumi,V.O. Okoruwa,O.A. Oni
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Efficiency in food crop production is a topical issue in food security programme of Nigerian government. However, past policies directed for increased food crop production efficiency have not been effective because of neglect of Livelihood Strategy (LS) and attributes of Land Management Practices (LMP) used by farmers in food crop production policy analysis. The effect of LS and LMP on crop production efficiency was investigated. Multistage random sampling was used to collect primary data from 400 farmers in South West Nigeria. Data collected were analyzed with Translog stochastic model. The four LS identified were staple crops/off-farm income (LS1 = 30.0%); staple crops/wages and salary (LS2 = 22.5%); LS1/vegetable/ fruits/livestock production (LS3 = 27.5%); LS3/Tree Crops (LS4 = 20.0%). Farmers adopted multiple LMPs for crop production. Agronomic Practices (AP = 80.0%) was preferred to others including Soil Management Practices (SMP = 65.0%), Conservation Practices (CP = 60.0%), Structural and Mechanical Erosion Control Practices (SMECP = 34.0%). The mean Technical Efficiency (TE) was 0.52 for the farmers and TE increased with LS3 (p<0.01) and LS4 (p<0.1). The level of LMP used by farmers, joint effects of LMP and physical inputs (except for fertilizer) and LMP and LS (except for LS4) was unsustainable with respect to crop output and TE (p<0.05). The most beneficial LS that ensured sustainable LMP for food crop production efficiency among farming households is LS4. The LS4 significantly improved TE in South-West Nigeria.
Comparative Studies on Mineral and Scavenging Ability of Edible and Some Underexploited Wild Beans in Nigeria  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, A. Ileola, C. N. Imeoria, M. F. Asaolu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102318
Abstract: This work was set out to assay for some minerals essential for healthy state and biochemical indices that underlined degenerative diseases in some edible bean cultivar and nearly extinct local wild bean. Against this backdrop, ash composition was determined before Na , K , Ca2 , Mg2 , Zn2 , Fe2 , Pb2 and Cd were determined by Flame Photometer and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) respectively. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Vitamin E and Vitamin C were also assayed to determine the scavenging ability of the bean samples. The proximate ash composition result of unprocessed and malted edible bean IT99K-573-2-1 had the highest ash content value of 6.90 ± 0.01 and 6.92 ± 0.01 respectively. In the bean samples Pb2 and Cd2 were not detected. The empirical mineral composition varies across both the wild and edible bean without significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) except IT07K-243-1-10 that had Ca2 to be significantly higher than other bean samples. K was found to be significantly higher in Feregede and IT07K-243-1-10 compared to other bean samples. Changes in the radical scavenging ability of the various sample in this study after malting, showed a slight reduction in DPPH content except for the edible beans—IT04K-333-2 and IT845-2246-4. Well, there was slight reduction of Vitamin E only in Otili, Mucuna and IT99K-573-1-1. Compared to others only Otili and IT845-2246-4 had slight reduction in Vitamin C after malting.
Functional Properties and Nutritional Quality of Some Wild and Edible Bean in Nigeria  [PDF]
O. A. Awoyinka, A. O. Ileola, C. N. Imeoria, S. T. Olumakinde, F. C. Oladele, M. F. Asaolu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1102411
Abstract: In this study on bean, four wild types were compared with the edible for their functional and nutritional characteristics in unprocessed and malted form. Results obtained in functional properties showed that bulk density was higher in wild types compared to edibles types. Feregede has the least dispersibility compared to all the bean samples. The swelling power of all the wild and edible types was almost the same with the edible bean IT845-2246-4 having the highest value of 26.15 ± 0.02. Pakala had the broadest foaming stability even up to the region of alkaline pH. In proximate compositions, the entire edible bean had more carbohydrate and crude fibre content than the wild types but after malting, there was no significant difference (P < 0.05) in the crude fibre content between the edible and the wild type beans. After malting, it was observed that Pakala and edible bean IT99K-573-1-1 had more moisture content with the values 9.2 ± 0.14 and 9 ± 0.15 respectively. There was no significant difference in the protein content across both the wild and edible bean and ranged between 28.45 ± 0.012 and 30.70 ± 0.014 while these values were slightly reduced after malting. This study reveals that Mucuna and other types of underutilized wild beans— Otili, Feregede, and Pakala are important food sources that can be exploited to mitigate shortage in animal protein and under nutrition facing families in many developing countries particularly in Nigeria.
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