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Effect of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia (Family: Rubiaceae) on the isolated uterus of non-pregnant rats
Nworgu Z.A.M.,Owolabi O,Atomah J
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The plant Nauclea latifolia has been reported to be used by traditional healers to arrest pre-term labour. The ethanolic extract of the root of N. latifolia was screened for activity via agonist-induced contractions of uterine smooth muscles in non-pregnant female albino rats. The extract, at 0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml (final bath concentration), was tested against oxytocin (4×10 -5 to 8×10 -2 I.U/ml: final bath concentration), acetylcholine (0.04 to 40 μg/ml: final bath concentration) and ergometrine (0.05 to 100 μg/ml: final bath concentration) induced contractions invitro. The effect of the extract was compared to that of (0.004 μg/ml: final bath concentration) salbutamol and (0.004 μg/ml: final bath concentration) atropine. Both concentrations of the extract significantly shifted the concentration response curves of oxytocin ( P < 0.01), acetylcholine ( P < 0.0001) and ergometrine ( P < 0.0001) to the right with a slight depression of the Emax. This shift was more with the 0.2 mg/ml concentration, thus suggesting the possibility of a dose dependent action. There was no statistical significant decrease in Emax by 0.1 mg/ml of the extract, while the 0.2 mg/ml produced a significant depression ( P < 0.05) of the Emax, which like salbutamol could not be overwhelmed by higher concentrations of oxytocin. Similarly a significant reduction of the Emax of acetylcholine induced contractions was produced by 0.2 mg/ml, while both concentrations (0.1 and 0.2 mg/ml) produced significant ( P < 0.0001) reduction in Emax of ergometrine. It can thus be concluded that N latifolia root extract reduces oxytocin, acetylcholine and ergometrine-induced uterine contractions. These inhibitions were non-competitive. The result indicates an anti-abortifacient property.
Life Table and Population Parameter of Sogatella furcifera (Horvath) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) on Rice
S.S. Win,R. Muhamad,Z.A.M. Ahmad,N.A. Adam
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Survivorship and fertility of the White Backed Plant Hopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera were assessed under laboratory conditions in Myanmar. A pair of five days old WBPH was released into a wooden cage covered with wire mesh sieve. Thirty days old rice plant in a pot was placed on the floor of the wooden cage. The single sex method was applied in the life table study. Life tables and population parameters were constructed based on unlimited food supply and a natural enemies-free environment. Results showed that the highest mortality occurred in the immature stages, especially in the first and second instars. The life table analysis showed that population densities of S. furcifera decreased gradually. The proportion of male to female observed was 1:0.88. The females could live for a maximum of 12 days. The trend of oviposition showed a peak at about the 10th day of the female life span. The mean number of eggs produced per female was 8.75. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.06999 per female per day and daily finite of increase (λ) was 1.0255 per female per day, with a mean generation time (T) of 34.97 days. The net reproductive rate (Ro) of the population was 9.2732. The population Doubling Time (DT) was within 10.88 days. It could be concluded that the survivorship curve reflected a modest rate of mortality during the early life stages and a gradual reduction when approaching adulthood. All the surviving nymphs underwent four moults. The life table showed that about 37.26% of S. furcifera eggs successfully emerged as adults and high mortality occurred during the early immature stages. This type of survivorship is commonly classified as type II.
Optimization of Biomass Usage for Electricity Generation with Carbon Dioxide Reduction in Malaysia
Z.A. Muis,H. Hashim,Z.A. Manan,F.M. Taha
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Electricity and energy sector are identified as the major carbon dioxide emitter. Coal, natural gas, diesel, oil and hydro are the sources to generate electricity in Malaysia. In the 9th Malaysia Plan, government of Malaysia encourage power producer shift from heavy reliance on natural gas and enhance use of biomass. Agriculture residue; palm oil residue, rice processing residue and wood processing residue were considered as fuel sources to generate electricity in this study. An MILP model has been developed to optimize fuel mix and meet CO2 emission target. The model was developed and implemented in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) for the fleet of electricity generation in Peninsular Malaysia only. In order to reduce the CO2 emissions by 35% from current CO2 emission level, the optimizer has specified to switch from coal to natural gas and biomass from palm oil residues as a fuel. Therefore, agriculture residue is a promising fuel sources for electricity generation at the same time reduce CO2 emissions.
Tanja: A framework to Conserve Energy in WSN
Z.A. SADOUQ,,M. SERAOUI,,M. Essaaidi
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Nowadays, Wireless Sensor Networks raise a growing interest among industries and civil organizations where monitoring and recognition of physical phenomena are a priority. Their possible applications are extremely versatile. WSN represent a significant technology that attracts more and more considerable research attention in recent years. It has emerged as a result of recent advances in low-power digital and analog circuitry, low-power RF design and sensor technology. In this paper we propose a new framework for modeling Wireless Sensor Networks that supports WSN to handle real-time network management by using a hierarchical framework based on general features identified through a careful analysis of existing sensor networks. Our framework is based on the GSM model. In fact, it’s an energy optimization approach based on cross-layer for wireless sensor networks, joining optimal design of the physical, medium access control, and routing layer. It can be considered as a special kind of clustering architecture that extends the network life by efficiently using every node’s energy and distributes management tasks to support the scalability of the management system in densely deployed sensor networks. However, it is more systematic, more robust and more scalable. In our solution we propose dynamic construction of clustering. The network is partitioned into clusters or cells. A cluster is composed with nodes, where every node can play one of three roles: source or sensing role as a slave, router, or a master as a cluster head and a gateway to the external world. We address the energy-consumption efficiency as a major design challenge in succeeding the vision of self-organized WSN. This approach focuses on the computation of optimal transmission power, routing, and duty-cycle schedule that optimize the WSNs energy-efficiency and by the way, reduces node energy consumption and contributes to extending the lifetime of the entire network.
Comparative Study on Cultivation and Yield Performance of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on Different Substrates (Wheat Straw, Leaves, Saw Dust)
Z.A. Shah,M. Ashraf,M. Ishtiaq Ch.
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2004,
Abstract: The research experiment was carried out to investigate the cultivation of Oyster mushroom on different substrates. Mushroom cultivation is a profitable agribusiness. Incorporation of non conventional crops in existing agricultural system can improve the economic status of the farmer. Mushrooms are the source of protein, vitamins and minerals and are anticancerous, anticholesteral, and antitumorous. Sawdust produced highest yield, biological efficiency and number of fruiting bodies, recommended as a best substrate for Oyster mushroom cultivation.
Characterization of Sawdust Residues for Cyclone Gasifier
A. Miskam,Z.A. Zainal,I.M. Yusof
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This study presents, the characterization of sawdust residues from Malaysian furniture industries for cyclone gasifier. The characterization of sawdust has been studied and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as a biomass fuel for cyclone gasifier. The raw sawdust was produced by cutter, sawing, sieve and sanding. The types of species of wood sawn timber used by the factory were Meranti (dark red, light red and red). The raw sawdust was pre-treated throughout a grinding process into smaller sizes of particles and sieve with three different mesh sizes (3.5, 1.2 and 0.6 mm). The sample of ground sawdust was analyzed for its biomass fuel characteristics. The results of proximate analysis shows that the ground sawdust with moisture content of 8.25% (wet basis) contains 14.04% of fixed carbon, 76.23% of volatile matter and 1.49% of ash on dry basis. The High Heating Value (HHV) of sawdust was found to be about 18.23 MJ kg-1 while the Low Heating Value (LHV) was about 16.54 MJ kg-1. The result of ultimate analysis validates both ash and moisture content which are found to be 1.49 and 8.25%, respectively. Other elemental compositions determined by the ultimate analysis are carbon (42.38%), hydrogen (5.27%), nitrogen (0.14%) and oxygen (42.41%). There is no sulphur detected in the sawdust. The study has identified that the sawdust from local furniture industries is comparable with other types of biomass and therefore, making it very potential as a source of fuel for the cyclone gasification system.
A Preliminary Investigation of Compressed Producer Gas from Downdraft Biomass Gasifier
S. Hassan,Z.A. Zainal,M.A. Miskam
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The developmental work on compressing of producer gas from downdraft gasifier using a single stage normal air compressor has been studied and evaluated. Producer gas, which generated from the downdraft gasification process is basically a combustible gas which can be used for heating purposes and as an alternative fuel to generate power in an Internal Combustion (IC) engine. In the current practice, the producer is used directly from downdraft gasifier mixed with air through a carburetor, mixer or simple T-joint before entering the cylinder of an IC engine. The producer gas has to be consistently generated and supplied to the engine and any shortcomings or unstable gas from the gasifier will affect the quantity and quality of the gas required. In this study, air compressor was used to induce the producer gas from the gasifier at 670 L min-1, compressed it to 7.6 bar gauge pressure and discharged it to a specified flow rate. The discharged flow rate of the producer gas was regulated at 130, 150 and 170 L min-1 consistently at an output pressure of 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 bar, respectively. It was found that the blue flame producer gas was able to flare continuously through two outlets of producer gas ports after the gasifier and one outlet of producer gas port after the air compressor. The discharged flow rate of producer gas was constant over the entire range set of pressures. Since, the output pressure was regulated higher than the atmospheric, the density of the producer gas proportionally increased with the increase in pressure and the gas flow rate supplied can be controlled to the desired consumption particularly in the IC engines.
Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Tinospora crispa in Various Animal Models
M.R. Sulaiman,Z.A. Zakaria,R. Lihan
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was carried out to determine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of Tinospora crispa stem. The antinociceptive activity was measured using the writhing and hot plate tests, while, the anti-inflammatory was measured using the carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The air-dried stems of L. japonica were soaked in ethanol (1:5; w/v) at the temperature of 48 C for 48 h. The supernatant collected was evaporated under reduced pressure and kept at -80 C until used. Prior to each experiment, the extract was dissolved in distilled water (dH2O) to prepare the doses of 30, 100 and 300 mg kg 1. The extract administered intraperitoneally exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose-dependent manner in all assays used.
Alterations in Nitrogen Metabolites after Putrescine Treatment in Alfalfa under Drought Stress
I.M. Zeid,Z.A. Shedeed
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Alfalfa (Medicago sativa, Siwa 1) seeds were subjected to drought stress during germination by using polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000) for studying the changes in some enzyme activities involved in nitrogen metabolism and the content of nitrogenous compounds during the first four days of growth after putrescine (Put) treatment. Decreasing the external water potential reduced activities of glutamate-pyruvate transferase (GPT), glutamate-oxaloacetate transferase (GOT) and RNase. Some free amino acids such as proline and glycine increased, while alanine and aspartic acid decreased. Nucleic acids content also decreased. Polyamines e.g., spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) increased at the water potential -0.4 MPa. Put treatment increased activities of GOT, GPT and RNase. Furthermore, Put treatment increased nucleic acids content and the endogenous polyamines under drought stress. Drought stress was imposed during seedling stage by decreasing soil moisture content. GOT, GPT and RNase activities increased in leaves of alfalfa seedlings under drought stress. Soluble nitrogenous compounds accumulated under drought stress, while nucleic acids content decreased. Except glutamic acid, all free amino acids detected increased under drought stress. Put treatment decreased activities of GOT, GPT and RNase, as well as reduced the accumulation of the total soluble nitrogenous compounds, but increased DNA, RNA and protein contents.
Effect of Sesbania Rostrata (DHAINCHA) Green Manure on the Yield of Rice
M.B. Abro,Z.A. Abbasi
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design with six replication on rice variety DR-82 at Agriculture Research Institute Dokri. It is clear that best result of paddy grain yield 11.05 kg/plot, 5525 kg/ha depicted T2 (Transplanting with green manuring with fertilizer rate 90-60-0 kg/ha). Where as lowest yield was obtained in T4 (Transplanting without fertilizer and green manuring).
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