Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Any time

2018 ( 4 )

2017 ( 1 )

2016 ( 4 )

2015 ( 56 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1041 matches for " Nuno Palha "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /1041
Display every page Item
Interleukin-10: A Key Cytokine in Depression?
Susana Roque,Margarida Correia-Neves,Ana Raquel Mesquita,Joana Almeida Palha,Nuno Sousa
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/187894
Abstract: An increasing body of evidence implicates proinflammatory cytokines in psychiatric disorders, namely, in depression. Of notice, recent studies showed that anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, also modulate depressive-like behavior. In this article, we propose that the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is a putative link between two of the most widely reported phenomenon observed in depressed patients: the disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the imbalanced production of cytokines. If so, IL-10 might represent a novel target for antidepressant therapy.
The Use of Bayesian Latent Class Cluster Models to Classify Patterns of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Ageing
Patrício Soares Costa, Nadine Correia Santos, Pedro Cunha, Joana Almeida Palha, Nuno Sousa
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071940
Abstract: The main focus of this study is to illustrate the applicability of latent class analysis in the assessment of cognitive performance profiles during ageing. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to detect main cognitive dimensions (based on the neurocognitive test variables) and Bayesian latent class analysis (LCA) models (without constraints) were used to explore patterns of cognitive performance among community-dwelling older individuals. Gender, age and number of school years were explored as variables. Three cognitive dimensions were identified: general cognition (MMSE), memory (MEM) and executive (EXEC) function. Based on these, three latent classes of cognitive performance profiles (LC1 to LC3) were identified among the older adults. These classes corresponded to stronger to weaker performance patterns (LC1>LC2>LC3) across all dimensions; each latent class denoted the same hierarchy in the proportion of males, age and number of school years. Bayesian LCA provided a powerful tool to explore cognitive typologies among healthy cognitive agers.
Interplay between Depressive-Like Behavior and the Immune System in an Animal Model of Prenatal Dexamethasone Administration
Susana Roque,Claudia Nobrega,Palmira Barreira-Silva,Nuno Sousa,Joana Almeida Palha
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00004
Abstract: Glucocorticoids, namely dexamethasone, are prescribed during late gestation in pregnancies at risk of originating premature newborns, to promote fetal lung maturation. However, adverse early life events have been reported to induce long-lasting changes in the immune and central nervous systems. The accumulating evidence on bidirectional interactions between both systems in psychiatric disorders like depression, prompted us to further investigate the long-term impact of prenatal dexamethasone administration in depressive-like behavior, the immune system and in the ability to mount an immune response to acute infection. The adult male offspring of pregnant dams treated with dexamethasone present depressive-like behavior concomitant with a decrease in CD8+ T lymphocytes and an increase in B and CD4+ regulatory T cells. This is accompanied by lower levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10. Despite of these differences, when spleen cells are stimulated, in vitro, with lipopolysaccharide, those from adult rats prenatally treated with dexamethasone display a stronger pro-inflammatory cytokine response. However, this immune system profile does not hamper the ability of rats prenatally treated with dexamethasone to respond to acute infection by Listeria monocytogenes. Of notice, L. monocytogenes infection triggers depressive-like behavior in control animals but does not worsen that already present in dexamethasone-treated animals. In summary, prenatal administration of dexamethasone has long-lasting effects on the immune system and on behavior, which are not further aggravated by acute infection with L. monocytogenes.
Telephone-based screening tools for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging studies: a review of validated instruments
Teresa C. Castanho,Joana A. Palha,Nuno Sousa,Nadine C. Santos
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00016
Abstract: The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments can be an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment.
Topographical Analysis of the Subependymal Zone Neurogenic Niche
Ana Mendanha Falc?o, Joana Almeida Palha, Ana Catarina Ferreira, Fernanda Marques, Nuno Sousa, Jo?o Carlos Sousa
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038647
Abstract: The emerging model for the adult subependymal zone (SEZ) cell population indicates that neuronal diversity is not generated from a uniform pool of stem cells but rather from diverse and spatially confined stem cell populations. Hence, when analysing SEZ proliferation, the topography along the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes must be taken into account. However, to date, no studies have assessed SEZ proliferation according to topographical specificities and, additionally, SEZ studies in animal models of neurological/psychiatric disorders often fail to clearly specify the SEZ coordinates. This may render difficult the comparison between studies and yield contradictory results. More so, by focusing in a single spatial dimension of the SEZ, relevant findings might pass unnoticed. In this study we characterized the neural stem cell/progenitor population and its proliferation rates throughout the rat SEZ anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes. We found that SEZ proliferation decreases along the anterior-posterior axis and that proliferative rates vary considerably according to the position in the dorsal-ventral axis. These were associated with relevant gradients in the neuroblasts and in the neural stem cell populations throughout the dorsal-ventral axis. In addition, we observed spatially dependent differences in BrdU/Ki67 ratios that suggest a high variability in the proliferation rate and cell cycle length throughout the SEZ; in accordance, estimation of the cell cycle length of the neuroblasts revealed shorter cell cycles at the dorsolateral SEZ. These findings highlight the need to establish standardized procedures of SEZ analysis. Herein we propose an anatomical division of the SEZ that should be considered in future studies addressing proliferation in this neural stem cell niche.
The choroid plexus response to a repeated peripheral inflammatory stimulus
Fernanda Marques, Jo?o C Sousa, Giovanni Coppola, Daniel H Geschwind, Nuno Sousa, Joana A Palha, Margarida Correia-Neves
BMC Neuroscience , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-10-135
Abstract: In the present study we investigated the mouse choroid plexus gene expression profile, using microarray analyses, in response to a repeated inflammatory stimulus induced by the intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide every two weeks for a period of three months; mice were sacrificed 3 and 15 days after the last lipopolysaccharide injection. The data show that the choroid plexus displays a sustained response to the repeated inflammatory stimuli by altering the expression profile of several genes. From a total of 24,000 probes, 369 are up-regulated and 167 are down-regulated 3 days after the last lipopolysaccharide injection, while at 15 days the number decreases to 98 and 128, respectively. The pathways displaying the most significant changes include those facilitating entry of cells into the cerebrospinal fluid, and those participating in the innate immune response to infection.These observations contribute to a better understanding of the brain response to peripheral inflammation and pave the way to study their impact on the progression of several disorders of the central nervous system in which inflammation is known to be implicated.Inflammation is implicated in the appearance and in the progression of central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's diseases (AD), although the mechanism underlying such involvement is poorly understood [1-4]. It is recognized that the inflammation observed in the CNS of subjects with some of these diseases may originate in the periphery [5-7], particularly when the inflammatory stimulus is persistent. Persistence may be due to chronic inflammation or to repeated exposure to acute inflammatory stimulus for long periods of time. Of relevance, persistent or chronic inflammatory signals result in excessive microglia activation and cause localized or disseminated tissue dysfunction and damage [8], ultimately resulting in accentuation of brain pathology.The blood-brain barriers, constitu
The path from the choroid plexus to the subventricular zone: go with the flow!
Ana Mendanha Falc?o,Fernanda Marques,Ashley Novais,Nuno Sousa,Joana A. Palha,Jo?o Carlos Sousa
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2012.00034
Abstract: In adult mammals, under physiological conditions, neurogenesis, the process of generating new functional neurons from precursor cells, occurs mainly in two brain areas: the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the brain lateral ventricles. Taking into account the location of the SVZ and the cytoarchitecture of this periventricular neural progenitor cell niche, namely the fact that the slow dividing primary progenitor cells (type B cells) of the SVZ extend an apical primary cilium toward the brain ventricular space which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), it becomes likely that the composition of the CSF can modulate both self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation of SVZ neural stem cells. The major site of CSF synthesis is the choroid plexus (CP); quite surprisingly, however, it is still largely unknown the contribution of molecules specifically secreted by the adult CP as modulators of the SVZ adult neurogenesis. This is even more relevant in light of recent evidence showing the ability of the CP to adapt its transcriptome and secretome to various physiologic and pathologic stimuli. By giving particular emphasizes to growth factors and axonal guidance molecules we will illustrate how CP-born molecules might play an important role in the SVZ niche cell population dynamics.
Clinical, physical and lifestyle variables and relationship with cognition and mood in aging: a cross-sectional analysis of distinct educational groups
Nadine C. Santos,Patrício S. Costa,Carlos Portugal-Nunes,Jo?o J. Cerqueira,Joana A. Palha,Nuno Sousa
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00021
Abstract: It is relevant to unravel the factors that may mediate the cognitive decline observed during aging. Previous reports indicate that education has a positive influence on cognitive performance, while age, female gender and, especially, depressed mood were associated with poorer performances across multiple cognitive dimensions (memory and general executive function). Herein, the present study aimed to characterize the cognitive performance of community-dwelling individuals within distinct educational groups categorized by the number of completed formal school years: “less than 4,” “4, completed primary education,” and “more than 4.” Participants (n = 1051) were randomly selected from local health registries and representative of the Portuguese population for age and gender. Neurocognitive and clinical assessments were conducted in local health care centers. Structural equation modeling was used to derive a cognitive score, and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted for each educational group. Education, age and depressed mood were significant variables in directly explaining the obtained cognitive score, while gender was found to be an indirect variable. In all educational groups, mood was the most significant factor with effect on cognitive performance. Specifically, a depressed mood led to lower cognitive performance. The clinical disease indices cardiac and stroke associated with a more negative mood, while moderate increases in BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity associated positively with improved mood and thus benefitted cognitive performance. Results warrant further research on the cause-effect (longitudinal) relationship between clinical indices of disease and risk factors and mood and cognition throughout aging.
Patterns of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Ageing in Northern Portugal: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
Ana Cristina Paulo, Adriana Sampaio, Nadine Correia Santos, Patrício Soares Costa, Pedro Cunha, Joseph Zihl, Jo?o Cerqueira, Joana Almeida Palha, Nuno Sousa
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024553
Abstract: Background The Minho Integrative Neuroscience Database (MIND)-Ageing project aims to identify predictors of healthy cognitive ageing, including socio-demographic factors. In this exploratory analysis we sought to establish baseline cohorts for longitudinal assessment of age-related changes in cognition. Methods The population sample (472 individuals) was strictly a convenient one, but similar to the Portuguese population in the age profile. Participants older than 55 years of age were included if they did not present defined disabling pathologies or dementia. A standardized clinical interview was conducted to assess medical history and a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to characterize global cognition (Mini Mental State Examination), memory and executive functions (Selective Reminding Test; Stroop Color and Word Test; and Block Design subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale). Cross-sectional analysis of the neuropsychological performance with individual characteristics such as age, gender, educational level and setting (retirement home, senior university, day care center or community), allowed the establishment of baseline clusters for subsequent longitudinal studies. Results Based on different socio-demographic characteristics, four main clusters that group distinctive patterns of cognitive performance were identified. The type of institution where the elders were sampled from, together with the level of formal education, were the major hierarchal factors for individual distribution in the four clusters. Of notice, education seems to delay the cognitive decline that is associated with age in all clusters. Conclusions Social-inclusion/engagement and education seem to have a protective effect on mental ageing, although this effect may not be effective in the eldest elders.
Whole-Body Analysis of a Viral Infection: Vascular Endothelium is a Primary Target of Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus in Zebrafish Larvae
Marion Ludwig equal contributor,Nuno Palha equal contributor,Corinne Torhy,Valérie Briolat,Emma Colucci-Guyon,Michel Brémont,Philippe Herbomel,Pierre Boudinot,Jean-Pierre Levraud
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001269
Abstract: The progression of viral infections is notoriously difficult to follow in whole organisms. The small, transparent zebrafish larva constitutes a valuable system to study how pathogens spread. We describe here the course of infection of zebrafish early larvae with a heat-adapted variant of the Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV), a rhabdovirus that represents an important threat to the salmonid culture industry. When incubated at 24°C, a permissive temperature for virus replication, larvae infected by intravenous injection died within three to four days. Macroscopic signs of infection followed a highly predictable course, with a slowdown then arrest of blood flow despite continuing heartbeat, followed by a loss of reactivity to touch and ultimately by death. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization, patterns of infection were imaged in whole larvae. The first infected cells were detectable as early as 6 hours post infection, and a steady increase in infected cell number and staining intensity occurred with time. Venous endothelium appeared as a primary target of infection, as could be confirmed in fli1:GFP transgenic larvae by live imaging and immunohistochemistry. Disruption of the first vessels took place before arrest of blood circulation, and hemorrhages could be observed in various places. Our data suggest that infection spread from the damaged vessels to underlying tissue. By shifting infected fish to a temperature of 28°C that is non-permissive for viral propagation, it was possible to establish when virus-generated damage became irreversible. This stage was reached many hours before any detectable induction of the host response. Zebrafish larvae infected with IHNV constitute a vertebrate model of an hemorrhagic viral disease. This tractable system will allow the in vivo dissection of host-virus interactions at the whole organism scale, a feature unrivalled by other vertebrate models.
Page 1 /1041
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.