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Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L. leaves
Umamaheswari A,Nuni A,Shreevidya R
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of various solvent extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Family: Nyctaginaceae) leaves. The antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of B. diffusa L. leaves were tested against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains by observing the zone of inhibition. The Gram-positive bacteria used in the test were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis and Micrococcus luteus, and the Gram-negative bacteria were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. It was observed that ethanol, methanol, chloroform, ethylacetate and aqueous extracts showed activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The ethanol extract of B. diffusa L. leaves showed more activity against Gram-positive (e.g. S. aureus, zone of diameter 11 mm) and Gram-negative bacteria (e.g. E. coli, zone of diameter 9 mm) when compared to other solvent extracts except V. cholerae. The results confirmed the presence of antibacterial activity of B. diffusa L. leaves extract against various human pathogenic bacteria.
Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Decomposing Fungi Isolated from Mangrove Rhizosphere
Nuni Gofar
Jurnal Tanah Tropika , 2011,
Abstract: The research was done to obtain the isolates of soil borne fungi isolated from mangrove rhizosphere which were capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. The soil samples were collected from South Sumatra mangrove forest which was contaminated by petroleum. The isolates obtained were selected based on their ability to survive, to grow and to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in medium containing petroleum residue. There were 3 isolates of soil borne hydrocarbonoclastic fungi which were able to degrade petroleum in vitro. The 3 isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigates, A. parasiticus, and Chrysonilia sitophila. C. sitophila was the best isolate to decrease total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from medium containing 5-20% petroleum residue.
PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF CuO/TS-1 ON BENZENE HYDROXYLATION REACTION
Nuni Widiarti
Makara Seri Sains , 2011,
Abstract: CuO/TS-1 catalysts have been prepared and tested in the benzene hydroxylation. TS-1 was synthesized by hydrothermalmethod, while CuO/TS-1 was prepared by impregnation method using Cu(NO)2.3H2O as precursor. Catalysts werecharacterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques.The catalytic activity was tested in the hydroxylation reaction of benzene. The products were analyzed using gaschromatography. Catalyst characterization by XRD and IR techniques have showed that the catalyst structure was aMFI type of zeolite. XRD pattern have showed the orthorombic structure and indicated the presence of CuOaggregation. The results of the pyridine adsorption have found that the acidity of TS-1 and CuO/TS-1 were a Lewis acidand it’s increased with an increasing amount of CuO loading. The results of nitrogen adsorption analysis have showeddecreasing of surface areas of catalyst with increasing amount of CuO loading. The optimum conditions of benzenehydroxylation was observed by 1%CuO/TS-1 catalyst at 70 °C, reaction time 2 h and acetic acid as the solvent yielded27.6% of phenol with phenol selectivity was 75.5%.
Increasing of Rice Yield by Using Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacteria from Swamp Land
Siti Nurul Aidil Fitri,Nuni Gofar
Jurnal Tanah Tropika , 2010,
Abstract: Swamp land has can be used as a paddy field that will be potential as a rice source However, this land has some limiting factors such as low fertility. On the other hand, continous used of inorganic fertilizer to improve soil fertility will also have some disadvantages. Therefore, an alternative method as fertilizers complement is needed. Biofertilizer is potential to be developed. Previous research had succeeded to explore and selected some bacteria from rice tissues grown on swamp land. That research had found two bacteria Consortium were named as Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterial Consortium (GPEBC). The aims of this research were (1) to evaluate the effect of a GPEBC population density and a level of N fertilizer on plant N absorption, and rice yield in the swamp soil, and (2) to find out the optimal population density of GPEBC and optimal dosage of N fertilizer on plant N absorption and rice yields in the swamp soil. The research used a factorial completely randomized design with 3 factors and 3 replicates. The first factor was a kind of GPEBC which consisted of Consortium A and consortium B. The second factors was population density of GPEBC which consisted of 0 CFU mL-1, 107 cfu mL-1, 109 cfu mL-1, and 1011 cfu mL-1. The third factor was N-fertilizer dosages which consisted of 50% of plant nitrogen necessity (equivalent to 57.50 kg N ha-1), 75% of plant nitrogen necessity (equivalent to 86.25 kg N ha-1), and 100 % of plant N necessity (equivalent to 115 kg N ha-1). The research showed that GPEBC of the Consortium B had a better effect on rice yiels than Consortium A. The population density of 107 cfu mL-1 of GPEBC increased the growth and the yield of rice grown on swamp soil. Treatment combination of 75% of plant N necessity, and 107 cfu mL-1 of population density produced the best production of Consortium B (GPEBC) for rice grown on swamp soil.
A Comparative Investigation of Lead Sulfate and Lead Oxide Sulfate Study of Morphology and Thermal Decomposition  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22024
Abstract: The compound lead oxide sulfate PbSO4.PbO was prepared in our laboratory. The Thermal behavior of PbSO4 was studied using techniques of Thermogravimetry under air atmosphere from 25 to 1200°C. The identity of both compounds was confirmed by XRD technique. Results obtained using both techniques support same decomposition stages for this compound. The electron microscopic investigations are made by SEM and TEM. The compound is characterized by XRD and the purity was determined by analytical Methods. Also a series of thermogravimetric analysis is made and the ideal condition is determined to convert this compound to pure lead oxide.
Metal ion-binding properties of L-glutamic acid and L-aspartic acid, a comparative investigation  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.22013
Abstract: A comparative research has been developed for acidity and stability constants of M(Glu)1, M(Asp)2 and M(Ttr)3 complexes, which have been determined by potentiometric pH titration. Depending on metal ion-binding properties, vital differences in building complex were observed. The present study indicates that in M(Ttr) com-plexes, metal ions are arranged to the carboxyl groups, but in M(Glu) and M(Asp), some metal ions are able to build chelate over amine groups. The results mentioned-above demonstrate that for some M(Glu) and M(Asp) complexes, the stability constants are also largely determined by the affinity of metal ions for amine group. This leads to a kind of selectivity of metal ions, and transfers them through building complexes accompanied with glutamate and aspartate. For heavy metal ions, this building complex helps the absorption and filtration of the blood plasma, and consequently, the excursion of heavy metal ions takes place. This is an important method in micro-dialysis. In this study the different as-pects of stabilization of metal ion complexes regarding to Irving-Williams sequence have been investigated.
Determining the Basaltic Sequence Using Seismic Reflection and Resistivity Methods  [PDF]
A. Alanezi, A. Qadrouh
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.32B004
Abstract:

This study was carried out in Harat Rahat (south of Almadinah Almonwarah) using seismic reflection and resistivity methods. The main objectives of this study are to determine the extent of the basaltic layer and to define the subsurface faults and fractures that could affect and control the groundwater movement in the study area. A 2D seismic profile was acquired and the result shows that the subsurface in the study area has a major fault. We obtained a well match when the seismic result was compared with drilled wells. As a complementary tool, the resistivity method was applied in order to detect the groundwater level. The results of the resistivity method showed that six distinct layers have been identified. The interpretation of these six layers show that the first three layers, the fourth layer, the fifth layer and the bottom of the section indicated various subsurface structures and lithologies; various basaltic layers, fractured basalt, weathered basement and fresh basaltic layers, respectively. It is obvious that the eventual success of geophysical surveys depend on the combination with other subsurface data sources in order to produce accurate maps.

Equilibria and Stability in Glycine, Tartrate and Tryptophan Complexes, Investigation on Interactions in Cu(II) Binary and Ternary Systems in Aqueous Solution  [PDF]
S. A. A. Sajadi
Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials (OJINM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojinm.2014.41001
Abstract:

The acidity and stability constants of M(Gly)1, M(Ttr)1, and M(Trp)1 M: Cu2+, Cu(Bpy2)2+, and Cu(Phen3)2+ complexes, were determined by potentiometric pH titration. It is shown that the stability of the binary Cu(L), (L: Gly, Ttr, and Trp) complex is determined by the basicity of the carboxylate group on one side and amino group on the other side. It is demonstrated that the equilibrium, Cu(Ha4)2+ + Cu(L) \"\"Cu(Har)(L) + Cu2+, is displacement due to the well known experience that mixed ligand complexes formed by a divalent 3d ion, a heteroaromatic N base and an O donor ligand possess increased stability. The stability constants of the 1:1 complexes formed between Cu2+, Cu(Bpy)2+ or Cu(Phen)2+

Adaptive Fuzzy Sliding Mode Controller for Grid Interface Ocean Wave Energy Conversion  [PDF]
Adel A. A. Elgammal
Journal of Intelligent Learning Systems and Applications (JILSA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jilsa.2014.62006
Abstract:

This paper presents a closed-loop vector control structure based on adaptive Fuzzy Logic Sliding Mode Controller (FL-SMC) for a grid-connected Wave Energy Conversion System (WECS) driven Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG). The aim of the developed control method is to automatically tune and optimize the scaling factors and the membership functions of the Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC) using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms (MOGA) and Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO). Two Pulse Width Modulated voltage source PWM converters with a carrier-based Sinusoidal PWM modulation for both Generator- and Grid-side converters have been connected back to back between the generator terminals and utility grid via common DC link. The indirect vector control scheme is implemented to maintain balance between generated power and power supplied to the grid and maintain the terminal voltage of the generator and the DC bus voltage constant for variable rotor speed and load. Simulation study has been carried out using the MATLAB/Simulink environment to verify the robustness of the power electronics converters and the effectiveness of proposed control method under steady state and transient conditions and also machine parameters mismatches. The proposed control scheme has improved the voltage regulation and the transient performance of the wave energy scheme over a wide range of operating conditions.

Geochemical Characteristics and Chemical Electron Microprobe U-Pb-Th Dating of Pitchblende Mineralization from Gabal Gattar Younger Granite, North Eastern Desert, Egypt  [PDF]
Hassan A. A. Shahin
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.41003
Abstract:

Pitchblende mineralization was studied in the younger granite samples collected from Gabal Gattar, north Eastern Desert, Egypt using electron scanning microscope (ESM) and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA). This study revealed that this pitchblende contains significant Zr content reaching up to (66.80% ZrO2), which suggests that volcanic rocks were probably the source of such a deposit. High level emplaced high-K Calc-alkaline plutons as Qattar granite may have been associated with their volcanic equivalent emplaced in the surrounding area or now eroded. Lead content of the pitchblende mineralization is high and with moderate volcanics (up to 7.71% PbO). In contrast, it is low in ThO2, Y2O3 and REE2O3. High Zr and Pb content associated with pitchblende mineralization from Gattar granite indicates

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