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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 404710 matches for " Norton M. Sang "
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Fishermen as a Suitable Population for HIV Intervention Trials
Zachary A. Kwena,Craig R. Cohen,Norton M. Sang,Musa O. Ng'ayo,Jeremiah H. Ochieng,Elizabeth A. Bukusi
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/865903
Abstract: Background. Suitable populations to sustain continued evaluation of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention interventions are required. We sought to determine whether fishermen are a suitable population for HIV intervention trials. Methods. In a cross-sectional descriptive survey, we selected 250 fishermen from proportional to size sampled boats. We collected socioeconomic and behavioral information, and specimens for HIV, herpes simplex virus (HSV-2), syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and human papillomavirus (HPV) tests from consenting participants. Results. One third of the fishermen had concurrent sexual partnerships and two thirds were involved in transactional sex. About 70% were involved in extramarital sex with only one quarter using condoms in their three most recent sexual encounters. HIV prevalence was 26% and HSV-2 and HPV was 57%. Over 98% were willing to participate in a future HIV prevention clinical trial. Conclusion. Fishermen are a high-risk group for HIV/STI infections that may be suitable for HIV prevention trials. A cohort study would be useful to measure the incidence of HIV/STIs to ultimately determine the feasibility of enrolling this population in an HIV/STI prevention clinical trial. 1. Introduction There is urgent need to continue evaluating interventions such as microbicide product(s) that have potential to prevent transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. These evaluations require suitable populations that not only have high-risk sexual behaviors and STI/HIV incidence, but would also benefit and have interest in study participation [1–4].Issues of low-retention rates in randomized clinical trials hamper trial progress even in populations that have high-risk sexual behavior and HIV prevalence which results in inadequate statistical power to measure the effect of the intervention on the primary outcome, for example, HIV incidence [3]. Sufficiently high risk sexual behaviors that result in HIV acquisition in a population of interest [4, 5] cushions against the likely changes in behavior that result from “the trial effects” of counseling and treatment. These changes in sexual behavior may interfere with generating data that has adequate statistical power to measure the benefits of an intervention [6–9]. However, finding such populations that are suitable for HIV intervention trials remains a big challenge, even as new and more promising interventions emerge [6, 10, 11]. Fishermen in Kenya, like in many other parts of the world, are usually young and highly mobile, often staying away from
Science cafés. Cross-cultural adaptation and educational applications
M. Norton,K. Nohara
JCOM : Journal of Science Communication , 2009,
Abstract: Tokyo Institute of Technology (TokyoTech) has been developing a number of methodologies to teach graduate students the theory and practice of science communication since 2005. One of the tools used is the science café, where students are taught about the background based primarily on theoretical models developed in the UK. They then apply that knowledge and adapt it the Japanese cultural context and plan, execute and review outcomes as part of their course. In this paper we review 4 years of experience in using science cafés in this educational context; we review the background to the students’ decision-making and consensus-building process towards deciding on the style and subject to be used, and the value this has in illuminating the cultural influences on the science café design and implementation. We also review the value of the science café as an educational tool and conclude that it has contributed to a number of teaching goals related to both knowledge and the personal skills required to function effectively in an international environment.
Comparing Two Generalized Noncommutative Nevanlinna-Pick Theorems
Rachael M. Norton
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: We explore the relationship between two noncommutative generalizations of the classical Nevanlinna-Pick theorem: one proved by Constantinescu and Johnson in 2003 and the other proved by Muhly and Solel in 2004. To make the comparison, we generalize Constantinescu and Johnson's theorem to the context of W^*-correspondences and Hardy algebras. After formulating the so-called displacement equation in this context, we are able to follow Constantinescu and Johnson's line of reasoning in our proof. Though our result is similar in appearance to Muhly and Solel's, closer inspection reveals differences. Nevertheless, when the given data lie in the center of the dual correspondence, the theorems are essentially the same.
Structural DNA Nanotechnology: From Design to Applications
Reza M. Zadegan,Michael L. Norton
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13067149
Abstract: The exploitation of DNA for the production of nanoscale architectures presents a young yet paradigm breaking approach, which addresses many of the barriers to the self-assembly of small molecules into highly-ordered nanostructures via construct addressability. There are two major methods to construct DNA nanostructures, and in the current review we will discuss the principles and some examples of applications of both the tile-based and DNA origami methods. The tile-based approach is an older method that provides a good tool to construct small and simple structures, usually with multiply repeated domains. In contrast, the origami method, at this time, would appear to be more appropriate for the construction of bigger, more sophisticated and exactly defined structures.
Challenges Facing Techinical Training in Kenya  [PDF]
Antony K. Sang, George M. Muthaa, Zacharia K. Mbugua
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.31018
Abstract: Technical education is necessary if Kenya is to industrialize by the year 2030. Relevant skills have to be given in Technical training institutions. The training in T.T.Is should therefore be market driven. The current study was designed to investigate on challenges facing skill training in T.T.Is. This study focused on the adequacy of training facilities, relevance of facilities, relevance of curriculum and the trainers’ level of qualifications. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. Snowball sampling technique was used to identify T.T.I graduates and their employers became automatic respondents. A sample size of one hundred and sixty eight respondents was used for the study. The study found out that training facilities used by T.T.Is are inferior to facilities used in industries and business organizations Majority of respondents indicated that T.T.I graduates posses’ very irrelevant skills in relation to skill needs in industries and business organizations. This implies that training policies need to be urgently reviewed to ensure that training is market driven. The study recommends an urgent overhaul of the training curriculum to enhance adequacy of skill training to skill needs in industries and business organizations.
Environmentally Induced Failure of Gold Jewelry Alloys
Colin C. Merriman,David F. Bahr,M. Grant Norton
Gold Bulletin , 2005, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215245
Abstract: Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is an established form of environmental attack in low karatage gold jewelry alloys. The cause of failure is often attributed to exposure to chlorinated solutions. At a certain gold content (usually greater than 14K) the alloy is widely believed protected from SCC. In this study, three commercial 18K gold alloys (yellow gold, nickel white gold, and palladium white gold) were tested in combination with three different household solutions to determine relative corrosion rates. These rates were determined using polarization tests. Once the maximum corrosion rate had been established, SCC tests using the constant potential dead weight method were used to determine time to failure. The resultant failure surfaces were examined to determine mode of fracture, which in all cases was predominantly intergranular. It was found that corrosion rates depended upon both the alloy system and the test solution. SCC was clearly demonstrated in 18K gold alloys, although in all cases times to failure were significantly greater than has been reported for lower karatage alloys. Palladium white gold was far more resistant to SCC than the other systems studied.
The response of a small stream in the Lesni potok forested catchment, central Czech Republic, to a short-term in-stream acidification
T. Navrátil,M. Vach,S. A. Norton,P. Skrivan
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2003,
Abstract: Lesni Potok stream drains a forested headwater catchment in the central Czech Republic. It was artificially acidified with hydrochloric acid (HC1) for four hours to assess the role of stream substrate in acid-neutralisation and recovery. The pH was lowered from 4.7 to 3.2. Desorption of Ca and Mg and desorption or solution of Al dominated acid-neutralisation; Al mobilisation was more important later. The stream substrate released 4,542 meq Ca, 1,184 meq Mg, and 2,329 meq Al over a 45 m long and 1 m wide stream segment; smaller amounts of Be, Cd, Fe, and Mn were released. Adsorption of SO42- and desorption of F ̄ occurred during the acidification phase of the experiment. The exchange reactions were rapidly reversible for Ca, Mg and SO42-; but not symmetric as the substrate resorbed 1083, 790 and 0 meq Ca, Mg, and Al, respectively, in a 4-hour recovery period. Desorption of SO42-; occurred during the resorption of Ca and Mg. These exchange and dissolution reactions delay acidification, diminish the pH depression and retard recovery from episodic acidification. The behaviour of the stream substrate-water interaction resembles that for soil–soil water interactions. A mathematical dynamic mass-balance based model, MASS (Modelling Acidification of Stream pediments), was developed which simulates the adsorption and desorption of base cations during the experiment and was successfully calibrated to the experimental data. Keywords: Al, Ca, Mg, base cations, acid-neutralisation, stream acidification, recovery, stream sediment, experiment, modelling, adsorption, desorption, adsorption, Czech Republic, Lesni Potok
Response of a first-order stream in Maine to short-term in-stream acidification
S. A. Norton,R. Wagai,T. Navratil,J. M. Kaste
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2000,
Abstract: An experimental short-term acidification with HCl at a first-order stream in central Maine, USA was used to study processes controlling the changes in stream chemistry and to assess the ability of stream substrate to buffer pH. The streambed exerted a strong buffering capacity against pH change by ion exchange during the 6-hour acidification. Streambed substrates had substantial cation and anion exchange capacity in the pH range of 4.1 to 6.5. The ion exchange for cations and SO42- were rapid and reversible. The speed of release of cations from stream substrates was Na1+> Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Aln+ > Be2+, perhaps relating to charge density of these cations. Ca2+ desorption dominated neutralisation of excess H+ for the first 2 hr. As the reservoir of exchangeable Ca diminished, desorption (and possibly dissolution) of Al3+ became the dominant neutralising mechanism. The exchangeable (and possibly soluble) reservoir of Al was not depleted during the 6-hour acidification. Sulphate adsorption during the acidification reduced the concentration of SO42- in stream water by as much as 20 μeq L-1 (from 70 μeq L-1). Desorption of SO42- and adsorption of base cations after the artificial acidification resulted in a prolongation of the pH depression. The streambed had the capacity to buffer stream water chemistry significantly during an acidifying event affecting the entire upstream catchment. Keywords: stream acidification; ion exchange; sediment; sulfate exchange; aluminium; beryllium
Metoprolol vs carvedilol in heart failure
Norton Michael,Metra M,Giubbini R,Nodari S
Current Controlled Trials in Cardiovascular Medicine , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/cvm-2001-72005
The Clinical Utility of fMRI for Identifying Covert Awareness in the Vegetative State: A Comparison of Sensitivity between 3T and 1.5T
Davinia Fernández-Espejo, Loretta Norton, Adrian M. Owen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095082
Abstract: In the last few years, mental imagery fMRI paradigms have been used successfully to identify covert command-following and awareness in some patients who are thought to be entirely vegetative. However, to date there is only evidence supporting their use at magnetic fields of 3T, which limits their applicability in clinical settings where lower field strengths are typically used. Here, we test the ‘gold standard’ fMRI paradigm for detecting residual awareness in non-responsive patients by comparing its sensitivity at 1.5T and 3T in the same group of healthy volunteers. We were able to successfully detect brain activity showing command-following in most participants at both 3T and 1.5T, with similar reliability. These results demonstrate that fMRI assessment of covert awareness is clinically viable and therefore justify a broader use of these methods in standard assessments in severely brain injured patients.
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