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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1981 matches for " Norman Spivey "
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Reciprocal Teaching of Lecture Comprehension Skills in College Students
Norman Spivey,Andrea Cuthbert
The Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning , 2006,
Planetary Heating by Neutrinos: Long-Term Habitats for Aquatic Life if Dark Energy Decays Favourably  [PDF]
R. J. Spivey
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.412A1004

The potential cosmological and astrobiological implications of neutrinos are considered. Dark energy drives the current phase of accelerating cosmic expansion. Like inflation, it may decay in time to matter and radiation. However, since its energy density is minuscule in comparison, decay would be unlikely to inject such a rich variety of particles into the universe, and may instead be limited to the lowest energy fermions. Nonrelativistic neutrinos have the capacity to form stable, galaxy-engulfing haloes supported by degeneracy pressure, much like white dwarves and neutron stars. Conversely, bodies of mass \"\" can indefinitely rely on Coulomb forces for weight support. Opportunities for the mutual annihilation of electron neutrinos are largely confined to planets containing iron in the hcp phase. If dark energy decays primarily to neutrinos in 40 ~ 100 Gyr, then oceanic planets orbiting within the resulting haloes could provide long-term habitats for aquatic life with only lax constraints on the neutrino mass, \"\". Various considerations now favour the possibility that neutrinos are Majorana particles with an inverted mass hierarchy and an electron neutrino mass in the vicinity of 50 meV. Sterile neutrinos of eV-mass may already be a significant component of dark matter, and could enhance planetary heating when active neutrino haloes become heavily depleted. An intriguing mechanism capable of regulating oceanic heat flux over a wide range of planetary masses is also described.

Recently published papers: The message is clear – start early?
Mike Spivey, Jonathan Ball
Critical Care , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/cc2957
Abstract: "When one admits that nothing is certain one must, I think, also admit that some things are more nearly certain than others"Bertrand Russell From "Am I An Atheist Or An Agnostic?", 1947 English author, mathematician and philosopher (1872–1970)Intuitively, early definite therapy should produce outcome advantages. However, providing evidence to support this has been limited. Several recent studies, discussed below, add credence to this idea.The detrimental consequences of long-term oral (and nasal) intubation in critically ill patients are well established. The clinicians' dilemma has always been one of deciding which patients will benefit from tracheostomy and, crucially, when to perform it. August saw the publication of a well designed trial by Rumbak and colleagues [1] that addressed this issue in severely ill patients. They randomly assigned 120 patients who had required intubation for respiratory failure either to early percutaneous tracheostomy (within 48 hours) or to delayed tracheostomy (at 14–16 days). Inclusion criteria were strictly defined; in particular, patients had to have an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score above 25 and be projected to require ventilatory support for longer than 14 days.The results were dramatic. The authors demonstrated a significant reduction in mortality (31.7% versus 61.7%), incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (5% versus 25%), days spent on ventilatory support (8 versus 17) and days sedated (3 versus 14) in the early tracheostomy group. There was also a reduction in days spent in the intensive care unit (ICU; 5 versus 16), but this was heavily influenced by the ability to discharge patients to a weaning unit. The Kaplan–Meier survival curve is striking, with the mortality benefit emerging between days 17 and 22. The authors hypothesized that the benefits of early tracheostomy are the direct result of the reduction in ventilator-associated pneumonia, which in turn resulted from cessation of s
Quasars: a supermassive rotating toroidal black hole interpretation
Robin J. Spivey
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.2000.03593.x
Abstract: A supermassive rotating toroidal black hole (TBH) is proposed as the fundamental structure of quasars and other jet-producing active galactic nuclei. Rotating protogalaxies gather matter from the central gaseous region leading to the birth of massive toroidal stars whose internal nuclear reactions proceed very rapidly. Once the nuclear fuel is spent, gravitational collapse produces a slender ring-shaped TBH remnant. These events are typically the first supernovae of the host galaxies. Given time the TBH mass increases through continued accretion by several orders of magnitude, the event horizon swells whilst the central aperture shrinks. The difference in angular velocities between the accreting matter and the TBH induces a magnetic field that is strongest in the region of the central aperture and innermost ergoregion. Due to the presence of negative energy states when such a gravitational vortex is immersed in an electromagnetic field, circumstances are near ideal for energy extraction via non-thermal radiation including the Penrose process and superradiant scattering. This establishes a self-sustaining mechanism whereby the transport of angular momentum away from the quasar by relativistic bi-directional jets reinforces both the modulating magnetic field and the TBH/accretion disk angular velocity differential. Quasar behaviour is extinguished once the BH topology becomes spheroidal. Similar mechanisms may be operating in microquasars, SNe and GRBs when neutron density or BH tori arise. In certain circumstances, long-term TBH stability can be maintained by a negative cosmological constant, otherwise the classical topology theorems must somehow be circumvented. Preliminary evidence is presented that Planck-scale quantum effects may be responsible.
A biotic cosmos demystified?
R. J. Spivey
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Oceanic planets formed by type Ia supernovae become spectacularly abundant as stars cease to shine. However, the timing may not be altogether inappropriate. Neutrino annihilation might thermally regulate iron-cored water-worlds, sustaining habitable subglacial oceans. If dark matter and dark energy decay to neutrinos, the universe could support life for ~ 10^23 years. Civilisations surmounting the arduous process of hereditary genetics soon discern the biotic nature of the cosmos and accept their role within it. An infrastructure guards against the spread of rogue colonists. Recruited colonists could harness the available energy for the benefit of life with stupendous efficiency, providing unmistakeable evidence of cosmological optimisation. The anthropic coincidences, inhospitable aspects of the current universe and Fermi's paradox would all be illuminated. Semiconductors sensitive to a neutrinoelectric effect offer a laboratory test of the planetary heating mechanism.
Making the Invisible Visible: Verbal but Not Visual Cues Enhance Visual Detection
Gary Lupyan,Michael J. Spivey
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011452
Abstract: Can hearing a word change what one sees? Although visual sensitivity is known to be enhanced by attending to the location of the target, perceptual enhancements of following cues to the identity of an object have been difficult to find. Here, we show that perceptual sensitivity is enhanced by verbal, but not visual cues.
Toward a New Scientific Visualization for the Language Sciences
Luca Onnis,Michael J. Spivey
Information , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/info3010124
Abstract: All scientists use data visualizations to discover patterns in their phenomena that may have otherwise gone unnoticed. Likewise, we also use scientific visualizations to help us describe our verbal theories and predict those data patterns. But scientific visualization may also constitute a hindrance to theory development when new data cannot be accommodated by the current dominant framework. Here we argue that the sciences of language are currently in an interim stage using an increasingly outdated scientific visualization borrowed from the box-and-arrow flow charts of the early days of engineering and computer science. The original (and not yet fully discarded) version of this obsolete model assumes that the language faculty is composed of autonomously organized levels of linguistic representation, which in turn are assumed to be modular, organized in rank order of dominance, and feed unidirectionally into one another in stage-like algorithmic procedures. We review relevant literature in psycholinguistics and language acquisition that cannot be accommodated by the received model. Both learning and processing of language in children and adults, at various putative ‘levels’ of representation, appear to be highly integrated and interdependent, and function simultaneously rather than sequentially. The fact that half of the field sees these findings as trivially true and the other half argues fiercely against them suggests to us that the sciences of language are on the brink of a paradigm shift. We submit a new scientific visualization for language, in which stacked levels of linguistic representation are replaced by trajectories in a multidimensional space. This is not a mere redescription. Processing language in the brain equates to traversing such a space in regions afforded by multiple probabilistic cues that simultaneously activate different linguistic representations. Much still needs to be done to convert this scientific visualization into actual implemented models, but at present it allows language scientists to envision new concepts and venues for research that may assist the field in transitioning to a new conceptualization, and provide a clear direction for the next decade.
What can Software Engineers Learn from Manufacturing to Improve Software Process and Product?  [PDF]
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2009.12015
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide the software engineer with tools from the field of manufacturing as an aid to improving software process and product quality. Process involves classical manufacturing methods, such as statistical quality control applied to product testing, which is designed to monitor and correct the process when the process yields product quality that fails to meet specifications. Product quality is measured by metrics, such as failure count occurring on software during testing. When the process and product quality are out of control, we show what remedial action to take to bring both the process and product under control. NASA Space Shuttle failure data are used to illustrate the process methods.
Blind Trust in the Care-Giver: Is Paternalism Essential to the Health-Seeking Behavior of Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa?  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.52008
Abstract: In the past, patients put their lives in the care of doctors in blind trust that the doctors would care for them. This kind of trust is no longer common particularly in the western industrialized nations but the same cannot be said about patients in Ghana and Sub-Sahara Africa. The first concern was whether paternalism was essential in medical practice in Ghana. The second was whether paternalism as an ethical standard should be considered from the ethical lens of the western industrialized nations, rather than from the African cultural context. This entailed a review and examination of the literature on paternalism. We searched databases such as PubMed, Medline and others for reports, editorials and published papers in the English Language. A search on Goggle Scholar on “paternalism in medical practice in Africa” yielded over 380,000 entries and “paternalism in medical practice in Ghana” yielded 2.1 million but more than 99% were not relevant in each instant. Hand searching of selected printed journals and grey literature such as technical reports, conference proceedings and workshops were also assessed. The studies that met the inclusion criteria were given additional review but those with poor methodology were excluded but discussed in this review. I assigned an overall score and identified the position taken in the publication or report in relation to the objectives and rated them objectively. The papers that received scores above 2.5 out of 4 in the evaluation were further analyzed. I summarized the findings into their respective units, and interpreted them based upon my skills, knowledge and specialization in medico-legal ethics, public health and law. The result shows that not enough research has been done on whether or not paternalism should be encouraged as a regular feature of medical practice in Ghana due to the lack of education. It also shows that paternalism enhances the health seeking behavior of patients despite developments on patient autonomy and capacity. Where the average patient is illiterate in general and in medical matters, the paternalism of the physician may be inevitable. Ethical standards such as Informed Consent, Autonomy, Due Process, Benevolence and No malfeasance should be defined and operationalized in clinical practice within the cultural context of Sub-Sahara Africa. A systematic indigenization of medico-legal ethical concerns in medical practice is needed in Ghana.
Define “Social Exclusion”, Articulate Realistic Benchmarks and Evaluation Modalities for the Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty Program, Ghana  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2017.71002
Abstract: The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty, a “flagship” program of Ghana, has been praised as a Sub-Saharan Africa’s “miracle cure” for poverty alleviation because it gives US$4.00 - 6.00 a month to a single beneficiary household. In any other regions of the world, the paltry sum would not be praiseworthy. This paper reviewed the literature on the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty program to identify the reported gains by beneficiaries. Using government’s own publication on LEAP, the author sought to determine evidence of exclusion of the extreme poor, and to find if the alleged gains under LEAP have improved the social inclusion and functionings of the beneficiary households by reducing the alleged social exclusion, chronic poverty and deprivation or by improving social solidarity and equal opportunities for the beneficiaries. Internet search of pertinent literature was conducted, with hand searching of grey literature produced by the Ghana Ministry of Women and Children Affairs and others on the matter. The pertinent papers that addressed the research questions were read and briefed for analyses. The published literature reveals that the program has not significantly improved the capabilities, functionings and being of beneficiaries, though there is a plethora of anecdotal reportage about improvements in their lives. In rural Ghana poverty is not the basis for social exclusion, though disability is. The loose eligibility criteria reward undeserving recipients of LEAP. The government of Ghana and its development partners need to conduct monitoring and evaluation exercise of the program to assess the contributions, if any. They also need to have a working definition of social exclusion, social isolation and solidarity in order to identify the types of exclusions that should inform policy and intervention. There is an urgent need to redesign the program, rearticulate the eligibility criteria and to set clear pathways for capacity building of the beneficiary household leaders towards productive activities.
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