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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1986 matches for " Norman SCHNEIDEWIND "
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What can Software Engineers Learn from Manufacturing to Improve Software Process and Product?  [PDF]
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2009.12015
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide the software engineer with tools from the field of manufacturing as an aid to improving software process and product quality. Process involves classical manufacturing methods, such as statistical quality control applied to product testing, which is designed to monitor and correct the process when the process yields product quality that fails to meet specifications. Product quality is measured by metrics, such as failure count occurring on software during testing. When the process and product quality are out of control, we show what remedial action to take to bring both the process and product under control. NASA Space Shuttle failure data are used to illustrate the process methods.
Blind Trust in the Care-Giver: Is Paternalism Essential to the Health-Seeking Behavior of Patients in Sub-Saharan Africa?  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.52008
Abstract: In the past, patients put their lives in the care of doctors in blind trust that the doctors would care for them. This kind of trust is no longer common particularly in the western industrialized nations but the same cannot be said about patients in Ghana and Sub-Sahara Africa. The first concern was whether paternalism was essential in medical practice in Ghana. The second was whether paternalism as an ethical standard should be considered from the ethical lens of the western industrialized nations, rather than from the African cultural context. This entailed a review and examination of the literature on paternalism. We searched databases such as PubMed, Medline and others for reports, editorials and published papers in the English Language. A search on Goggle Scholar on “paternalism in medical practice in Africa” yielded over 380,000 entries and “paternalism in medical practice in Ghana” yielded 2.1 million but more than 99% were not relevant in each instant. Hand searching of selected printed journals and grey literature such as technical reports, conference proceedings and workshops were also assessed. The studies that met the inclusion criteria were given additional review but those with poor methodology were excluded but discussed in this review. I assigned an overall score and identified the position taken in the publication or report in relation to the objectives and rated them objectively. The papers that received scores above 2.5 out of 4 in the evaluation were further analyzed. I summarized the findings into their respective units, and interpreted them based upon my skills, knowledge and specialization in medico-legal ethics, public health and law. The result shows that not enough research has been done on whether or not paternalism should be encouraged as a regular feature of medical practice in Ghana due to the lack of education. It also shows that paternalism enhances the health seeking behavior of patients despite developments on patient autonomy and capacity. Where the average patient is illiterate in general and in medical matters, the paternalism of the physician may be inevitable. Ethical standards such as Informed Consent, Autonomy, Due Process, Benevolence and No malfeasance should be defined and operationalized in clinical practice within the cultural context of Sub-Sahara Africa. A systematic indigenization of medico-legal ethical concerns in medical practice is needed in Ghana.
Define “Social Exclusion”, Articulate Realistic Benchmarks and Evaluation Modalities for the Livelihood Empowerment against Poverty Program, Ghana  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2017.71002
Abstract: The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty, a “flagship” program of Ghana, has been praised as a Sub-Saharan Africa’s “miracle cure” for poverty alleviation because it gives US$4.00 - 6.00 a month to a single beneficiary household. In any other regions of the world, the paltry sum would not be praiseworthy. This paper reviewed the literature on the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty program to identify the reported gains by beneficiaries. Using government’s own publication on LEAP, the author sought to determine evidence of exclusion of the extreme poor, and to find if the alleged gains under LEAP have improved the social inclusion and functionings of the beneficiary households by reducing the alleged social exclusion, chronic poverty and deprivation or by improving social solidarity and equal opportunities for the beneficiaries. Internet search of pertinent literature was conducted, with hand searching of grey literature produced by the Ghana Ministry of Women and Children Affairs and others on the matter. The pertinent papers that addressed the research questions were read and briefed for analyses. The published literature reveals that the program has not significantly improved the capabilities, functionings and being of beneficiaries, though there is a plethora of anecdotal reportage about improvements in their lives. In rural Ghana poverty is not the basis for social exclusion, though disability is. The loose eligibility criteria reward undeserving recipients of LEAP. The government of Ghana and its development partners need to conduct monitoring and evaluation exercise of the program to assess the contributions, if any. They also need to have a working definition of social exclusion, social isolation and solidarity in order to identify the types of exclusions that should inform policy and intervention. There is an urgent need to redesign the program, rearticulate the eligibility criteria and to set clear pathways for capacity building of the beneficiary household leaders towards productive activities.
The Right to Keep and Bear Arms, Ghana  [PDF]
Ishmael Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.810040
Abstract: The 1992 Constitution provides explicit instructions to the citizens of Ghana to defend it. That is to say, the citizens are inured with the correlative constitutional right to acquire arms, to keep and to bear them in anticipation of national defense. Despite this charge, the legislative framework has, for a considerable length of time, placed administrative restrictions on gun ownership that undermine the constitutional grant to citizens to even acquire arms. The National Commission on Small Arms and regional conventions such as Ecowas Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, have confusing nomenclature and idiosyncratic definition for legal and illicit gun ownership that complicate the right to bear arms. This investigation attempts to show to what extent the constitutional mandate had been overlooked and encroached upon, and how the encroachment can be clawed back to enhance Article 3 rights of the citizens under the 1992 Constitution of Ghana.
Microwave vortex dynamics in Tl-2212 thin films
N. Pompeo,H. Schneidewind,E. Silva
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1016/j.physc.2007.11.063
Abstract: We present measurements of the effective surface impedance changes due to a static magnetic field, $\Delta Z(H,T)=\Delta R(H,T)+\rmi \Delta X(H,T)$, in a Tl-2212 thin film with $T_c>$ 103 K, grown on a CeO$_2$ buffered sapphire substrate. Measurements were performed through a dielectric resonator operating at 47.7 GHz, for temperatures 60 K$\leq T\Delta R(H)$ in almost the whole $(H,T)$ range explored. A careful analysis of the data allows for an interpretation of these results as dominated by vortex dynamics. In the intermediate-high field range we extract the main vortex parameters by resorting to standard high frequency model and by taking into proper account the creep contribution. The pinning constant shows a marked decrease with the field which can be interpreted in terms of flux lines softening associated to an incipient layer decoupling. Small vortex viscosity, by an order of magnitude lower than in Y-123 are found. Some speculations about these findings are provided.
Juxtaposition of Hohfeldian Rights, Principle-Based Ethics, Functionings, and the Health-Seeking Behavior of Sub-Saharan Africa  [PDF]
Ishmael D. Norman, Blandina M. Awiah Norman
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.610026
Abstract: Principle-based ethics appears to be recent addition to Sub-Saharan Africa’s rights profile, although universal principles of morality have been part of the region from time immemorial. In this regard, periodic review of how principle-based ethics is being integrated into the health-seeking behavior of Sub-Saharan Africa is essential to the capabilities and functionings of the people. Whether the Hohfeldian incidents should be applied to Sub-Saharan Africa in measuring the degree of autonomy, capacity and informed consent, given the limited actual and medical education. Whether ethical concepts of “responsibility” and “paternalism” should be more promoted and if so, what happens to their “functionings” and “being”? The author examined the literature on ethics, searched databases for reports and published papers in the English language. Hand searching of selected printed journals and grey literature such as technical reports and conference proceedings were also accessed and briefed for further analyses. This shows that Hohfeldian rights are a natural part of African ethics. Principle-based ethics does not incorporate African ethics per se, although physicians’, and decision experts’ paternalism enhances the health-seeking behavior of Africa’s people, it interferes with their “rights”, “claims”, “power” and “privilege”, as well as their capabilities and functionings. Hohfeldian rights relate to Sub-Sahara Africa as universal man and amalgamate with African ethics and morality through the paternalism of doctors, community leaders and other “decision experts” in society in general. The application of the principle-based ethics in the healthcare delivery system and in other endeavors of Sub-Saharan Africa is achieved through the paternalism of superior powers. This compromises the functionings and being of the people.
Thyroidectomy for Massive Goiter Weighing more than 500 Grams. Technical Difficulties, Complications and Management. Review  [PDF]
Norman Oneil Machado
Surgical Science (SS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2011.25060
Abstract: Background: Multinodular goiter is a relatively common thyroid disorder with a marked female preponderance. Most of these goiters weigh less than 100 grams with those weighing more than 500 grams being exceptional. The massively expanding goiter due to the strategic anatomic location of thyroid gland, in addition to being cosmetically disfiguring can seriously compromise the patency of the trachea and oesophagus. Thyroidectomy for such goiters is a surgical challenge due to the possible association of tracheomalacia, retrosternal extension, skin involvement and the difficulty in intubation and dissection of the thyroid gland due to distorted and displaced anatomy. Material and methods: While presenting 2 patients who underwent thyroidectomy for glands weighing more than 500 grams, the literature is reviewed to analyze the technical difficulties and approach in such patients and the frequently encountered complications in them and their management. Results: A review of the literature revealed an additional 7 cases of patients who had undergone thyroidectomy for glands weighing more than 500 grams. Massively enlarged goiter was often associated with tracheomalacia, tracheal stenosis and retrosternal extension. Difficulty during surgery was most often encountered in establishing the airway and in exposure of the gland particularly when the skin was involved. The predominant postoperative complications were related to respiratory distress as a consequence of tracheomalacia and tracheal stenosis. Conclusion: In spite of the technical challenge related to the airway, and thyroidectomy, surgery continues to be the best option in experienced hands due to its distinct advantage of its immediate effect and complete resolution of compressive symptoms.
Recurrent Giant Phyllodes Tumour of the Breast Pathological Considerations and Management Approach for Recurrence and Metastasis  [PDF]
Norman Oneil Machado
Surgical Science (SS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2012.34043
Abstract: Phyllodes tumours are rare and account for 0.4% of all breast tumours. The majority of them tend to be less than 5 cms in size with giant tumours larger than 10 cms being about 20% of these cases. They display a broad range of clinical and pathological behavior and are regarded as falling within the spectrum of fibroepithelial neoplasms. Surgery has been the primary modality of treatment. However the extent of resection and the role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy are still controversial. The risk of recurrence is (4.7% - 30%) for benign phyllodes tumour and (30% - 65%) for borderline and malignant phyllodes tumour. A case of giant phyllodes tumour measuring 36 × 30 cm and weighing 6.8 kg is presented, which had recurred following a previous resection 5 years back. The literature is reviewed with regards to pathology, the role of investigations, nature of resection and the risk factors for recurrence and metastasis
Perspectives of the Role of Chemotherapy in the Management of Osteosarcoma  [PDF]
Jyoti Bajpai, Norman Jaffe
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.36154
Abstract: Background: Multimodality management of osteosarcoma has significantly improved the 5-year-survival rate for localized disease over the past 40 years: from 5% - 10% (in historical controls) to 65% - 75% and 20% - 30% in metastatic disease. These results were achieved with doxorubicin, cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate and ifosfamide (or cyclophosphamide). In the absence of new and effective agents the results have remained stationary for at least the past 30 years. No standard second line therapy exists for patients who relapse. In these circumstances surgery when feasible, constitutes the main therapeutic option. Questions/Purposes: To understand the present approach to therapy and determine the possibilities for improvement a review of the chemotherapeutic agents currently deployed in the treatment of Osteosarcoma was undertaken. Methods: The review focused on the results achieved with the evolution of therapy following the discovery of effective chemotherapeutic agents. Results: There was an improvement in survival during the first decade following the introduction of effective chemotherapy and limb salvage replaced amputation in the majority of patients. Attempts to rescue pulmonary metastases patients with surgical intervention were also enhanced but produced only minor improvement in survival. An international collaborative study, EURAMOS has been launched to investigate the utility of neoadjuvant chemotherapeutic agents in improving survival based upon their efficacy in the treatment of the primary tumor. Conclusions: New agents and or new strategies are urgently required to improve the outcome in Osteosarcoma.
Metastatic malignant melanoma arising in the ovary: A case report and review of the literature  [PDF]
Amani Harris, Norman Blumenthal
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.37A1002

Introduction: This article is a case report of metastatic malignant melanoma to the ovary and a review of the current literature on recommendations for diagnosis and management. Background: Metastatic involvement of the ovary from malignant melanoma is relatively uncommon and represents a diagnostic challenge. There are 74 cases of malignant melanoma metastasing to the ovary reported in the English literature. Malignant melanoma in the ovary is often found at autopsy, as a part of an extensive multisystemic spread of the disease and is rarely diagnosed during life. Most cases reported in the literature thus far occurred in women of reproductive age. Commonly, the history of a primary cutaneous melanoma lesion is remote, and in some cases, absent [1]. Most cases are associated with disseminated disease and carried a dismal prognosis [2].

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