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The Relationship between the Leadership Styles of Lebanese Public School Principals and Their Attitudes towards ICT versus the Level of ICT Use by Their Teachers  [PDF]
Norma Ghamrawi
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2013.21002
Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between the leadership styles exhibited by almost 50% of the total population of public school principals (N= 651) in Lebanonand their attitudes and the level of use of technology for educational purposes in their schools. Datawerecollected by surveying school principals via two questionnaires. Moreover, one teacher from each participant public school (N=651) completed a questionnaire pertaining to the level of use of technology in the school. Findings suggest the existence of positive correlation between the autocratic leadership styles of school principals and their negative attitudes towards the use of ICT for educational purposes. In addition, the results of the study accentuate another positive correlation existing between principals’ attitudes towards the use of ICT for educational purposes and the level of its use by their teachers in schools. Recommendations for further research and implications for school leadership and training programs are provided.
In Principle, It is Not Only the Principal! Teacher Leadership Architecture in Schools
Norma Ghamrawi
International Education Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v6n2p148
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to lay the foundations of a conceptual model of the role dimensions of teacher leaders within the Lebanese private school context. Besides, the study aimed at distinguishing the prime architects of teacher leadership in such a context, highlighting the critical issues confronting its nourishment and development. The study was conducted in 59 schools in Beirut, Lebanon (approximately 60% of the city schools). Data was derived using a questionnaire completed by 2950 teachers, where its quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and its qualitative data was treated with the help of NVivo 7.0. Findings indicate that subject leaders’ role is far more critical than that of school principals in inaugurating and cultivating teacher leadership. Another finding proposes that the roles attributed to teacher leaders within the Lebanese private school context match the international listing, yet additional roles are also suggested. Finally, evidence gathered indicate that teachers considered finding ‘time’ to practice leadership is the most crucial element for teacher leadership development in schools. This is besides securing a culture of trust and respect and where effective professional development is secured.
Teachers Helping Teachers: A Professional Development Model that Promotes Teacher Leadership
Norma Ghamrawi
International Education Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v6n4p171
Abstract: This mixed methods study reports on the outcomes of a professional development model (PDM) developed by a K-12 private school in Beirut, Lebanon, after 3 years of its employment. Specifically, an evaluation of this PDM is provided with special emphasis on its potential of developing teacher leaders at school. The PDM embraces a constructivist approach whereby teachers train colleague teachers and some high school students provide ushering services during professional development events. Data was collected using focus group interviews with teacher trainers, surveying teacher trainees and asking student ushers to describe their most important gain from this model using a single statement. Findings of the study highlight resonant school gains from this PDM and underscore its potential in developing not only teacher leadership but also student leadership. The study provides important implications for professional development program designers.
Perception of Character Education: The Case of Lebanese School Leaders  [PDF]
Najah A. R. Ghamrawi, Norma Ghamrawi, Tarek Shal
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2015.44012
Abstract: This study explored the perception of Lebanese public school leaders pertaining to character education, and their expected role within its development and effective implementation. The sample included 153 randomly selected public school principals from all the Lebanese districts (Mouhafazat). The purpose is to provide a general overview of their understanding, expectations, their knowledge of character education prescribed in the Lebanese curriculum goals, and their opinion as to the principal’s role in addressing character development. The study was quantitative in nature and utilized a survey instrument that consisted of 39 items classified into 12 domains of character. The first domain targeted the knowledge of school principals pertaining to the character development goals within the Lebanese curriculum, besides their perception of school’s educational mission. The other eleven domains were developed based on “The Eleven Principles of Effective Character Education” constructed by the character education partnership organization (CEP, 2014). SPSS 18.0 for windows was employed to calculate the mean and the standard deviation of responses in order to determine the perceptions of the Lebanese public school leaders related to character education. Findings suggested that Lebanese public school principals were generally not fully aware of the character goals outlined in the Lebanese curriculum and the school’s educational mission concerning building students’ character. Their perception on effective character education unmatched a wide scope of the eleven principles of character education. The study recommends a reform of character education in the Lebanese public schools involving the school principals as leaders of change.
Teachers’ Perception of Cyberbullying in Lebanese Public School  [PDF]
Najah A. R. Ghamrawi, Norma Ghamrawi, Tarek Shal
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2016.54009
Abstract: Cyberbullying has become prevalent in schools with the increased spread and usage of technology. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which teachers in Lebanon were aware of the concept of cyber bullying; as well as to investigate their beliefs of the best interventional preventional strategies to combat this phenomenon. The study surveyed 149 public school teachers from the different governorates in Lebanon. A survey consisting of 40 items was developed to address teachers’ perception of cyberbullying, around 4 areas: 1) the impact of cyberbullying on students, 2) the necessary interventional strategies for cyberbullying inside the school, 3) the suitable interventional strategies for cyberbullying outside the school, and 4) the possible preventional strategies for a cyberbullying program. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 for windows. Results indicated that school teachers recognized the gross negative impacts of cyberbullying on students. While teachers suggested anit-cyberbullying inter-ventional strategies inside the school, they were less hesitant to suggest strategies to confront cyberbullying when students were away from school. They were also indeterminate concerning preventional strategies of this phenomenon. Teachers’ perceptions highlight the importance of their active role and the importance of building students character as two major keys for counteracting cyberbullying and designing an efficient anti-cyberbullying program.
Lebanese Public Schools: 20th or 21st Century Schools? An Investigation into Teachers’ Instructional Practices  [PDF]
Norma Ghamrawi, Najah A. R. Ghamrawi, Tarek Shal
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2017.61001
Abstract: This study investigated the offerings of Lebanese public schools against requirements of 21st century skills through the lenses of teachers. A survey that captures the features of the 21st century schools was adapted from Hixson, Ravitz & Whisman (2012) and was administered to 667 middle and secondary schoolteachers in 68 public schools in Beirut and Mount Lebanon. The survey addressed 8 teaching practices that are recognized in the literature as the basic 21st century skills: critical thinking skills, collaboration skills, communication skills, creativity and innovation skills, self-direction skills, global connections skills, local connections skills, and technology skills. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 for windows. Results indicated that a huge gap existed between how schools function as opposed to how they are supposed to do so, in light of the 21st century demands. Lebanese public schools have not yet moved to the 21st century and are quite far from doing so. Recommendations for policy and practice are provided.
Student Leadership through the Lens of Lebanese Public School Students  [PDF]
Najah A. R. Ghamrawi, Norma Ghamrawi, Tarek Shal
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.71003
This study investigated the perceptions of students regarding the concept of student leadership within the Lebanese school context. The study surveyed 410 high school students from 4 public schools in Beirut, Lebanon. Data was collected via a survey consisting of 20 items developed and adapted from the LPI survey of Kouzes & Posner (2014). It addresses students’ perception of leadership around 5 areas: 1) modeling the way; 2) inspiring a shared vision; 3) challenging the process; 4) enabling others to act; and 5) encouraging the heart. In addition, a focus group interview was conducted with 8 students, two from each surveyed school. The interview focused on collecting deep empathetic qualitative data about how the realization of student leadership in their schools would impact on them. Quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS 21.0 for windows, while qualitative data was analyzed thematically. Results indicated that students recognized strengths and weaknesses of student leadership and that if well established, students would be more inclined to learn in their schools.
Schooling for Digital Citizens  [PDF]
Najah A. R. Ghamrawi
Open Journal of Leadership (OJL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojl.2018.73012
Abstract: This study explored the Lebanese teachers’ perceptions regarding their knowledge, practice and self-efficacy pertaining to digital citizenship. Data were collected from 378 teacher participants from public schools in Beirut, Lebanon. The study used mixed methods employing an adapted form of Rible’s (2015) survey on digital citizenship, alongside a structured focus group interview with 8 teachers drawn randomly from the pool of participant schools. Findings suggest that Lebanese teachers have dispersed and unbalanced perceptions of the concept of digital citizenship, limited practice, and recessive self-efficacy. The study recommends that successful endeavours towards establishing efficient digital citizenship should start with the reconstruction of teachers’ knowledge and level of awareness pertaining to digital citizenship.
Extent of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia is not a predictor of cancer at repeat biopsy
HK El Ghamrawi, R Al Azab, A Toi, N Fleshner
African Journal of Urology , 2006,
Abstract: Objective: High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is a well accepted pre-cursor of invasive prostate cancer. Most investigators agree that a diagnosis of high-grade PIN warrants repeat transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy. We set out to investigate risk factors for cancer among a modern cohort of men with isolated high-grade PIN. Material and Methods: The Princess Margaret Hospital has a comprehensive database of 6249 TRUS procedures over the past 8 years. We searched this dataset for the following parameters: a) diagnosis of high-grade PIN between 1997 and 2003; b) absence of atypia or cancer and c) repeat prostate biopsy to rule out cancer. Addi-tional covariates assessed were: age, pro-state specific antigen (PSA) level at the time of biopsy, digital rectal examination (DRE) findings, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) stage, TRUS volume, and the amount of PIN at biopsy (defined as one core vs. greater than one core by review of pathology reports). All data were tabulated and univariate (chi-square/t-tests) as well as multivariate (logistic regression) analyses were performed. All significance testing was two-sided with p<0.05 considered as significant. Results: A total of 130 patients had a diagnosis of high-grade PIN and underwent repeat biopsy. Among this cohort, 41 patients (31.5%) had cancer at re-biopsy.The Gleason sum distribution for these tumors was: 6 in 32 patients, 7 in 8 patients and 9 in 1 patient. Among the entire cohort the mean age was 64.1 years (range 37-78); PSA was 8.3 ng/ml (range: 0.28-70.2); and prostate volume was 65.43 cc (range 16-182.9). Fifteen patients (11.5%) had abnormal DRE, 53 (40.8%) had hypo-echoic lesions at TRUS, and 46 (35.4%) had more than one core high-grade PIN. On uni-variate analysis, the presence of an abnormal TRUS (22 of 52 with hypo-echoic lesions vs. 19 of 76 without hypo-echoic lesions, p=0.039) and the prostate volume (mean volume 69.66 cc for benign re-biopsies versus 56.89 cc for positive repeat biopsies, p<0.05) were significantly different between men with and without cancer at repeat biopsy. On logistic regression ana-lysis, however, only the volume remained a significant predictor of cancer (p=0.028). There was no association between Gleason score at biopsy (6 vs > 6) and the extent of PIN at first biopsy (p=0.86). Conclusions: In a modern cohort of men with high-grade PIN, PSA, DRE and age are not predictive of cancer at re-biopsy. There was no association between Gleason score at biopsy (6 vs > 6) and the extent of PIN at first biopsy. The prostate volume was the only significant predictor of cancer at re-biopsy. Résumé Objectifs: La néoplasie intra-épithéliale prostatique de haut grade (PIN) est un précurseur bien connu de cancer de la prostate invasif. La plupart des investigateurs consentent qu'un diagnostic de PIN de haut grade justifie la répétition des biopsies transrectales écho-guidées. Nous avons eu l'intention d'enquêter sur les facteurs de risque pour cancer parmi u
The Spin-Charge-Family Theory Is Explaining the Origin of Families, of the Higgs and the Yukawa Couplings  [PDF]
Norma Susana Manko? Bor?tnik
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.46113

The (extremely efficient) standard model of the elementary particles and fields makes several assumptions, which call for explanations. Any theory offering next step beyond the standard model must explain at least the existence and properties of families and their members and correspondingly the existence of the scalar Higgs and the Yukawa couplings, which in this model take care of masses of fermions and weak bosons and influence the decaying properties of families. The spin-charge-family theory [1-11] is offering a possible explanation for the assumptions of the standard model—for the appearance of families and their members (for the charges of a family members), for the gauge fields, for the scalar fields—interpreting the standard model as its low energy effective manifestation. The spin-charge-family theory predicts at the low energy regime two decoupled groups of four families of quarks and leptons. The predicted fourth family waits to be observed, while the stable fifth family is the candidate to form the dark matter. In this paper properties of families are analysed. The appearance of several scalar fields, all in the bosonic (adjoint) representations with respect to the family groups, while they are doublets with respect to the weak charge, is presented, their properties discussed, it is explained how these scalar fields can effectively be interpreted as the standard model Higgs and the Yukawa couplings. The spin-charge-family

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