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Relationship between Cariogenic Bacteria and pH of Dental Plaque at Margin of Fixed Prostheses
Junko Tanaka,Norio Mukai,Muto Tanaka,Masahiro Tanaka
International Journal of Dentistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/452108
Abstract: Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether teeth that have undergone prosthetic restoration are under conditions that promote caries recurrence. Methods. The subjects were 20 dentate adults with both a healthy tooth and an affected tooth entirely covered with a complete cast crown in the molar regions of the same arch. The pH was measured in plaque adhering to the margin of the tooth covered with a complete cast crown and adhering to the cervicobuccal area of the natural tooth. In addition, the numbers of cariogenic bacteria (mutans streptococci and lactobacilli) were measured employing the saliva test. The relationships between the number of cariogenic bacteria and plaque pH of the natural tooth and between the number of cariogenic bacteria and plaque pH of the tooth covered with a complete cast crown were investigated. Results. The plaque pH of the tooth covered with a complete cast crown decreased as the numbers of SM and LB increased. The natural tooth were also influenced by the number of SM. Conclusion. Secondary caries are likely to develop from the marginal region of the crown in the oral cavity with a high caries risk unless a preventive program is prepared and the oral environment is improved following the program.
Dilatation of the nasal valve by expansion of the vestibular oris (EVO)  [PDF]
Susumu Mukai
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58A2004

Introduction: The main signs and symptoms of ankyloglossia with deviation of the epiglottis and larynx (ADEL) are sleep disorders caused by respiratory restraint. The author contrived the surgical procedure of correction of the glosso-larynx (CGL) and expansion of the vestibular oris (EVO) for the cure of ADEL. CGL increases vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (1% FEV). EVO reduces nasal airflow resistance. The most important component of nasal airflow resistance is the nasal valve. Purpose: Our purpose was to measure how wide the nares were dilated after EVO. Method: The width of the nares, height of the nose, length of the philtrum and width of the lip were measured in patients who had signs and symptoms of ADEL, before and after EVO. Result: Significant increases were observed in the width of the nares, height of the nose and length of the lip after EVO. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the nares dilate after EVO. Not only the amelioration of nasal respiration by EVO increases immunity, but also aesthetic effects are obtained after EVO.

Tonsils Increase in Weight during Growth  [PDF]
Susumu Mukai
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.44039
Purpose: During my 40 years of performing tonsillectomy, I have noticed that tonsils seem to increase in size with aging. The purpose was to study the relationship between the weight of tonsils and patients’ age. Subjects and Methods: Tonsillectomies were performed in 1246 patients diagnosed with sleep disorders with hypertrophied tonsils. The excised tonsils were weighed. Results: 1) The number of male tonsillectomy cases was 2.3 times higher than the number of female cases; 2) Most tonsillectomies were performed in children three to six years of age, and in adults who were around 30 years old; 3) The maximum age of the male patients was 57 years and that of the female patients was 63 years; 4) The weight of tonsils increased with age in the males, but the maximum weight of female tonsils was reached at around nine years of age; 5) Tonsils of males were heavier and larger than those of females of the same age; 6) A high degree of correlation was observed between the weights of the right and left tonsils of a subject. Conclusions:
Vicissitude of Curetted Adenoid Vegetations  [PDF]
Susumu Mukai
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.45044
Weights of curetted adenoid were measured and were compared with both weights of tonsils and the rate of adenoidectomy among the tonsillectomized cases. This study included 603 patients whose adenoids were curetted during the 11-year period. 90% of patients were 2 to 9 years old. The rate of curetted adenoid vegetation among the tonsillec-tomized cases was 80% among patients from 1 to 6 years old and 70% among patients of 7 and 8 years old. The rate remarkably decreased from 9 years of age. The average weight of the curetted adenoids in each age group ranged from 0.7 g to 1.9 g. There was no statistical correlation in the distribution of the average weight of the curetted adenoids between males and females as well as between the weight of the tonsils and the weight of the curetted adenoids. A hypothesis on the cause of adenoid hypertrophy was presented in this study.
Specific Gravity of the Tonsil and the Adenoid  [PDF]
Susumu Mukai
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.54024

Purpose: When considering about adeno-tonsillar hypertrophies it is important to know their weights as well as their specific gravities. Subjects and methods: Specific gravities of 344 tonsils and 117 adenoids were measured. Results: Average specific gravities of tonsils and adenoids were 1.08 (SD: 0.0411), 1.12 (SD: 0.574) respectively. Significant difference was observed between two (p < 0.002). Discussion: The palatine tonsils and pharyngeal tonsil or adenoid are in a Waldeyer’s ring. They are thought that they work for lymphatic immune systems. However, there are several differences between tonsil and adenoid. The former has capsule, and increases their weight by growth; on the contrary the latter has no capsule, shrinks by growth. Tonsils are relatively hard mass but adenoids are very soft and easily bleed by touching with cotton swabs via nose. Conclusion: At this study, specific gravity of the adenoid was heavier than that of tonsils. These results suggest that tonsil and adenoid are physiologically different.

Human Nose Might Be Involved in Cooling of the Brain  [PDF]
Susumu Mukai
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.67064
Abstract: I have reached the conclusion that the human nose might be involved in cooling of the brain. In this report, I first describe the clinical observations about ankyloglossia with deviation of the epiglottis and larynx (ADEL) with regard to sleep that I have made during my 30 years of otorhino-laryngological experience. Then I describe the physiology of the nose. Next I quote from reports on paradoxical sleep, or REM sleep, from Kitamura K (2009) and Jouvet M (1992). Finally, I present the conclusion that nasal respiration is indispensable to a deep and sound sleep that refreshes humans and promotes vitality.
Changes in Breastfeeding and of Breasts before and after Babies’ Surgeries for Ankyloglossia with Deviation of the Epiglottis and Larynx (ADEL)
—Healthy Breastfeedin

Susumu Mukai
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.89091
Abstract: Background: Historically frenotomy was performed at newborn babies’ baptism for healthy breast-feeding over many centuries. Although it was necessary for nursing babies, its application was denied subjectively without clinical observation since the early 20th century. As a result solutions for breastfeeding and breast problems are confused now. Methods: We studied changes in breastfeeding and mothers’ breasts before and one month after the surgeries for ADEL by standards for healthy breastfeeding and breasts. Results: With regard to suckling, before the surgeries 24% of babies opened their eyes during breastfeeding, while after surgeries 76% opened eyes while nursing. 30% of the babies latched onto the mother’s breast with a wide-open mouth. After surgeries, 84% properly latched on. 73% of the babies had calluses on the upper lip before surgeries, and no calluses were observed after surgeries. 27% of babies before surgeries moved the jaws during breast-feeding, but after surgeries 88% moved the jaws while nursing. White debris was on the dorsum tongue in 70% of babies prior to surgeries. After surgeries, 22% were with debris. 67% of mothers experienced nipple pain before their babies’ surgeries while 6% had pain after the surgeries. Flattened nipples were observed in 55% of mothers before the infants’ surgeries, 7% after surgeries. 23% of mothers had breast pain before the surgeries, and 4% had breast pain after the surgeries. Mastitis was also reduced from 9% to 1% after surgeries. 73% of women had palpable breast masses, and after the surgeries 25% had palpable masses. Summary: Remarkable improvements in breastfeeding and in women’s breasts were achieved after their infants underwent operations for ADEL. These results indicate the necessity of surgical interventions in babies with ADEL for healthy breastfeeding and breasts (279).
Preparation of Iron Ferrocyanide-Supported Nanofiber Membrane for Purification of Cesium-Contaminated Water  [PDF]
Yasuhito Mukai, Ayana Mizuno
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.64030

The earthquake in northeastern Japan that occurred on March 11, 2011 brought about the nuclear accident, resulting in the detection of radioactive cesium in soil and water over a wide region around Fukusihma. In this study, with the aim of the establishment of an effective method for removing cesium from water contaminated with cesium, the functionalized membrane with large cesium adsorption capacity per unit mass was prepared by combining nanofibers having a large specific surface area with iron ferrocyanide having a high selectivity for cesium adsorption. The nanofiber membrane made of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was used as a base material of the functionalized membrane. Nanofiber membranes were immersed in the dispersions of iron ferrocyanide with various concentrations and pH values. After taking it out, it was dried at various temperatures and then non-immobilized iron ferrocyanide was completely removed through cleaning. As a result of the evaluation of completed affinity membranes, the amount of iron ferrocyanide immobilized by the nanofiber membrane increased significantly with the increase in the iron ferrocyanide concentration but subsequently showed a tendency to decrease rapidly, resulting in a distinct maximum at the iron ferrocyanide concentration of 3 wt%. And, the supported amount of iron ferrocyanide to the nanofiber membrane increased as pH became lower. Moreover, it was found that as high temperature as possible without exceeding the glass transition temperature of PAN was optimal as a drying temperature of prepared affinity membrane.

An alternative model of the magnetic cataclysmic variable V1432 Aquilae (=RX J1940.1-1025)
Koji Mukai
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1086/305527
Abstract: V1432 Aql is currently considered to be an asynchronous AM Her type system, with an orbital period of 12116.3 s and a spin period of 12150 s. I present an alternative model in which V1432 Aql is an intermediate polar with disk overflow or diskless accretion geometry, with a spin period near 4040 s. I argue that published data are insufficient to distinguish between the two models; instead, I provide a series of predictions of the two models that can be tested against future observations.
X-ray Spectroscopy of Cataclysmic Variables
Koji Mukai
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: In cataclysmic variables (CVs), accretion onto white dwarfs produces high temperature, high density plasmas. They cool down from kT~10 keV via bremsstrahlung continuum and K and L shell line emissions. The small volume around white dwarfs means that the plasma densities are much higher than in, e.g., stellar coronae, probably beyond the range well-described by existing models. I will describe potential diagnostics of the temperatures, the densities, and the optical depths of X-ray emitting plasmas in CVs, and present the recent Chandra grating spectra of the magnetic CV V1223 Sgr as an example.
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