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Effect of Temperature Change on Geometric Structure of Isolated Mixing Regions in Stirred Vessel
Nor Hanizah Shahirudin,Alatengtuya,Norihisa Kumagai,Takafumi Horie,Naoto Ohmura
International Journal of Chemical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/287051
Abstract: The present work experimentally investigated the effect of temperature change on the geometric structure of isolated mixing regions (IMRs) in a stirred vessel by the decolorization of fluorescent green dye by acid-base neutralization. A four-bladed Rushton turbine was installed in an unbaffled stirred vessel filled with glycerin as a working fluid. The temperature of working fluid was changed in a stepwise manner from 30°C to a certain fixed value by changing the temperature of the water jacket that the vessel was equipped with. The step temperature change can dramatically reduce the elimination time of IMRs, as compared with a steady temperature operation. During the transient process from an initial state to disappearance of IMR, the IMR showed interesting three-dimensional geometrical changes, that are, simple torus with single filament, simple torus without filaments, a combination of crescent shape and circular tori, and doubly entangled torus. 1. Introduction Stirred vessels are frequently used to homogenize different substances, conduct chemical reactions, and enhance mass transfer between different phases. These vessels are versatile and they are available in a wide variety of sizes and impeller configurations for use in industrial processes. Although turbulent flow is efficient for mixing, laminar mixing is required in some cases such as for high-viscosity fluids and shear-sensitive materials. Koiranen et al. [1] proposed specific principles for effective mixing of highly viscous liquids or shear-sensitive materials in laminar flow mixing regimes. In these regimes, global mixing is inefficient due to the existence of isolated mixing regions (IMRs). Makino et al. [2] characterized IMRs in a stirred vessel using radial flow impellers and found that IMRs consisted of various Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) tori. Ohmura et al. [3] reported the existence of KAM tori as island structures in a phase-locked orbit that has a rational relation of the time period between the primary and secondary circulation flows. Noui-Mehidi et al. [4] found that the mechanism of IMR disappearance could be described by the formation of a period-doubling locus in the physical space when using a six-blade Rushton turbine impeller. Hashimoto et al. [5] successfully visualized a three-dimensional structure of thin filaments spirally wrapping around the core of toroidal region. They formulated and estimated the relation between mixing conditions and filament numbers and/or wire turns. The elimination of IMR at low Reynolds numbers has also been studied extensively. Lamberto et
Descriptive distribution and phylogenetic analysis of feline infectious peritonitis virus isolates of Malaysia
Saeed Sharif, Siti S Arshad, Mohd Hair-Bejo, Abdul R Omar, Nazariah A Zeenathul, Lau S Fong, Nor-Alimah Rahman, Habibah Arshad, Shahirudin Shamsudin, Mohd-Kamarudin A Isa
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-52-1
Abstract: Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a highly fatal disease of cats caused by generalized infection with a feline coronavirus (FCoV). FCoVs belong to subgroup 1a of Coronaviruses in the family Coronaviridae, order Nidovirales. Other members of this subgroup include porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, canine coronavirus, raccoon/dog coronavirus and Chinese ferret badger coronavirus [1,2]. FCoVs are enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses with a large, capped and polyadenylated RNA genome of about 29 kb. The cap structure at the 5' end of genome is followed by an untranslated region (UTR). At the 3' end of the genome is another UTR of 275 nucleotides, followed by the poly (A) tail. The sequences of the both 3'- and 5'-UTR are important for RNA replication and transcription [3].Two biotypes of FCoV are described in cats: feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Infection with FECV is usually unapparent or manifested by a transient gastroenteritis. In contrast, FIPV infection causes a fatal immune-mediated disease with a wide spectrum of clinical signs. FIP refers to the more common effusive (wet) form of the disease characterized by peritonitis and/or pleuritis. The effusive form is caused by complement-mediated vasculitis and results in inflammatory exudation into body cavities. In some FIP cases, partial cell-mediated immunity cause non-effusive (dry) form which is characterized by granulomatous involvement of various organs particularly central nervous system and eyes. However, the FIP forms can transform to each other [4-6]. It has been suggested that virulent FIPV arises by mutation from parental FECV in the individual, persistently infected host [4,7,8]. It is not yet clear which alterations in the FCoV genome are responsible for the generation of FIPV from FECV [3,6].FIP occurs worldwide and is ubiquitous in virtually all cat populations [6]. The disease was reported as a major factor of kitten mortality in UK [
NOR Grants 2006
Rangifer , 2005,
Success Factors for Baitulmal Management during the Reign of Caliph Umar ibn Abdul Aziz  [PDF]
Radieah Mohd Nor
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.35013
Abstract: In general, baitulmal is a store treasury or property house which manages all properties and financial resources of Muslims community. Therefore, primary responsibility of baitulmal is managing assets and finances that are owned by and entrusted to Muslims community such as zakat, wakf, usyur, khaaraj and other sources that are permitted by Islamic law as an effort to reduce poverty and for socio-economic development. This article intends to examine the management of baitulmal during the period of Caliph Umar ibn Abdul Aziz. This is important because Caliph Umar ibn Abdul Aziz has made several revolutions throughout his reign. Based on textual analysis, six critical success factors for treasury management during his reign have been identified. The factors are healthy environment for economic growth, strengthening of the baitulmal, stimulating and boosting the business sector, creating new rules for the agricultural sector, giving more focus to the general fund stored in the treasury and the last factor is vigilance with the use of the national treasury.
Characterization of InGaN Solar Cells  [PDF]
Nor Bochra, Bousaid Abdelhak
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2015.311011
Abstract: The III-V materials are extensively studied for optoelectronic applications in the blue and UV spectral regions. InGaN ternary alloy is considered for its wide spectral coverage, good electrical characteristics and appreciable resistance to high electrical currents. For this purpose, the operation of InGaN photovoltaic cells was studied by 2D numerical simulation under AM1.5 spectrum illumination, using the software Silvaco and the two environments Athena/Atlas.
Study of Lightning Safety Distance Using Rolling Sphere Method  [PDF]
Nor Zaihar Yahaya, Mohd Akhmal Daud
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2013.53026

The development of a computer program for evaluation of lightning safety distance between the tower and satellite dish is written in M-File MATLAB. The 3-dimensional illustrative graphics model is used to capture better understanding on how lightning protection system (LPS) works. The study of physical length of grounding electrode used on the tower is found to be significantly affecting the grounding system performances where they depend on magnitude of dispersed lightning strikes current and the settling time for the current to completely disperse. The grounding system performance is studied by using lightning impulse current (LIC) generator, simulated in OrCad PSpice software. It is found that the optimum length of vertical lightning rod in LPS is the same with the striking distance. There is no significant improvement is observed in lightning safety distance if the length of vertical lightning rod is higher than striking distance. The lightning strike peak current that has larger magnitude than the withstanding insulation level of specified object causes no physical damage. It is because the lightning safety distance increases when the lightning strike peak current becomes higher. It is also found that the lower grounding impedance generates higher magnitude of dispersed peak current and faster settling time.

Phytoconstituent Screening and Antibacterial Activity of the Leaf Extracts from Canarium odontophyllum Miq.  [PDF]
Dayang Fredalina Basri, Nur Hafidzah Mohd Nor
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.519303
Abstract: Canarium odontophyllum is one of the underutilized fruits among the local community in Sarawak, Malaysia. The leaf extracts from C. odontophyllum (6.25 mg/ml to 50 mg/m) were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Extraction of the C. odontophyllum leaves using methanol produced the highest yield (5.46%) followed by water (4.0%) and acetone (2.83%) whereas hexane extracted the lowest yield (0.98%). Out of the four bacterial species tested, only S. aureus was found to be susceptible towards the C. odontophyllum leaves extract. Screening result using agar well diffusion method showed that the antimicrobial activity of the acetone and methanol extracts from C. odontophyllum leaves was concentration-dependent towards the growth inhibition of S. aureus. The MIC values for both MeOH and acetone extracts were 0.391 mg/ml. The MBC value of MeOH extract was twice its MIC value whereas the MBC and MIC values of acetone extract against S. aureus were the same. Phytochemical analysis showed that acetone, MeOH
The Effects of Xylitol on Body Weight Loss Management and Lipid Profile on Diet-Induced Obesity Mice  [PDF]
Nor Ezleen Qistina Ahmad, Noornabeela Md Yusoff
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.310007
Abstract: Xylitol is an alternative sweetener which has been previously reported to have many beneficial effects such as prevention from dental caries, reduction of visceral fat and increased synthesis of collagen. However, its role in body weight loss management has not been uncovered before. This study sought to investigate the effects of xylitol on body weight loss management, blood glucose and lipid profile on diet-induced obesity (DOI) mice. Fifteen male mice were subjected to high fat diet (60 kcal%) and normal drinking water for 28 days and then randomly divided into three (control, glucose and xylitol) groups. Each group of mice was then fed with normal diet for another 28 days with supplied normal drinking water (control); glucose solution 10% and xylitol solution 10%. Body weight loss was found to be significantly high in xylitol mice (2.56 ± 0.21, p = 0.003) compared to the other two groups. Lowest blood glucose level was found in the control group mice with the mean 7.65 ± 0.10 (p = 0.001). Xylitol mice had also showed the lowest total cholesterol level (4.20 ± 0.90, p = 0.000) than the other groups, but highest in HDL level (2.72 ± 0.14, p = 0.000). In conclusion, these findings proved that xylitol has the potential to reduce body weight, lowering the blood glucose but yet increase the HDL level.
External Relations Management of Malaysia Principals  [PDF]
Bity Salwana Alias, Zaida Nor Zainudin
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.914166
Abstract: The concept of school management has been extensively studied, however only a few focused on the external relations management. Due to the statement in Malaysian Education Development Blueprint 2013-2025 that school managers are required to build a good collaboration with communities, this study aims to identify principals’ competency in managing external relations by measuring their knowledge and skills in those areas. This survey study involved 314 principals, 720 senior assistants, and 611 senior teachers all over Malaysia. The quantitative data were?collected through questionnaire and were analyzed by SPSS to determine mean score and standard deviation. Finding shows that, in overall principals’ knowledge and skills are at a high level with the mean score 4.27 and 4.40 respectively. Principals’ knowledge on external sources that can benefit schools achieves the lowest (mean score 4.23), followed by knowledge on concept of cooperation between school and school/home/community (mean score 4.25), and knowledge on strategy to improve relationship between school and community (mean score 4.25). The lowest mean score for skills is influencing outsiders to contribute to the school fund (4.23), followed by handling criticism in a positive way (mean score 4.37), and showing appreciation to the communities’ involvement in school activities (mean score 4.37). This study concludes that principals’ competency can be at the best level if knowledge and skill in those aspects can be increased.
Infinite two-generator groups of class two and their non-abelian tensor squares
Nor Haniza Sarmin
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171202112294
Abstract: We classify all infinite 2-generator groups of nilpotency class two and determine their non-abelian tensor squares.
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