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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 824 matches for " Noordin Othman "
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Quality of Pharmaceutical Advertisements in Medical Journals: A Systematic Review
Noordin Othman, Agnes Vitry, Elizabeth E. Roughead
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006350
Abstract: Background Journal advertising is one of the main sources of medicines information to doctors. Despite the availability of regulations and controls of drug promotion worldwide, information on medicines provided in journal advertising has been criticized in several studies for being of poor quality. However, no attempt has been made to systematically summarise this body of research. We designed this systematic review to assess all studies that have examined the quality of pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical and pharmacy journals. Methods and Findings Studies were identified via searching electronic databases, web library, search engine and reviewing citations (1950 – February 2006). Only articles published in English and examined the quality of information included in pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical or pharmacy journals were included. For each eligible article, a researcher independently extracted the data on the study methodology and outcomes. The data were then reviewed by a second researcher. Any disagreements were resolved by consensus. The data were analysed descriptively. The final analysis included 24 articles. The studies reviewed advertisements from 26 countries. The number of journals surveyed in each study ranged from four to 24 journals. Several outcome measures were examined including references and claims provided in advertisements, availability of product information, adherence to codes or guidelines and presentation of risk results. The majority of studies employed a convenience-sampling method. Brand name, generic name and indications were usually provided. Journal articles were commonly cited to support pharmaceutical claims. Less than 67% of the claims were supported by a systematic review, a meta-analysis or a randomised control trial. Studies that assessed misleading claims had at least one advertisement with a misleading claim. Two studies found that less than 28% of claims were unambiguous clinical claims. Most advertisements with quantitative information provided risk results as relative risk reduction. Studies were conducted in 26 countries only and then the generalizability of the results is limited. Conclusions Evidence from this review indicates that low quality of journal advertising is a global issue. As information provided in journal advertising has the potential to change doctors' prescribing behaviour, ongoing efforts to increase education about drug promotion are crucial. The results from our review suggest the need for a global pro-active and effective
Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States
Noordin Othman, Agnes I Vitry, Elizabeth E Roughead
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-294
Abstract: A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries.Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%). In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P < 0.001). However, the unambiguous claims were supported by more references than other claims (80%). Most evidence was obtained from at least one randomized controlled trial, a systematic review or meta-analysis (Australia, 84%, Malaysia, 81%, US, 76%) with journal articles being the most commonly cited references in all countries. Data on file were significantly more likely to be cited in the US (17%) than in Australia (2%) and Malaysia (4%) (P < 0.001). Advertisements that provided quantitative information reported risk results exclusively as a relative risk reductionThe majority of claims were vague suggesting poor quality of claims in journal advertising in these three countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.Information on medicines is essential to help doctors ensure the safe and optimal use of medicines. Pharmaceutical advertisements in journal advertising are used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors [1]. Medicines information includes product characteristics, marketing claims and references to support claims. Evid
Medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives: a comparative study in Australia and Malaysia
Noordin Othman, Agnes I Vitry, Elizabeth E Roughead, Shaiful B Ismail, Khairani Omar
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-743
Abstract: Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listings and restrictions (in Australia only). Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia.Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78%) than in Australia (53%) (P < 0.001). In both countries, general practitioners reported that indications (Australia, 90%, Malaysia, 93%) and dosages (Australia, 76%, Malaysia, 82%) were frequently provided by pharmaceutical representatives. Contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects were often omitted in the presentations (range 25% - 41%). General practitioners in Australia and Malaysia indicated that in more than 90% of presentations, pharmaceutical representatives partly or fully answered their questions on contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects. More general practitioners in Malaysia (85%) than in Australia (60%) reported that pharmaceutical representatives should have mentioned contraindications, precautions for use, drug interaction or adverse effects spontaneously (P < 0.001). In 48% of the Australian presentations, general practitioners reported the pharmaceutical representatives failed to mention information on PBS listings to general practitioners.Information on indications and dosages were usually provided by pharmaceutical representatives in Australia and Malaysia. However, risk and harmful effects of medicines were often missing in their presentations. Effective control of medicines infor
Information from Pharmaceutical Companies and the Quality, Quantity, and Cost of Physicians' Prescribing: A Systematic Review
Geoffrey K. Spurling ,Peter R. Mansfield,Brett D. Montgomery,Joel Lexchin,Jenny Doust,Noordin Othman,Agnes I. Vitry
PLOS Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000352
Abstract: Background Pharmaceutical companies spent $57.5 billion on pharmaceutical promotion in the United States in 2004. The industry claims that promotion provides scientific and educational information to physicians. While some evidence indicates that promotion may adversely influence prescribing, physicians hold a wide range of views about pharmaceutical promotion. The objective of this review is to examine the relationship between exposure to information from pharmaceutical companies and the quality, quantity, and cost of physicians' prescribing. Methods and Findings We searched for studies of physicians with prescribing rights who were exposed to information from pharmaceutical companies (promotional or otherwise). Exposures included pharmaceutical sales representative visits, journal advertisements, attendance at pharmaceutical sponsored meetings, mailed information, prescribing software, and participation in sponsored clinical trials. The outcomes measured were quality, quantity, and cost of physicians' prescribing. We searched Medline (1966 to February 2008), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to February 2008), Embase (1997 to February 2008), Current Contents (2001 to 2008), and Central (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2007) using the search terms developed with an expert librarian. Additionally, we reviewed reference lists and contacted experts and pharmaceutical companies for information. Randomized and observational studies evaluating information from pharmaceutical companies and measures of physicians' prescribing were independently appraised for methodological quality by two authors. Studies were excluded where insufficient study information precluded appraisal. The full text of 255 articles was retrieved from electronic databases (7,185 studies) and other sources (138 studies). Articles were then excluded because they did not fulfil inclusion criteria (179) or quality appraisal criteria (18), leaving 58 included studies with 87 distinct analyses. Data were extracted independently by two authors and a narrative synthesis performed following the MOOSE guidelines. Of the set of studies examining prescribing quality outcomes, five found associations between exposure to pharmaceutical company information and lower quality prescribing, four did not detect an association, and one found associations with lower and higher quality prescribing. 38 included studies found associations between exposure and higher frequency of prescribing and 13 did not detect an association. Five included studies found evidence for association with higher costs, four
Levels of Job Satisfaction amongst Malaysian Academic Staff
Fauziah Noordin,Kamaruzaman Jusoff
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v5n5p122
Abstract: A study of job satisfaction of academic staff of a public university in Malaysia used the 7-item general satisfaction scale in a survey to determine the level of job satisfaction of the academic staff. The results indicated that overall the academic staff of the university has a moderate level of job satisfaction. In addition, current status, marital status, age and salary appear to have significant impact on the respondents’ level of job satisfaction. Implications on the study’s findings to the management of the university are also discussed.
Effect of Dialogue Journal Writing through the Use of Conventional Tools and E-mail on Writing Anxiety in the ESL Context
Maryam Foroutan,Nooreen Noordin
English Language Teaching , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v5n1p10
Abstract: ESL/EFL Anxiety has been reported as one of the foremost factors affecting ESL learners’ performance. Hence, identifying methods to assist language learners to alleviate their ESL anxiety deserve to be considered by the educators. This study compared the effect of dialogue journal writing (DJW) through two different modes of learning and teaching: conventional (using pen and paper or Microsoft Word) and online (using e-mail) on the writing anxiety. Forty-two students from an intact class undergoing the TESL program participated in the study. After going through seven weeks where students wrote their dialogue journals (using two different tools) in dyadic groups, pre and posttest writing anxiety questionnaire (Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory) showed statistically no significant difference between groups in terms of writing anxiety, however mean scores revealed that e-mail group’s writing anxiety have been alleviated greater than their counterparts in conventional group. It shows e-mail has potential in assisting students in lowering their anxiety towards writing.
The Development and Characterization of Zirconia-Silica Sand Nanoparticles Composites  [PDF]
Tahir Ahmad, Othman Mamat
World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering (WJNSE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/wjnse.2011.11002
Abstract: The present study aims to develop zirconia-Silica sand nanoparticles composites through powder processing route and to study the physical properties, mechanical properties and microstructure of the composites. Zirconia based silica sand nanoparticles composite with 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% were developed through powder processing technique and sintered at 1500 ℃ for two hours. A decreasing trend of green density however an improvement in sintered density was observed. Also the addition of silica sand nanoparticles with 20 wt.% increased the hardness up to 12.45 GPa and microstructures indicated the diffusion mechanism of silica sand nanoparticles into pore sites of the composites.
Corporal Punishment Study: A Case in Malaysia  [PDF]
Narasappa Kumaraswamy, Azizah Othman
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.21004
Abstract: The study investigates the occurrence of childhood corporal punishment at home on a sample of participants who resided in the northeast of Malaysia, Kelantan. The Discipline Questionnaire (DQ) - a 32-item self-report instrument was completed by 196 medical students studying in fourth and fifth year at School of Medical Sciences Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). The participants were asked about the type, frequency, and severity of parental corporal punishment they remembered to receive at home during childhood, in addition to their attitudes toward corporal punishment on children. Sixty three percent of participants remembered being corporally punished at home, as children. Only 3% of them reported that the punishment reaches an abusive level – which was defined as physical punishment that results in welts, bruises, bone fractures or breaks, or large/deep cuts. Pinching was the most commonly reported types of punishment used at home (35%), followed by slapping on the hand, arm or leg (31%), whipping using flexible material such as leather or rope (23%), and spanking/slapping on the buttocks with open hand (20%). The study indicates that on average the participants had a fairly favorable attitude towards corporal punishment. The findings suggest that majority of parents in Malaysia have been using corporal punishment on their children – primarily of mild types. Generally, the participants have had a fairly favorable attitude towards corporal punishment. Corporal punishment in this context is not perceived as an action of abusing a child, but rather one of many ways to teach the child a lesson in life.
Effect of Conduction Pre-heating in Au-Al Thermosonic Wire Bonding  [PDF]
Gurbinder Singh, Othman Mamat
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2011.13018
Abstract: This paper presents the recent study by investigating the vital responses of wire bonding with the application of conduction pre-heating. It is observed through literature reviews that, the effect of pre-heating has not been completely explored to enable the successful application of pre-heating during wire bonding. The aim of wire bonding is to form quality and reliable solid-state bonds to interconnect metals such as gold wires to metalized pads deposited on silicon integrated circuits. Typically, there are 3 main wire bonding techniques applied in the industry; Thermo-compression, Ultrasonic and Thermosonic. This experiment utilizes the most common and widely used platform which is thermosonic bonding. This technique is explored with the application of conduction pre-heating along with heat on the bonding site, ultrasonic energy and force on an Au-Al system. Sixteen groups of bonding conditions which include eight hundred data points of shear strength at various temperature settings were compared to establish the relationship between bonding strength and the application of conduction pre-heating. The results of this study will clearly indicate the effects of applied conduction pre-heating towards bonding strength which may further produce a robust wire bonding system.
Simulation Mechanical Properties of Lead Sulfur Selenium under Pressure  [PDF]
Mazin S. Othman
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.42026
Abstract:
The elastic properties of lead sulfur selenium are studied using first-principles calculations. The geometry optimized structural parameters for PbS0.5Se0.5 under different pressures are listed. The lattice parameter increase with increasing pressure, but enthalpy is constant. However, parameter B and Y decrease and parameter S increase with increasing pressure. The elastic constants satisfy the traditional mechanical stability conditions for these ternary mixed crystals. The elastic modulus as two functions of pressure from 0 - 10 GPa are obtained. The calculated elastic constants Cij decrease but with different rates under increasing pressure.
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