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Search Results: 1 - 6 of 6 matches for " Nongnuch Vanittanakom "
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Low Effective Dispersal of Asexual Genotypes in Heterogeneous Landscapes by the Endemic Pathogen Penicillium marneffei
Matthew C Fisher ,William P Hanage,Sybren de Hoog,Elizabeth Johnson,Michael D Smith,Nicholas J White,Nongnuch Vanittanakom
PLOS Pathogens , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0010020
Abstract: Long-distance dispersal in microbial eukaryotes has been shown to result in the establishment of populations on continental and global scales. Such “ubiquitous dispersal” has been claimed to be a general feature of microbial eukaryotes, homogenising populations over large scales. However, the unprecedented sampling of opportunistic infectious pathogens created by the global AIDS pandemic has revealed that a number of important species exhibit geographic endemicity despite long-distance migration via aerially dispersed spores. One mechanism that might tend to drive such endemicity in the face of aerial dispersal is the evolution of niche-adapted genotypes when sexual reproduction is rare. Dispersal of such asexual physiological “species” will be restricted when natural habitats are heterogeneous, as a consequence of reduced adaptive variation. Using the HIV-associated endemic fungus Penicillium marneffei as our model, we measured the distribution of genetic variation over a variety of spatial scales in two host species, humans and bamboo rats. Our results show that, despite widespread aerial dispersal, isolates of P. marneffei show extensive spatial genetic structure in both host species at local and country-wide scales. We show that the evolution of the P. marneffei genome is overwhelmingly clonal, and that this is perhaps the most asexual fungus yet found. We show that clusters of genotypes are specific to discrete ecological zones and argue that asexuality has led to the evolution of niche-adapted genotypes, and is driving endemicity, by reducing this pathogen's potential to diversify in nature.
Clonality Despite Sex: The Evolution of Host-Associated Sexual Neighborhoods in the Pathogenic Fungus Penicillium marneffei
Daniel A. Henk ,Revital Shahar-Golan,Khuraijam Ranjana Devi,Kylie J. Boyce,Nengyong Zhan,Natalie D. Fedorova,William C. Nierman,Po-Ren Hsueh,Kwok-Yung Yuen,Tran P. M. Sieu,Nguyen Van Kinh,Heiman Wertheim,Stephen G. Baker,Jeremy N. Day,Nongnuch Vanittanakom,Elaine M. Bignell,Alex Andrianopoulos,Matthew C. Fisher
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002851
Abstract: Molecular genetic approaches typically detect recombination in microbes regardless of assumed asexuality. However, genetic data have shown the AIDS-associated pathogen Penicillium marneffei to have extensive spatial genetic structure at local and regional scales, and although there has been some genetic evidence that a sexual cycle is possible, this haploid fungus is thought to be genetically, as well as morphologically, asexual in nature because of its highly clonal population structure. Here we use comparative genomics, experimental mixed-genotype infections, and population genetic data to elucidate the role of recombination in natural populations of P. marneffei. Genome wide comparisons reveal that all the genes required for meiosis are present in P. marneffei, mating type genes are arranged in a similar manner to that found in other heterothallic fungi, and there is evidence of a putatively meiosis-specific mutational process. Experiments suggest that recombination between isolates of compatible mating types may occur during mammal infection. Population genetic data from 34 isolates from bamboo rats in India, Thailand and Vietnam, and 273 isolates from humans in China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam show that recombination is most likely to occur across spatially and genetically limited distances in natural populations resulting in highly clonal population structure yet sexually reproducing populations. Predicted distributions of three different spatial genetic clusters within P. marneffei overlap with three different bamboo rat host distributions suggesting that recombination within hosts may act to maintain population barriers within P. marneffei.
Critical appraisal of the role of recombinant activated factor VII in the treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors
Ampaiwan Chuansumrit, Pantep Angchaisuksiri, Nongnuch Sirachainan
Journal of Blood Medicine , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JBM.S6209
Abstract: itical appraisal of the role of recombinant activated factor VII in the treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors Review (3320) Total Article Views Authors: Ampaiwan Chuansumrit, Pantep Angchaisuksiri, Nongnuch Sirachainan Published Date March 2010 Volume 2010:1 Pages 37 - 48 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JBM.S6209 Ampaiwan Chuansumrit1, Pantep Angchaisuksiri2, Nongnuch Sirachainan1 1Departments of Pediatrics and 2Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Hemophilia patients with inhibitors faced the constraint of inadequate treatment for several years before the era of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVII). Initially, rFVIIa was used in the compassionate-use programs. After a worldwide license was issued, more than 1.5 million doses were administered. Bleeding of joints and muscles was controlled effectively by means of an early home treatment program, with either a standard dose of 90 μg/kg every 2 to 3 hours for a few doses or a single dose of 270 μg/kg. For more serious bleeding episodes or minor surgery, an initial dose of 90 μg/kg was given every 2 hours for 24 to 48 hours followed by increased intervals of 3 to 6 hours according to the severity of bleeding and efficacy of bleeding control. In cases of major surgery such as orthopedic procedures, the same regimen can be applied except for a higher initial dose of 120 to 180 μg/kg. However, increasing the dose should be considered if there are unexpected bleeding complications since the half-life and clearance of rFVIIa differ between individuals. In addition, prophylaxis is administered to a small number of patients. Finally, the reported thromboembolic events found in hemophilia patients with inhibitors receiving rFVIIa are extremely low, much less than 1%.
Critical appraisal of the role of recombinant activated factor VII in the treatment of hemophilia patients with inhibitors
Ampaiwan Chuansumrit,Pantep Angchaisuksiri,Nongnuch Sirachainan
Journal of Blood Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Ampaiwan Chuansumrit1, Pantep Angchaisuksiri2, Nongnuch Sirachainan11Departments of Pediatrics and 2Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: Hemophilia patients with inhibitors faced the constraint of inadequate treatment for several years before the era of recombinant factor VIIa (rFVII). Initially, rFVIIa was used in the compassionate-use programs. After a worldwide license was issued, more than 1.5 million doses were administered. Bleeding of joints and muscles was controlled effectively by means of an early home treatment program, with either a standard dose of 90 μg/kg every 2 to 3 hours for a few doses or a single dose of 270 μg/kg. For more serious bleeding episodes or minor surgery, an initial dose of 90 μg/kg was given every 2 hours for 24 to 48 hours followed by increased intervals of 3 to 6 hours according to the severity of bleeding and efficacy of bleeding control. In cases of major surgery such as orthopedic procedures, the same regimen can be applied except for a higher initial dose of 120 to 180 μg/kg. However, increasing the dose should be considered if there are unexpected bleeding complications since the half-life and clearance of rFVIIa differ between individuals. In addition, prophylaxis is administered to a small number of patients. Finally, the reported thromboembolic events found in hemophilia patients with inhibitors receiving rFVIIa are extremely low, much less than 1%.Keywords: bleeding disorder, hemophilia, inhibitor, NovoSeven, recombinant factor VIIa
Mineral metabolism and outcomes in chronic kidney disease stage 2–4 patients
Chartsrisak Kamonwan,Vipattawat Kotcharat,Assanatham Montira,Nongnuch Arkom
BMC Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2369-14-14
Abstract: Background Marked hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism and 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency are associated with mortality in dialysis patients. Such data in chronic kidney disease stage 2–4 population are limited. It has been suggested that high-normal serum phosphate predicts worse renal and patient outcomes. The data regarding parathyroid hormone and outcomes in this population is limited. The present study examined mineral metabolism and its association with the development of end-stage renal disease and mortality in stage 2–4 chronic kidney disease patients. Methods This is a prospective cohort study that included 466 non-dialysis chronic kidney disease stage 2–4 patients. Mineral parameters were obtained at the time of enrollment and the patients were followed prospectively for 25 (1–44) months or until they reached the endpoints of end-stage renal disease or mortality. Results Hyperparathyroidism and 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency began to occur in the early stages of chronic kidney disease, whereas significant hyperphosphatemia only developed in the later stages. High-normal and mildly elevated serum phosphate (>4.2 mg/dL) predicted the composite outcome of end-stage renal disease or mortality after adjustments for cardiovascular risk factors, chronic kidney disease stage and other mineral parameters. Parathyroid hormone levels above the upper limit of normal (>65 pg/mL) predicted the future development of end-stage renal disease and the composite outcome of end-stage renal disease or mortality after adjustments. 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency (<15 ng/mL) was also associated with worse outcomes. Conclusions In chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism developed prior to significant hyperphosphatemia confirming the presence phosphate retention early in the course of chronic kidney disease. High-normal serum phosphate and mildly elevated parathyroid hormone levels predicted worse renal and patient outcomes. This data emphasizes the need for early intervention in the care of chronic kidney disease stage 2–4 patients.
Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of dietary black sesame meal in pre-hypertensive humans
Jatuporn Wichitsranoi, Natthida Weerapreeyakul, Patcharee Boonsiri, Chatri Settasatian, Nongnuch Settasatian, Nantarat Komanasin, Suchart Sirijaichingkul, Yaovalak Teerajetgul, Nuchanart Rangkadilok, Naruemon Leelayuwat
Nutrition Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-10-82
Abstract: Twenty-two women and eight men (aged 49.8 ± 6.6 years) with prehypertension were randomly divided into two groups, 15 subjects per group. They ingested 2.52 g black sesame meal capsules or placebo capsules each day for 4 weeks. Blood samples were obtained after overnight fasting for measurement of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E levels. Anthropometry, body composition and BP were measured before and after 4-week administration of black sesame meal or a placebo.The results showed that 4-week administration of black sesame meal significantly decreased systolic BP (129.3 ± 6.8 vs. 121.0 ± 9.0 mmHg, P < 0.05) and MDA level (1.8 ± 0.6 vs. 1.2 ± 0.6 μmol/L, P < 0.05), and increased vitamin E level (29.4 ± 6.0 vs. 38.2 ± 7.8 μmol/L, P < 0.01). In the black sesame meal group, the change in SBP tended to be positively related to the change in MDA (R = 0.50, P = 0.05), while the change in DBP was negatively related to the change in vitamin E (R = -0.55, P < 0.05). There were no correlations between changes in BP and oxidative stress in the control group.These results suggest the possible antihypertensive effects of black sesame meal on improving antioxidant status and decreasing oxidant stress. These data may imply a beneficial effect of black sesame meal on prevention of CVD.Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in developing countries. Elevation of blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure and death [1]. Prevention of increased BP therefore plays a crucial role in a reduction of those outcomes. Impaired balance between relaxing and contracting factors in the endothelium of blood vessels is an important pathogenic mechanism of hypertension. Increased pro-oxidant and decreased antioxidant activities have been shown to be some of the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of hypertension [2].It has been reported that sesame seeds can improve oxid
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