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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19190 matches for " Non-wood materials "
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A Review on Pulp Manufacture from Non Wood Plant Materials
Kamoga Omar Lwako M.
International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications , 2013, DOI: 10.7763/ijcea.2013.v4.281
Abstract: There has been a cyclic trend in the production of pulp and paper, alternating between the non-wood and the wood materials. Originally paper wasbeing made from nonwood materials such as papyrus, hemp and textile rags. With the development of technologies for isolating pulp from wood, it resulted in abandoning paper making from many non-wood materials. Since then, it has been cheaper to produce pulp and paper from wood. However, todate the trend is reversing from wood as the major source of pulp for paper making to nonwood materials such as agricultural food crop residues, grasses, shed tree leaves, fibrous shells of fruits and others. This is due to the fact that the supply of wood for pulp is decreasing as a result of deforestation in most part of world, more especially in Uganda while the non-wood materials are more available and can readily be regenerated after a short period.In this paper we have reviewed the trend in pulp and paper production from different non-wood materials since the perception of the paper making technology up todate through literature review and consultations with experts in the area pulp and paper production.
Optimum Control for Spread of Pollutants through Forest Resources  [PDF]
Nita H. Shah, Moksha H. Satia, Bijal M. Yeolekar
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.85047
Abstract: Pollution has become the most critical factor spread by forest resources through wood-based and non-wood based industries. In other words, pollution is omnipresent. In this paper, the major pollutants caused due to wood and non-wood based industries are discussed which are the primary resources of the forest in spreading the pollution. In order to study the impact of industrialization and associated pollution on forest resources, the system of non-linear ordinary differential equations is formulated. The controls are advised on both types of industries to reduce the pollution.
Od produkcie k multifunk nému vyu ívaniu lesnych ekosystémov
Jozef Kon pka
Lesnícky casopis - Forestry Journal , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v110114-009-0011-6
Abstract: Development of forest utilization as a wood producer and a source of non-wood products is characterized. Special attention is paid to public beneficial (non-production) forest functions. Multifunctional (functionally integrated) forest management is defined. Current situation in its implementation and related barriers are given. They are particularly lack of finances in forest sector when almost 80% of revenues come from the sale of raw wood material. It is proposed to incorporate public beneficial forest functions to economic mechanism of the subjects managing forests and to secure these activities as properly paid services.
Evaluación de la producción potencial de frutos de Gevuina avellana, durante una temporada (1999-2000) en el secano costero de la VII Región
Bosque (Valdivia) , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-92002005000300010
Abstract: gevuina avellana mol., belongs to a monospecific genera of the proteaceae family, which is endemic to chile and argentina. this evergreen chilean tree is a component of different native habitats from the andes and the coastal mountains, between the vii and the x region. this species has a wide range of uses, the most outstanding of which is its production of edible nuts. traditionally the chilean hazelnuts were collected from the native forest and marketed locally. their excellent properties converted them into a fruit-species with great economic potential. in order to respond to quantity and quality demands of the chocolate industry, the potential production of chilean hazelnuts was studied in the coastal dryland in the vii region, using traps to collect samples. based on their dimensions, insertion into the surrounding vegetation, and anthropic management, five tree types were defined. the greatest productivity was found on isolated trees surrounded by periodically fertilized and irrigated crops, with a production of nearly 14 kg/tree. this indicated the possibility of incorporating avellana into silvoagricultural management. nut drop is concentrated in a period of 5 to 6 weeks, with the possibility of scheduling the harvest to minimize production and quality losses. it was observed that marked flower clusters need 8 months between the formation and ripening of nuts, with 1.6 to 4.7 % of fruit set depending on the tree type.
Caracteriza??o tecnológica de espécies liberianas para o estabelecimento de métodos de análise quantitativa de fibras
Azzini, Anisio;Salgado, Antonio Luiz de Barros;Benatti Junior, Romeu;Costa, Antonio Alberto;
Bragantia , 1993, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051993000100004
Abstract: the technological characteristics of five bast plants were determined mainly to establish a new methodology for textile and cellulosic fibers determinations. the studied species (crotalaria juncea, hibiscus cannabinus, corchorus capsularis, urena lobatta and boehmeria nivea) were collected in 1987, from experiments carried out at the experiment center of campinas, and experiment station of pariquera-a?u, instituto agron?mico, state of s?o paulo, brazil. the results showed technological differences among species. the crotalaria stalks with the lowest bast contents (19.65%), presented the highest value for the total cellulosic fibers (54.84%) obtained from the bast and woody fraction of the stalk. the bast content for other species varied from 30.74 to 41.13% and the total fibers from 39.46 to 48.38%. the methods of analysis utilized and described in this paper, represent a new methodology for the quantitative determination of textile and cellulosic fibers.
Bariery rozwoju niedrzewnej produkcji le nej w wybranych krajach europejskich
Micha Kalinowski
Forest Research Papers , 2010, DOI: 10.2478/v10111-010-0035-9
Abstract: The barriers to development of non-wood forest products and services identified in many countries' reports from the COST Action E30 were grouped and classified into main categories, as follows: political (timber-dominated education, free access to resources), connected with attitudes and behaviour of forest owners/entrepreneurs (mental barriers of forest owners to new forest uses, farmers' focus on agricultural production, disinterest of ‘new’ or urban owners in this income, limited entrepreneurial orientation of forest owners), technical (low and irregular concentration of resources, high variability of yield in time and space), economical (squeezing forest products and services out of the market by non-forest alternatives, under-developed domestic markets, creation of added value is limited, problems with quality control and creating of integrated products) and social (lack of seasonal workers and low population density in rural areas).
New perspectives of the diffusion of forest non-wood products in the multiethnic Europe
Giordano E
Forest@ , 2006,
Abstract: Issues related to non-wood forest products, whose consumption in Europe increased largely in recent years due to immigration, is discussed with reference to sustainable forest management of tropical forests.
Non-wood forest products, the utilization, and harvesting methods in Sardasht, North West Iran
Rostam Mousavi
International Journal of Forest, Soil and Erosion , 2012,
Abstract: Non-wood forest products include all kind of services which forest offers except woody production. People were using the forest resources over many centuries to fulfill the daily needs. However, only in the last decades non-wood forest products have gained more attention in world trade. Sardasht region in the northwestern Iran with a considerable forest cover was chosen as a study area. In order to carry out the study, questionnaires were prepaid and distributed among local people, and the results were analyzed. All kind of non-wood production which could be exchanged for money were listed, and other kind of non-market services such as protection of soil resources and recreation were not evaluated. Different forest by-products were recognized in the area including acorn, foliage leaves, galls, turpentine, pistachio (Pistacia vera) nuts, leaves and fruits of roses, cherry elaeagnus (Elaeagnus edulis), hawthorn (Ceratagus spp), wild plum (Prunus spp.), bitter almond (Amygdalus communis), walnuts (Juglans spp.), manna of Oak trees, wild pear (Pyrus spp.), sumac (Rhus coriaria). Among all these products, turpentine is the only non-wood forest product which can be export to neighboring countries. Other non-wood forest production has not widely spread in the market being consumed at local scale for household needs by local people. However, the non-wood products play an important role fulfilling the peoples’ needs through both non-market and market means. It is possible to improve the role of non-wood forest products in the daily life of local people with provoding facilities such as better transportation system and marketing.
Uses and Conservation Status of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. (Hegleig Tree) in Sudan: Local People Perspective
A.A. Elfeel,E.I. Warrag
Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the current and potential values and identify main threatening factors of Balanites aegyptiaca in Sudan. Three areas were selected for data collection (Umm Abdalla, Boat and Id Elfrissan). Group discussion was carried out to tap local community knowledge about the species uses, potentials and threatening factors. Then structured interview was used to verify and check the information generated in group discussion. A total of 120 respondents from the three areas were interviewed. Results showed that Hegleig tree is very important multi-purpose tree for livelihood of local communities in many areas of the Sudan. The gene pool of the species was severely affected by many deteriorating factors like lopping of branches, grazing, mechanized farming and gap in transfer of indigenous knowledge. These factors were combined with removal of associated trees and retaining Balanites which made it vulnerable. Protection, in situ conservation stands and conservation in use is the most suitable measures for this species in Sudan.
Yield and spectroscopic analysis (1H, 13C NMR; IR) of essential oils from four plants of the Brazilian Savannah
Ana Virgínia Montenegro Castelo,Cláudio Henrique Soares Del Menezzi,Ines Sabioni Resck
CERNE , 2010,
Abstract: The production of essential oils from the species of the Brazilian native forests is still low, even thought its high biodiversity. Specifically for the Brazilian Savannah, a few species has been studied so far, then the research effort concerning essential oil should be raised. This paper aimed at evaluating the potential of some species from the Brazilian Savannah to produce essential oil by calculating the yield and determining the preliminary chemical composition. Leaves from Baccharis sp., Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Psidium myrcinides and Protium ovatum were collected at Fazenda água Limpa, the ecologic experimental area of the University of Brasília. The essential oil from the material was extracted by steam distillation for 90 minutes, using laboratory distillatory equipment. The fresh distillate was collected and the essential oil was separated from the hydrosol by using a solvent. The preliminary chemical composition of the essential oils was determined by TLC (thin layer chromatography) and 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Ressonance (NMR) and Infrared (IR) analyses. According to the results the essential oil yield of Baccharis sp., Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Psidium myrcinides and Protium ovatum was 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.10% and 0.13%, respectively. The observed yield values can be considered suitable for maintaining the research efforts. Chemical analysis showed that the essential oils obtained are composed by a complex mixture of compounds which should be studied more deeply.
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