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Search Results: 1 - 7 of 7 matches for " Nocon "
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Practicing Invisibility: Women’s Roles in Higher Education
Monica Nilsson,Honorine Nocon
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2005,
Abstract: In this article, two female academics confront their role in producing their own invisibility and ir-relevance in the practice of higher education. Drawing on feminist standpoint theory, the authors interrogate their participation in articulation work that helped male colleagues to assume roles of higher status. Based on an analysis of personal narratives and the text of an international e-mail exchange that resulted in a successful grant proposal, the authors argue that the hierarchical and patriarchal cultural history of the academy as well as the intrusion of gendered relations from contexts beyond the institution of higher education undermine the democratic intentions of aca-demics, both male and female, who espouse horizontal collaborative relations between academics. This case study illustrates the contradiction between egalitarian institutional rhetoric and value systems of individuals and the hierarchical and gendered power relations that play out in everyday life in the academy. The authors conclude that while both male and female academics must work to change the gendered text of higher education, women in the academy must build both critical mass and mentoring networks in consciously acting to change the institution’s cultural history.
Review on the medical and health economic evidence for an inclusion of colposcopy in primary screening programs for cervical cancer
Nocon, Marc,Mittendorf, Thomas,Roll, Stephanie,Greiner, Wolfgang
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction: With 3.2% of all cancer cases in 2002, cervical carcinoma is the tenth most common cancer in Germany and causes 1.8% of all cancer deaths in women in Germany. To date diagnosis in Germany solely has been based on cervical cytology which has been criticised due to its low sensitivity and consequently high rate of false negative results. Objectives: How does colposcopy compare to cytological tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and what may be the effects of changes in screening for cervical carcinoma in Germany? Is there health economic evidence that may foster an inclusion of colposcopy into national screening programms? Methods: A systematic literature review was performed, including studies that compared colposcopy to cervical cytology in terms of sensitivity and specificity. In addition, a systematic review of the relevant health economic literature was performed to analyse cost-effectiveness issues relevant to the German setting. Results: A total of four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which only two were of high methodologic quality. In all studies, the sensitivity of colposcopy was lower than that of cytology. In three studies the specificity of colposcopy was lower than that of cytology, in one study specificity of colposcopy and cytology was similar. No health economic data suggesting positive effects of adding colposcopy in primary screening could be identified. Discussion: Only few studies have compared the test criteria of colposcopy with those of cytology for screening in cervical cancer. In all studies, sensitivity of colposcopy was even lower than the sensitivity of cytology, which has been critisized because of its low sensitivity. Conclusion: Based on the present data, an inclusion of colposcopy in primary cervical cancer screening programmes can not be recommended.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for the prevention of HPV 16/18 induced cervical cancer and its precursors
Damm, Oliver,Nocon, Marc,Roll, Stephanie,Vauth, Christoph
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction: Essential precondition for the development of cervical cancer is a persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The majority - approximately 70% - of cervical carcinomas is caused by two high-risk HPV types (16 and 18). Recently, two vaccines have been approved to the German market with the potential to induce protection against HPV 16 and HPV 18 among additional low-risk virus types. Objectives: To analyse whether HPV vaccination is effective with regard to the reduction of cervical cancer and precursors of cervical carcinoma (CIN), respectively? Does HPV vaccination represent a cost-effective alternative or supplement to present screening practice? Are there any differences concerning cost-effectiveness between the two available vaccines? Should HPV vaccination be recommended from a health economic point of view? If so, which recommendations can be conveyed with respect to a (re)organization of the German vaccination strategy? Which ethical, social and legal implications have to be considered? Methods: Based on a systematic literature review, randomized controlled trials (RCT) looking at the effectiveness of HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical carcinoma and its precursors - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - have been identified. In addition, health economic models were identified to address the health economic research questions. Quality assessment of medical and economic literature was assured by application of general assessment standards for the systematic and critical appraisal of scientific studies. Results: Vaccine efficacy in prevention of CIN 2 or higher lesions in HPV 16 or HPV 18 negative women, who received all vaccination doses, ranges between 98% and 100%. Side effects of the vaccination are mainly associated with injection site reactions (redness, turgor, pain). No significant differences concerning serious complications between the vaccination- and the placebo-groups were reported. Results of base case scenarios in the identified health economic modeling analyses range from approximately 3,000 Euro to 40,000 Euro per additional QALY (QALY = Quality-adjusted life year) and approximately 9,000 Euro to 65,000 Euro per additional life year (LYG), respectively. Discussion: The included studies show that both available HPV vaccines are effective in preventing HPV 16 and HPV 18 infections and probable resulting premalignant lesions of the cervix. However, the duration of protection is currently unclear. With regard to side effects, the vaccination can be considered as secure. Nevertheless, the number of cases wit
Concepts of care for people with dementia
Rieckmann, Nina,Schwarzbach, Christoph,Nocon, Marc,Roll, Stefanie
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2009,
Abstract: Introduction: Today there are approximately one million people with dementia in Germany. If current demographic trends continue, this number is likely to rise substantially in the coming years. In the older population, dementia is the most frequent reason for long-term care. Because most forms of dementia cannot be cured, the aim of treatment is to delay disease progression and to maintain functioning and quality of life. Research questions: What is the evidence on different approaches to the long-term usual care of patients with dementia in terms of common endpoints such as quality of life, and social behaviour? How is the cost-effectiveness of these concepts to be evaluated? Which ethical, social, or legal issues are discussed in this context? Methods: Based on a systematic literature review, we include randomized, controlled studies that had at least 30 participants and investigated one or more of the following approaches of dementia care: validation therapy/emotion-oriented usual care, ergotherapy, sensory stimulation, relaxation techniques, reality orientation therapy, and reminiscence therapy. Studies had to be published after 1996 (after 1990 for the economic part) in English or German. Results: A total of 20 studies meet the inclusion criteria. Of these, three focus on validation therapy/emotion-oriented usual care, five on ergotherapy, seven on different kinds of sensory stimulation, two on reality orientation, two on reminiscence therapy, and one on a type of relaxation technique. There are no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in two of the three studies on validation therapy or emotion-oriented usual care, in two of the five studies on ergotherapy, in three of the seven studies on sensory stimulation, in both of the two studies on reminiscence therapy, and in the one study on relaxation. In the remaining ten studies, seven report some positive results in favour of the respective interventions, and three studies (ergotherapy, aroma therapy, and music/massage) report positive effects with respect to all of the endpoints measured. Six publications present economic results for usual-care-concepts. One study reports additional costs of 16 GBP (24.03 Euro (2006)) per patient per week for occupational therapie. Two publications declare incremental cost of 24.30 USD (25.62 Euro (2006)) per mini-mental-state-examination-(MMSE)-point gained per month respectively 1,380,000 ITL (506.21 Euro (2006)) per MMSE-point gained. Two publications focus on mixed interventions. One study reports the additional costs of an activity
Assessment of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV testing in primary screening for cervical
Mittendorf, Thomas,Nocon, Marc,Roll, Stephanie,Mühlberger, Nikolai
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction: The introduction of a screening programme for cervical carcinoma in Germany has led to a significant reduction in incidence of the disease. To date, however, diagnosis in Germany has been based solely on cervical cytology, which has been criticised because of a low sensitivity and consequently high rate of false negative results. Because an infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) previously was found to be a necessary aetiological factor in the development of cervical cancer, there has been some discussion that HPV testing should be included in cervical cancer screening. Objectives: How do HPV tests compare to cytological tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and what are the effects of screening for cervical carcinoma in Germany? Is there health economic evidence that may foster an inclusion of HPV testing into national screening programms? Methods: A systematic literature review was performed, including studies that compared the HPV test to cervical cytology in terms of sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CIN 2+ (CIN=Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia). In addition, a systematic review of the relevant health economic literature was performed to analyze cost-effectiveness in the German setting. Results: A total of 24 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One study consisted of three substudies. Hence, results of 26 comparisons of HPV and cytology are reported. In 25 of these, the HPV test was more sensitive than cytology, whereas cytology had better specificity in 21 studies. The combination of HPV test and cytology increased sensitivity. Variability in results was considerably larger for cytology than for HPV testing. Results of the economic meta-analysis suggest that in health care settings with already established PAP screening programms, cost-effectiveness strongly depends on screening intervals. In analyses comparing HPV screening to conventional PAP screening with two-yearly intervals, only 25% of the HPV strategies were found to be cost-effective, whereas in comparison with one-, three-, and five-yearly PAP screening, the percentage of overall cost-effective HPV strategies was 83%, 55%, and 92%, respectively. Results for annual screening intervals are based on the assumption of complete screening compliance, which has to be further evaluated in decision analyses in the future adapting to the German health care setting. Discussion: Including HPV testing in screening procedures for cervical carcinoma could lead to a reduction in false positive results. Doing so would involve one of the following approach
Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the 13C-urea breath test as the primary diagnostic investigation for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection compared to invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests
Nocon, Marc,Kuhlmann, Alexander,Leodolter, Andreas,Roll, Stephanie
GMS Health Technology Assessment , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. There is a risk factor for gastric or duodenal ulcers, gastric cancer and MALT (Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue)-Lymphomas. There are several invasive and non-invasive methods available for the diagnosis of H. pylori. The 13C-urea breath test is a non-invasive method recommended for monitoring H. pylori eradication therapy. However, this test is not yet used for primary assessment of H. pylori in Germany. Objectives: What are the clinical and health economic benefits of the 13C-urea breath test in the primary assessment of H. pylori compared to other invasive and non-invasive methods? Methods: A systematic literature search including a hand search was performed for studies investigating test criteria and cost-effectiveness of the 13C-urea breath test in comparison to other methods used in the primary assessment of H. pylori. Only studies that directly compared the 13C-urea breath test to other H. pylori-tests were included. For the medical part, biopsy-based tests were used as the gold standard. Results: 30 medical studies are included. Compared to the immunoglobulin G (IgG) test, the sensitivity of the 13C-urea breath test is higher in twelve studies, lower in six studies and one study reports no differences. The specificity is higher in 13 studies, lower in three studies and two studies report no differences. Compared to the stool antigen test, the sensitivity of the 13C-urea breath test is higher in nine studies, lower in three studies and one study reports no difference. The specificity is higher in nine studies, lower in two studies and two studies report no differences. Compared to the urease test, the sensitivity of the 13C-urea breath test is higher in four studies, lower in three studies and four studies report no differences. The specificity is higher in five studies, lower in five studies and one study reports no difference. Compared to histology, the sensitivity of the 13C-urea breath test is higher in one study and lower in two studies. The specificity is higher in two studies and lower in one study. One study each compares the 13C-urea breath test to the 14C-urea breath test and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, respectively, and reports no difference in sensitivity and specificity with the 14C-urea breath test, and lower sensitivity and higher specificity compared to PCR. The statistical significance of these differences is described for six of the 30 studies. Nine health economic evaluations are included in the Health Technology
Promotion of Physical Activity Using Point-of-Decision Prompts in Berlin Underground Stations
Falk Müller-Riemenschneider,Marc Nocon,Thomas Reinhold,Stefan N. Willich
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7083063
Abstract: To evaluate point-of-decision prompts in the promotion of stair use in Germany, motivational posters were placed at three underground stations in Berlin. The proportion of passengers using stairs or stairways was counted before, during installation, and two weeks after removal of posters. In total, 5,467 passersby were counted. Stair use increased significantly in women, but not in men. The present pilot study thereby shows that the use of point-of-decision prompts is also feasible in Germany and it provides some evidence of effectiveness. Methodologically rigorous studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
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