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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1377 matches for " Nobuyuki Susumu "
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Isolation of Mannooligosaccharides Corresponding to Antigenic Determinants of Pathogenic Yeast Candida catenulata Cell Wall Mannan  [PDF]
Hidemitsu Kobayashi, Susumu Kawakami, Yukiko Ogawa, Nobuyuki Shibata, Shigeo Suzuki
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.32033

To investigate the chemical structure of cell wall mannan of pathogenic yeast, Candida catenulata IFO 0745 strain, which possess the epitopes of antigenic factors 1, 9, and 34 to genus Candida, we previously performed the two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of this mannan, Fr. C, without the need for harsh procedures. In this study, three oligosaccharides, biose, triose, and tetraose, and mannose were isolated from Fr. C by acetolysis. The results of NMR analysis indicate that the chemical structures of these oligosaccharides were identified to Manα1-2Man, Manα1-2Manα1-2Man, and Manα1-3Manα1-2Manα1-2Man. The most of resultant mannose seems to be originated from the α-1,6-linked mannan backbone which is recognized by antiserum to factor 9. The inhibition assay of slide agglutination reaction between Fr. C and antigenic antibodies using three oligosaccharides indicate that the Manα1-2Manα1-2Man and Manα1-3Manα1-2Manα1-2Man possess domains corresponding to immunodominants of antigenic factors 1 and 34, respectively.

Structural Investigation of Cell Wall Mannan Antigen Obtained from Pathogenic Yeast Candida zeylanoides  [PDF]
Hidemitsu Kobayashi, Susumu Kawakami, Yukiko Ogawa, Nobuyuki Shibata, Shigeo Suzuki
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.32021
Abstract: Antigenicity of pathogenic yeast Candida zeylanoides NBRC 10326 was found to have similar to that of Candida guilliermondii, but it was slightly different, i.e. NBRC 10326 strain cells react strongly with the factor antibodies 1, 4, and 9, and react relatively weakly with factor antibody 5. We have investigated the structural characteristic of cell wall mannan of this strain using a non-degradable method, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The results obtained from NMR analysis, the two-dimensional homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn, indicated that C. zeylanoides mannan contains α-1, 3-linked and β-1,2-linked oligomannosyl side chains corresponding to C. guilliermondii specific antigenic factor 9. In addition, it was found that the mannan contains β-1,2-linked oligomannosyl side chains attached to phosphate groups corresponding to anitigenic factor 5, which were not found in C. guilliermondii mannan.
Nucleosynthesis in Baryon-Rich Outflows Associated With Gamma-Ray Bursts
Susumu Inoue,Nobuyuki Iwamoto,Manabu Orito,Mariko Terasawa
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1086/377298
Abstract: Robust generation of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) implies the formation of outflows with very low baryon loads and highly relativistic velocities, but more baryon-rich, slower outflows are also likely to occur in most GRB central engine scenarios, either as ``circum-jet winds'' or ``failed GRBs''. Here we study the possibility of nucleosynthesis within such baryon-rich outflows by conducting detailed reaction network calculations in the framework of the basic fireball model. It is shown that high baryon load fireballs attaining mildly relativistic velocities can synthesize appreciable quantities of heavy neutron capture elements with masses up to the platinum peak and beyond. Small but interesting amounts of light elements such as deuterium and boron can also be produced. Depending on the neutron excess and baryon load, the combination of high entropy, rapid initial expansion and gradual expansion at later times can cause the reaction flow to reach the fission regime, and its path can be intermediate between those of the $r$- and $s$-processes (``$n$-process''). The nucleosynthetic signature of these outflows may be observable in the companion stars of black hole binary systems and in the most metal-poor stars, potentially offering an important probe of the inner conditions of the GRB source. Contribution to the solar abundances for some heavy elements may also be possible. The prospects for further developments in various directions are discussed.
Nucleosynthesis of Light and Heavy Elements in Baryon-Rich Outflows Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts
Susumu Inoue,Nobuyuki Iwamoto,Manabu Orito,Mariko Terasawa
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) must originate from low baryon load, ultrarelativistic outflows; however, slower, more baryon-rich outflows (BROs) should also arise in connection with GRBs as ``circum-jet winds'' and/or ``failed GRBs''. We study the possibility of nucleosynthesis within such BROs by conducting detailed reaction network calculations in the framework of the fireball model, showing that they can be interesting sites for synthesis of heavy neutron capture elements, as well as of light elements such as deuterium. These products may be observable in the companion stars of black hole binary systems or in extremely metal-poor stars, offering an interesting probe of conditions in the central engine.
Epigenetic Aberrant Hypermethylation of DNA in Endometrial Cancer: Application as a Biomarker  [PDF]
Asuka Ono, Iori Kisu, Kouji Banno, Megumi Yanokura, Kenta Masuda, Yusuke Kobayashi, Kosuke Tsuji, Arisa Ueki, Wataru Yamagami, Hiroyuki Nomura, Nobuyuki Susumu, Daisuke Aoki
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.25082
Abstract: Endometrial cancer is the seventh most common cancer worldwide among females and accounts for about 40% of cancers of the uterus in Japan. An increase in incidence and a reduction in onset age of this disease are also likely, which makes it important to define the pathogenesis and develop effective treatment. However, the mechanism of canceration in the endometrium is unclear and development of endometrial cancer cannot be explained only by mutations of cancer-related genes. In contrast, epigenetic analyses have shown the importance of aberrant DNA hypermethylation in the canceration mechanism. In development of type 1 endometrial cancer, breakdown of the DNA mismatch repair system plays a large role, with changes in the human mutL homologue 1 (hMLH1) gene being of most importance. Studies to detect aberrant DNA hypermethylation of cancer cells present in microscopic amounts in vivo and to apply these data to diagnosis of cancer have been started. Epigenetic changes have also been examined as a marker of sensitivity to anticancer drugs. Aberrant hypermethylation of checkpoint with forkhead-associated and ring finger (CHFR), a mitotic phase checkpoint gene, is correlated with sensitivity to treatment with microtubule inhibitors and may be a marker for the response of endometrial cancer to anticancer drugs. Epigenetic aberrant DNA methylation of other genes may also be useful as clinical biomarkers for diagnosis and treatment of endometrial cancer.
Atypical Polypoid Adenomyoma (APAM) of the Uterine: Relationship with Endometrial Cancer  [PDF]
Iori Kisu, Kouji Banno, Megumi Yanokura, Yusuke Kobayashi, Arisa Ueki, Asuka Ono, Kennta Masuda, Wataru Yamagami, Hiroyuki Nomura, Akira Hirasawa, Nobuyuki Susumu, Daisuke Aoki
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.24061
Abstract: Atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APAM) is a rare polypoid tumor that generally occurs in women of reproductive age who have abnormal genital bleeding. The tumor was reported as a new disease concept by Mazur in 1981. Pathologically, APAM consist of irregularly proliferated endometrial gland cells and interlacing bundles of smooth muscle cells within the stroma, and have a similar form to adenocarcinoma, adenofibroma, adenosarcoma, and carcinosarcoma. Therefore, differential diagnosis is required in many cases. APAM is pathologically classified as a benign lesion and clinically has a comparatively favorable outcome. However, treatment and follow-up observation should be performed carefully because recurrence and residual lesions occur in many patients after conservative treatment. Concomitant development of endometrial adenocarcinoma also occurs in many cases and it is difficult to differentiate this disease from APAM. Thus, diagnosis of APAM should be made carefully, particularly since the number of cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma has increased in recent years. Furthermore, APAM tends to develop during a woman’s reproductive years, and fertility sparing treatment should be considered. Here, we review the clinicopathological characteristics of APAM, including the difficulty of diagnosis as a benign or malignant uterine tumor, and we examine the relationship between APAM and endometrial cancer.
Metformin: A possible drug for treatment of endometrial cancer  [PDF]
Kosuke Tsuji, Iori Kisu, Kouji Banno, Megumi Yanokura, Arisa Ueki, Yusuke Kobayashi, Wataru Yamagami, Hiroyuki Nomura, Nobuyuki Susumu, Daisuke Aoki, Kenta Masuda
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2012.21001
Abstract: Metformin is a widely used first-line drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent years, it has been reported that administration of metformin can reduce carcinogenic risk and inhibit proliferation of cancer cells including those from glioma and breast cancer. The underlying mechanism is thought to involve increased LKB-1 phosphorylation induced by metformin, followed by LKB-1 phosphorylation and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which then inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and results in inhibition of cell proliferation. In endometrial cancer, metformin causes cell cycle arrest in vitro, reduces hTERT mRNA, inhibits the mTOR pathway via AMPK, and is involved in inhibition of phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP). Metformin promotes expression of progesterone receptor by an action opposite to that of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) when used in combination with medroxyprogesterone acetate. This enhances the antitumor effect and this approach may be applicable in a clinical setting.
Dilatation of the nasal valve by expansion of the vestibular oris (EVO)  [PDF]
Susumu Mukai
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58A2004

Introduction: The main signs and symptoms of ankyloglossia with deviation of the epiglottis and larynx (ADEL) are sleep disorders caused by respiratory restraint. The author contrived the surgical procedure of correction of the glosso-larynx (CGL) and expansion of the vestibular oris (EVO) for the cure of ADEL. CGL increases vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (1% FEV). EVO reduces nasal airflow resistance. The most important component of nasal airflow resistance is the nasal valve. Purpose: Our purpose was to measure how wide the nares were dilated after EVO. Method: The width of the nares, height of the nose, length of the philtrum and width of the lip were measured in patients who had signs and symptoms of ADEL, before and after EVO. Result: Significant increases were observed in the width of the nares, height of the nose and length of the lip after EVO. Conclusion: This study confirmed that the nares dilate after EVO. Not only the amelioration of nasal respiration by EVO increases immunity, but also aesthetic effects are obtained after EVO.

Tonsils Increase in Weight during Growth  [PDF]
Susumu Mukai
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.44039
Purpose: During my 40 years of performing tonsillectomy, I have noticed that tonsils seem to increase in size with aging. The purpose was to study the relationship between the weight of tonsils and patients’ age. Subjects and Methods: Tonsillectomies were performed in 1246 patients diagnosed with sleep disorders with hypertrophied tonsils. The excised tonsils were weighed. Results: 1) The number of male tonsillectomy cases was 2.3 times higher than the number of female cases; 2) Most tonsillectomies were performed in children three to six years of age, and in adults who were around 30 years old; 3) The maximum age of the male patients was 57 years and that of the female patients was 63 years; 4) The weight of tonsils increased with age in the males, but the maximum weight of female tonsils was reached at around nine years of age; 5) Tonsils of males were heavier and larger than those of females of the same age; 6) A high degree of correlation was observed between the weights of the right and left tonsils of a subject. Conclusions:
Vicissitude of Curetted Adenoid Vegetations  [PDF]
Susumu Mukai
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2013.45044
Weights of curetted adenoid were measured and were compared with both weights of tonsils and the rate of adenoidectomy among the tonsillectomized cases. This study included 603 patients whose adenoids were curetted during the 11-year period. 90% of patients were 2 to 9 years old. The rate of curetted adenoid vegetation among the tonsillec-tomized cases was 80% among patients from 1 to 6 years old and 70% among patients of 7 and 8 years old. The rate remarkably decreased from 9 years of age. The average weight of the curetted adenoids in each age group ranged from 0.7 g to 1.9 g. There was no statistical correlation in the distribution of the average weight of the curetted adenoids between males and females as well as between the weight of the tonsils and the weight of the curetted adenoids. A hypothesis on the cause of adenoid hypertrophy was presented in this study.
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