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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1165 matches for " Nobuyoshi Hara "
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Improvement of Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Type 316L Stainless Steel by Potentiostatic Removal of Surface MnS Inclusions
Nobuyoshi Hara,Koichi Hirabayashi,Yu Sugawara,Izumi Muto
International Journal of Corrosion , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/482730
Abstract: The beneficial effect of the removal of MnS inclusions on the pitting of stainless steels has been demonstrated in two ways. (1) High-purity Type 316L stainless steel with no inclusions was used as a specimen in the measurement of anodic polarization curves in 0.5?M NaCl and (2) commercial Type 316L stainless steel with MnS and slag-related inclusions was first polarized at different potentials for 30 min in 1?M Na2SO4 of pH 3 and then anodic polarization measurements were taken in 0.5?M NaCl. Pitting did not occur in the passive or transpassive region of the high-purity steel. The polarization treatment dissolved MnS and some oxide inclusions (CaO and SiO2) on the surface of the commercial steel. An increase in pitting potential of the commercial steel was noted after treatment at potentials above 0.2?V. At the same time, the number of current spikes due to metastable pits decreased significantly. These results are more likely due to the beneficial effect of removing MnS inclusions from the steel surface rather than the modification effect of the chemical composition of passive films on the surface. 1. Introduction Manganese sulfide (MnS) inclusions are known to act as the initiation sites of pitting corrosion on stainless steels [1–9], while the overall dissolution of the inclusions is not necessary for the formation of pit initiation sites [10–17]. It is therefore expected that the removal of surface MnS inclusions improves the pitting corrosion resistance of stainless steels. The aim of treating the surface of stainless steels with processes like nitric acid passivation (ASTM A380 and ASTM A967) is to form a stable Cr-enriched passive oxide film [18], which plays an important role in providing high corrosion resistance to stainless steels. Such surface treatment has an additional effect of dissolving and removing the MnS inclusions from the surface of stainless steels [19]. Therefore, the improvement of pitting corrosion resistance by passivation treatments can be attributed not only to the modification of the chemical composition of the passive films but also to the removal of MnS from the surface of stainless steels. However, these two effects cannot be distinguished from each other in practice. For the further development of passivation treatments of stainless steels which meet environmental regulations and human safety standards, it is important to understand the intrinsic mechanism of each effect provided by passivation treatments. The purpose of the present study is to examine solely the effect of removing MnS on the pitting corrosion
Understanding of Corrosion Phenomena: Process, Mechanism, and Method
Rokuro Nishimura,Tooru Tsuru,Toshiaki Ohtsuka,Nobuyoshi Hara
International Journal of Corrosion , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/286174
What Types of Small and Medium-Sized Businesses are Utilizing New Financial Products?  [PDF]
Nobuyoshi YAMORI
iBusiness (IB) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2009.12014
Abstract: The increased diversification of fund rising methods among small and medium-sized businesses has been a major policy challenge in recent years, and private financial institutions are proactively striving to disseminate new financial technologies. However, this does not necessarily mean that every small and medium-sized business benefits from such technologies. It is difficult to analyze this aspect based on ready-made data. Fortunately, this paper can analyze the current status and challenges of the utilization of new financial products among small and medium-sized businesses by using unique survey questionnaires (Kansai RIETI Questionnaires). The results of responses from more than 2,000 companies showed that most companies began utilizing new financial products due to introductions by main banks, and it was seen that the diversification of fund rising methods among small and medium-sized businesses has developed as a result of efforts made by policy-making authorities and financial institutions. However, the rate of utilization of each financial method is as low as a few percentage points, and extremely small businesses or cash-strapped companies has not improved in terms of fund risings. Improved diversification was mainly found in excellent small and medium-sized businesses.
Co-Movement between Commodity Market and Equity Market: Does Commodity Market Change?  [PDF]
Nobuyoshi Yamori
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.23036
Abstract: This paper, using Japanese market data, finds that although the correlation between equity markets and commodity market used to be negative or almost zero before around 2006, it has increased significantly after the global financial crisis in Autumn of 2008. In this sense, the commodity market lost its character as an alternative asset.
Understanding of Corrosion Phenomena: Process, Mechanism, and Method
Rokuro Nishimura,Tooru Tsuru,Toshiaki Ohtsuka,Nobuyoshi Hara,En-Hou Han,Osama Alyousif
International Journal of Corrosion , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/286174
Anti-tumor effect of bisphosphonate (YM529) on non-small cell lung cancer cell lines
Ryuichiro Koshimune, Motoi Aoe, Shinichi Toyooka, Fumikata Hara, Mamoru Ouchida, Masaki Tokumo, Yoshifumi Sano, Hiroshi Date, Nobuyoshi Shimizu
BMC Cancer , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-7-8
Abstract: Direct anti-tumor effect of YM529 against 8 NSCLC cell lines (adenocarcinoma: H23, H1299, NCI-H1819, NCI-H2009, H44, A549, adenosquamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H125, squamous cell carcinoma: NCI-H157) were measured by MTS assay and calculated inhibition concentration 50 % (IC50) values. YM529 induced apoptosis of NCI-H1819 was examined by DNA fragmentation of 2 % agarose gel electrophoresis and flowcytometric analysis (sub-G1 method). We examined where YM529 given effect to apoptosis of NSCLC cells in signaling pathway of the mevalonate pathway by western blotting analysis.We found that there was direct anti-tumor effect of YM529 on 8 NSCLC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner and their IC50 values were 2.1 to 7.9 μM and YM529 induced apoptosis and G1 arrest cell cycle with dose-dependent manner and YM529 caused down regulation of phospholyration of ERK1/2 in signaling pathways of NSCLC cell line (NCI-H1819).Our study demonstrate that YM529 showed direct anti-tumor effect on NSCLC cell lines in vitro, which supports the possibility that third-generation BPs including YM529 can be one of therapeutic options for NSCLC.Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Approximately 80% of lung cancers can be histologically classified as non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). The majority of patients presents with locally advanced (37%) or metastatic (38%) disease at the time of diagnosis [1]. Despite advances in chemotherapy, the average 5-year survival rate of the patients with advanced NSCLC remains extremely poor [1]. Thus, newer agents must be developed to establish an effective therapeutic strategy against NSCLC.Bisphosphonates (BPs) are structural analogues of pyrophosphoric acid, which is a biomedical component. Several studies have shown that BPs exert direct anti-tumor effects on a variety of human tumor cell lines (myeloma, breast, prostate, pancreas) in vitro in a concentration- and time-dependent manner [2-13]. BPs have a common basic structure
Quest for Potentials in the Quintessence Scenario  [PDF]
Tetsuya Hara
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2016.42027

The time evolution of the equation of state w for quintessence scenario with a scalar field as dark energy is studied up to the third derivative (d3w/da3) with respect to the scale factor a, in order to predict the future observations and specify the scalar potential parameters with the observables. The third derivative of w for general potential V is derived and applied to several types of potentials. They are the inverse power-law (V = M4 + α/Qα), the exponential ?\"\", the mixed \"\" , the cosine \"\" ?and the Gaussian types \"\" , which are prototypical potentials for the freezing and thawing models. If the parameter number for a potential form is n, it is necessary to find at least for n + 2 independent observations to identify the potential for0m and the evolution of the scalar field (Q and \"\"

Particle Beam Therapy for Cancer of the Skull Base, Nasal Cavity, and Paranasal Sinus
Nobuyoshi Fukumitsu
ISRN Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/965204
Abstract: Particle beam therapy has been rapidly developed in these several decades. Proton and carbon ion beams are most frequently used in particle beam therapy. Proton and carbon ion beam radiotherapy have physical and biological advantage to the conventional photon radiotherapy. Cancers of the skull base, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinus are rare; however these diseases can receive the benefits of particle beam radiotherapy. This paper describes the clinical review of the cancer of the skull base, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinus treated with proton and carbon ion beams, adding some information of feature and future direction of proton and carbon ion beam radiotherapy. 1. Introduction Particle beam therapy was first proposed in the 1940s [1] and was investigated in the USA, Sweden, and the Soviet Union in the 1950–1960s. In the 1970s, particle beam therapy was rapidly developed in parallel with the development of X-ray computed tomography. Globally, more than 48,000 patients have been treated with particle beams. Most of these treatments were delivered using proton and carbon ion radiotherapy (RT). Currently, there are 36 particle beam therapy facilities in operation (proton: 33, carbon ion: 5, both particles: 2), according to the Particle Therapy Co-Operative Group homepage. Ten facilities are located in the USA, followed by eight in Japan, three in Germany, three in Russia, two in France, and 10 in other countries (Table 1). Table 1: Institution of particle beam therapy. This paper describes the status and prospects of particle beam therapy for the treatment of cancer of the skull base, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinus, including physical, biological, technical, and financial aspects. 2. Physical, Biological, Technical, and Financial Aspects of Particle Beam Therapy The physical, biological, technical, and financial aspects of particle beam therapy differ largely from those of conventional photon RT. 2.1. Physical Aspects Both proton and carbon ion beams have features that are extremely different from those of photons. Accelerated proton and carbon ion beams show an increase in energy deposition with penetration depth up to a sharp maximum followed by rapid decrease at the end of the penetration range; this phenomenon is known as the Bragg peak (Figure 1). The particle range is determined by the energy of the incoming particles, and the Bragg peak can be spread out. These features permit a more precise and conformal dose localization to the target, compared with photon beams. Figure 1: Relationship of depth and relative dose in photon, proton and carbon
A Study of Accelerating Cosmologies from Superstring/M theories
Nobuyoshi Ohta
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.110.269
Abstract: We study aspects of the accelerating cosmologies obtained from the compactification of vacuum solution and S2-branes of superstring/M theories. Parameter dependence of the resulting expansion of our universe and internal space is examined for all cases. We find that accelerating expansions are obtained also from spherical internal spaces, albeit the solution enters into contracting phase eventually. The relation between the models of SM2- and SD2-branes are also discussed, and a potential problem with SD2-brane model is noted.
Discrete States in Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity
Nobuyoshi Ohta
Physics , 1992,
Abstract: Minor misprints corrected.
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