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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1373 matches for " Nobuo Ohta "
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Comparative studies of serum-free media and detection techniques for in vitro drug sensitivity assessment of Plasmodium falciparum  [PDF]
Bethel Kwansa-Bentum, Shinji Izumiyama, Kei Kitamura, Kazushige Obata-Ninomiya, Nobuo Ohta, Hiroko Asahi
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2013.33020
Abstract: Malaria continues to be a devastating disease. In a previous study, we formulated a chemically defined culture medium that is able to sustain the complete intraerythrocytic growth of Plasmodium falciparum. We tested the feasibility of using the medium (CDRPMI) as well as human serum-free media enriched with commercially available human-serum substitutes (GFSRPMI and ALBRPMI) to assess the drug sensitivity of P. falciparum, using chloroquine diphosphate (CQ) and dihydroartemisinin (DHART) as conventional antimalarial drugs. Growth inhibition was measured by four different methods: flow cytometry with SYBR Green I (FCM), microscopy (Giemsa method), enzymatic estimation of parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), and histidine-rich protein 2 (HRPII) determination. In drug sensitivity tests on asynchronous parasites cultured for 96 h in the presence of drugs, the dose-response curves were similar and differences in the 50% growth inhibition concentrations for the drugs, which were estimated by the four methods, were not statistically significant for the three culture media. The effect of the drugs on the growth of synchronous parasites at the ring stage was also assessed in micro-volume tests by three different methods of FCM: tracking fluorescent erythrocytes, schizont test, and merozoite test. Dose-response curves for the drugs were similar, and differences in the 50% growth inhibition concentrations were not statistically significant for CDRPMI and GFSRPMI. Thus CDRPMI as well as GFSRPMI and ALBRPMI can be similarly useful media for drug sensitivity testing of P. falciparum. The FCM, pLDH and HRPII estimations were fast and reliable detection methods, with FCM allowing schizont and merozoite tests to be performed with shorter periods of culture.
Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Organized Hematoma
Nobuo Ohta,Tomoo Watanabe,Tsukasa Ito,Toshinori Kubota
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/539642
Abstract:
Origin of Color Gradients in Elliptical Galaxies
Naoyuki Tamura,Chiaki Kobayashi,Nobuo Arimoto,Tadayuki Kodama,Kouji Ohta
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1086/301333
Abstract: The origin of color gradients in elliptical galaxies is examined by comparing model gradients with those observed in the Hubble Deep Field. The models are constructed so as to reproduce color gradients in local elliptical galaxies either by a metallicity gradient or by an age gradient. By looking back a sequence of color gradient as a function of redshift, the age - metallicity degeneracy is solved. The observed color gradients in elliptical galaxies at $z=0.1-1.0$ agree excellently with those predicted by the metallicity gradient, while they deviates significantly from those predicted by the age gradient even at $z \sim 0.3$ and the deviation is getting larger with increasing redshift. This result does not depend on cosmological parameters and parameters for an evolutionary model of galaxy within a reasonable range. Thus our results clearly indicate that the origin of color gradients is not the age but the stellar metallicity.
Oral Administration of Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang ‘Ninjin’yoeito’ Protects against Hematotoxicity and Induces Immature Erythroid Progenitor Cells in 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Anemia
Fumihide Takano,Yasuyuki Ohta,Tomoaki Tanaka,Kenroh Sasaki,Kyoko Kobayashi,Tomoya Takahashi,Nobuo Yahagi,Fumihiko Yoshizaki,Shinji Fushiya,Tomihisa Ohta
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nem080
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of four different Japanese and Chinese herbal prescriptions, Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang (Ninjin’yoeito, NYT), Chai-Hu-Gui-Zhi-Gan-Jiang-Tang (Saikokeishikankyoto, SKKT), Si-Jun-Zi-Tang (Shikunshito, SKT) and Si-Wu-Tang (Shimotsuto, SMT), which are traditionally used for anemia and fatigue, against hematotoxicity in mice treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). NYT 1–100 mg kg–1 day–1 injected orally for 7 consecutive days before and after 5-FU injection significantly suppressed reductions in red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet counts in peripheral blood, and accelerated their recovery. Administration of SKKT also produced a slight but significant improvement in 5-FU-induced erythrocytopenia, whereas SMT and SKT could not prevent anemia. Oral injection of NYT also inhibited 5-FU-induced decreases in peripheral reticulocyte and bone marrow cell counts on day 10, and markedly hastened their recovery on day 20, in a dose-dependent manner. Erythroid progenitor colonies, such as colony forming units-erythroid and burst forming units-erythroid, formed by marrow cells from mice treated with 5-FU were significantly increased by oral administration of NYT. These findings suggest that NYT has the potential to protect against hematotoxicity, and also has hematopoietic activity, through stimulation of immature erythroid progenitor cell differentiation.
A Case of Sublingual Dermoid Cyst: Extending the Limits of the Oral Approach
Nobuo Ohta,Tomoo Watanabe,Tsukasa Ito,Toshinori Kubota,Yusuke Suzuki,Akihiro Ishida,Seiji Kakehata,Masaru Aoyagi
Case Reports in Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/634949
Abstract: We present the case of a dermoid cyst with an oral and a submental component in a 21-year-old Japanese woman who presented with complaints of a mass in the oral cavity and difficulty in chewing and swallowing solid foods for about 2 years. MRI shows a 55 × 65 mm well-circumscribed cystic mass extending from the sublingual area to the mylohyoid muscle. Under general anesthesia and with nasotracheal intubation, the patient underwent surgical removal of the mass. Although the cyst was large and extending mylohyoid muscle, intraoral midline incision was performed through the mucosa overlying the swelling and the cyst was separated from the surrounding tissues with appropriate traction and countertraction and successfully removed without extraoral incision. Oral approach in surgical enucleation is useful procedure to avoid cosmetic problems in large and extending mylohyoid muscle cyst.
Autophagy-Related Atg8 Localizes to the Apicoplast of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum
Kei Kitamura, Chieko Kishi-Itakura, Takafumi Tsuboi, Shigeharu Sato, Kiyoshi Kita, Nobuo Ohta, Noboru Mizushima
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042977
Abstract: Autophagy is a membrane-mediated degradation process, which is governed by sequential functions of Atg proteins. Although Atg proteins are highly conserved in eukaryotes, protozoa possess only a partial set of Atg proteins. Nonetheless, almost all protozoa have the complete factors belonging to the Atg8 conjugation system, namely, Atg3, Atg4, Atg7, and Atg8. Here, we report the biochemical properties and subcellular localization of the Atg8 protein of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfAtg8). PfAtg8 is expressed during intra-erythrocytic development and associates with membranes likely as a lipid-conjugated form. Fluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy show that PfAtg8 localizes to the apicoplast, a four membrane-bound non-photosynthetic plastid. Autophagosome-like structures are not observed in the erythrocytic stages. These data suggest that, although Plasmodium parasites have lost most Atg proteins during evolution, they use the Atg8 conjugation system for the unique organelle, the apicoplast.
TbUNC119 and Its Binding Protein Complex Are Essential for Propagation, Motility, and Morphogenesis of Trypanosoma brucei Procyclic Form Cells
Shigeru Ohshima,Mitsuko Ohashi-Suzuki,Yutaka Miura,Yoshisada Yabu,Noriko Okada,Nobuo Ohta,Takashi Suzuki
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015577
Abstract: Flagellum-mediated motility of Trypanosoma brucei is considered to be essential for the parasite to complete stage development in the tsetse fly vector, while the mechanism by which flagellum-mediated motility is controlled are not fully understood. We thus compared T. brucei whole gene products (amino acid sequence) with Caenorhabditis elegans UNC (uncoordinated) proteins, in order to find uncharacterized motility-related T. brucei genes. Through in silico analysis, we found 88 gene products which were highly similar to C. elegans UNC proteins and categorized them as TbCEUN (T. brucei gene products which have high similarity to C. elegans UNC proteins). Approximately two thirds of the 88 TbCEUN gene products were kinesin-related molecules. A gene product highly similar to C. elegans UNC119 protein was designated as TbUNC119. RNAi-mediated depletion of TbUNC119 showed no apparent phenotype. However, knock-down analysis of both TbUNC119 and its binding protein (TbUNC119BP) which was found by yeast two-hybrid analysis showed characteristic phenotypes, including reduced motility, morphological change (extended cell shape), and cellular apoptosis. Based on the observed phenotypes, possible function of the TbUNC119 and TbUNC119BP is discussed.
First Report of Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae) Infections in Invasive Rodents from Five Islands of the Ogasawara Archipelago, Japan
Toshihiro Tokiwa, Takuma Hashimoto, Tatsuo Yabe, Noriyuki Komatsu, Nobuaki Akao, Nobuo Ohta
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070729
Abstract: Background Angiostrongylus cantonensis (Chen, 1935) is a parasite of murid rodents and causative agent of human neuro-angiostrongyliasis. In 2011, the Ogasawara Islands in the western North Pacific were assigned a World Natural Heritage site status. The occurrence of A. cantonensis is well documented in the Chichijima, Hahajima, and Anijima Islands. However, the occurrence of A. cantonensis in the other islands of the Ogasawara Islands has not been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings Between March 2010 and July 2011, 57 Rattus norvegicus and 79 R. rattus were collected from 9 islands (the Hahajima group: Anejima, Imoutojima, Meijima, Mukohjima, and Hirajima; Chichijima group: Minamijima; Mukojima group: Nakoudojima and Yomejima; and Iwojima group: Iwojima). Adult nematodes were found in the pulmonary artery of 46 R. norvegicus collected in the 5 islands of the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hrajima, and Mukohjima Islands). These nematodes were identified by molecular analysis as A. cantonensis. Comparison of the mitochondrial DNA sequences confirmed that all the samples from the Ogasawara Islands shared only a single lineage of A. cantonensis, which has been previously detected in the Okinawa, Hawaii, and Brazil. Conclusions/Significance We describe new endemic foci of rat angiostrongyliasis in the Hahajima group (Anejima, Meijima, Imoutojima, Hirajima, and Mukohjima Islands) of the Ogasawara Islands. These findings indicate that the endemic foci of A. cantonensis are widely distributed in the Ogasawara Islands. Although human cases have not yet been reported in the Ogasawara Islands, the widespread detection of A. cantonensis could be of importance from the perspective of public health.
A Case of Sublingual Dermoid Cyst: Extending the Limits of the Oral Approach
Nobuo Ohta,Tomoo Watanabe,Tsukasa Ito,Toshinori Kubota,Yusuke Suzuki,Akihiro Ishida,Seiji Kakehata,Masaru Aoyagi
Case Reports in Otolaryngology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/634949
Abstract: We present the case of a dermoid cyst with an oral and a submental component in a 21-year-old Japanese woman who presented with complaints of a mass in the oral cavity and difficulty in chewing and swallowing solid foods for about 2 years. MRI shows a 55 × 65?mm well-circumscribed cystic mass extending from the sublingual area to the mylohyoid muscle. Under general anesthesia and with nasotracheal intubation, the patient underwent surgical removal of the mass. Although the cyst was large and extending mylohyoid muscle, intraoral midline incision was performed through the mucosa overlying the swelling and the cyst was separated from the surrounding tissues with appropriate traction and countertraction and successfully removed without extraoral incision. Oral approach in surgical enucleation is useful procedure to avoid cosmetic problems in large and extending mylohyoid muscle cyst. 1. Introduction Sublingual epidermoid and dermoid cysts are benign lesions encountered throughout the body, with 7% occurring in the head and neck area and 1.6% within the oral cavity [1–5]. They represent less than 0.01% of all oral cavity cysts [6–9]. The pathogenesis of midline cysts of the floor of the mouth is not well established, and dysontogenetic and thyroglossal anomaly theories have been suggested [1–9]. In fact, dermoid cysts occur primarily in the oral cavity, and the most common location in the head and neck is the external third of the eyebrow [1–9]. Dermoid cysts generally present with slow and progressive growth, and even if they are congenital, they are possible in the second or third decade of life [7–9]. The treatment of dermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth is surgical; the approach can be either intraoral or extraoral, depending on the localization and size of the mass. Cysts are classified into three types by localization: (1) sublingual, (2) submental, and (3) submandibular cysts. Oral approach is usually applied for small sublingual cyst. The extraoral incision is preferred in submental and large sublingual cysts. Dermoid cysts usually present early in life as asymptomatic masses; they may reach a large size and involve more than one anatomical area, including that near the hyoid bone [1–9]. Such a swelling on the floor of the mouth can occasionally cause serious problems with swallowing and speaking [1–9]. Here, we outline a case of giant sublingual dermoid cyst in a 21-year-old woman that was successfully removed by oral approach without extraoral incision. 2. Case Report A 21-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our otolaryngology department
Clinical and Pathological Characteristics of Organized Hematoma
Nobuo Ohta,Tomoo Watanabe,Tsukasa Ito,Toshinori Kubota,Yusuke Suzuki,Akihiro Ishida,Masaru Aoyagi,Atsushi Matsubara,Kenji Izuhara,Seiji Kakehata
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/539642
Abstract: Objective. To study the clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with organized hematoma with malignant features in maxillary sinuses. Subjects and Methods. This was a retrospective study of five patients who were treated surgically for organized hematoma. The preoperative CT and MRI findings were studied clinically. The expressions of CD31, CD34, and periostin in surgical samples were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results. The clinical features of organized hematoma, such as a mass expanding from the maxillary sinus with bone destruction, resembled those of maxillary carcinoma. However, CT and MRI provided sufficient and useful information to differentiate this condition from malignancy. Surgical resection was the first-line treatment because of the presence of a firm capsule. Characteristic histopathological findings were a mixture of dilated vessels, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibrosis, hyalinization, and neovascularization. The expressions of periostin, CD31, and CD34 were observed in organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus. Conclusion. The expressions of periostin, CD31, and CD34 were observed in organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus. Organized hematoma is characterized pathologically by a mixture of bleeding, dilated vessels, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibrosis, hyalinization, and neovascularization. CT and MRI show heterogeneous findings reflecting a mixture of these pathological entities. 1. Introduction Nonneoplastic hemorrhagic lesions causing mucosal swelling and bone destruction can develop in the maxillary sinus. This type of lesion was reported in the Japanese literature in 1917 as a “blood boil of the maxillary sinus” by Tadokoro and is comparatively well known in Japan as one of the differential diagnoses of maxillary carcinoma. However, in the English literature, this type of lesion tends to be referred to as hemangioma of the maxillary sinus, organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus, or organized hematoma of the maxillary sinus mimicking tumor [1–8]. Although their clinical manifestations are very similar, the relationships between these entities have not been described. We recently resected five such lesions and examined the associated clinical and histological features. Histologically, a combination of dilated vessels, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibrosis, hyalinization, and neovascularization was characteristic. The lesion mimicked not only hematoma but also hemangioma. Therefore, either of the terms hemangioma or hematoma reflects the complete histological picture. In this paper, we report the
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