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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1897 matches for " Nobuo Hayashi "
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The Role of Judges in Identifying the Status of Combatants
Nobuo Hayashi
Acta Societatis Martensis , 2006,
Abstract: International humanitarian law facilitates legitimate human endeavours and safeguards social values in armed conflict. Persuasive standards of belligerent conduct ought to account for its peculiarities. Combatants make life-and-death decisions — e.g. the status of persons present in the battlefield — quickly and based on limited and often conflicting information. Judges tasked with reviewing such decisions must utilise legal presumptions. Arguably, some judicial rulings have created the impression that presumptive civilians under international humanitarian law become presumptive combatants under international criminal law. This need not be so, however. In case of doubt whether a victim was liable to attacks, in dubio pro reo does not require that he or she be considered an able-bodied, non-surrendering enemy combatant. It only requires that the victim be considered a civilian directly participating in hostilities, leaving the mandatory civilian presumption unaffected. International humanitarian law creates no mandatory presumption against direct participation in hostilities. Whereas combatants are duty-bound to treat a person with doubtful status as a civilian, they are not forbidden to treat a presumptive civilian with doubtful behaviour as a direct participant in hostilities. When reviewing the factual basis for combat decisions, judges must examine whether the relevant information was known or reasonably knowable to the decision-makers at the time. This necessitates a sound understanding of the realities of hostilities. Judges must avoid alienating reasonable and law-abiding combatants by holding them to unrealistic standards, such as a choice between self-sacrifice and criminal liability. Nor should judges risk undermining the legal protection of war victims by being unduly deferential to military commanders.
Candidate Molecules and ki-67/MIB1 as Novel Diagnostic Biomarker for Human Uterine Mesenchymal Tumors  [PDF]
Takuma Hayashi, Akiko Horiuchi, Nobuo Yaegashi, Susumu Tonegawa, Ikuo Konishi
International Journal of Medical Physics,Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology (IJMPCERO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2013.23B001
Abstract: Human uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) develops more often in the muscle tissue layer of the uterine body than in the uterine cervix. The development of gynecologic tumors is often correlated with female hormone secretion; however, the development of uterine LMS is not substantially correlated with hormonal conditions, and the risk factors are not yet known. Importantly, a diagnostic-biomarker, which distinguishes malignant uterine LMS from benign tumor leiomyoma (LMA), is yet to be established. Accordingly, it is necessary to analyze risk factors associated with uterine LMS, to establish a clinical treatment method. Protea some β-ring subunit LMP2/β1i-deficient mice spontaneously develop uterine LMS, with a disease prevalence of ~40% by 14 months of age. We found LMP2/β1i expression to be absent in human uterine LMS, but present in human LMA. Therefore, defective-LMP2/β1i expression may be one of the risk factors for human uterine LMS. LMP2/β1i is a potential diagnostic-biomarker under the combination of candidate molecules, for instance cyclin B1, cyclin E and calponin h1 and ki-67/MIB1 counts for uterine mesenchymal tumors, especially human uterine LMS, and may be a targeted-molecule for a new therapeutic approach.
A Lattice Implementation of High-precision IIR Filter for X-ray CT Reconstruction
Kazuhisa Hayashi,Hiroshi Tsutsu,Yoshitaka Morikawa,Nobuo Funabiki
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract:
Effects of Vitrectomy on Recurrent Macular Edema due to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion after Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab
Tatsuya Yunoki,Keiichi Mitarai,Shuichiro Yanagisawa,Tsuyoshi Kato,Nobuo Ishida,Atsushi Hayashi
Journal of Ophthalmology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/415974
Abstract: Purpose. To evaluate the effects of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) on recurrent macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) after intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB). Methods. This retrospective study included 22 eyes of 22 patients who underwent single or multiple IVB injections for macular edema due to BRVO and showed a recurrence of macular edema. All patients then underwent PPV and were followed up for more than 6 months after the surgery with examinations of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT parameters were central macular thickness (CMT) and average retinal thickness in a 1-mm-diameter circular region at the fovea (MRT). Results. Mean BCVA, CRT, and MRT were significantly improved from the baseline after PPV. Greater improvement of BCVA, CRT, and MRT was obtained after 1 month of IVB than after 6 months of PPV. No eyes showed worsening of macular edema after the surgery. Conclusion. PPV improved BCVA and recurrent macular edema due to BRVO, but PPV that was less effective than IVB had been in the same patients. PPV may be one of the treatment options for recurrent macular edema due to BRVO after IVB. 1. Introduction Macular edema due to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is a major cause of visual loss. Macular grid laser photocoagulation, intravitreal injections of steroids, and vitrectomy have been attempted to treat the macular edema secondary to BRVO [1–4]. Recently, we and others have reported the effectiveness of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (IVB) for macular edema secondary to BRVO [5–8]. IVB for macular edema secondary to BRVO is an effective treatment for the short term, providing immediate improvement of visual acuity and macular edema. However, macular edema due to BRVO seems to recur frequently in spite of multiple IVB [5–8]. There are no effective treatments for recurrent macular edema secondary to BRVO. Several groups have reported the effectiveness of vitrectomy surgery for macular edema due to BRVO [1, 4, 9]. The mechanisms of resolution of macular edema by vitrectomy have not been clarified yet. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we examined the effects of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for recurrent macular edema due to BRVO after multiple IVB with or without apparent vitreomacular traction and/or an epiretinal membrane. 2. Patients and Methods 2.1. Patients We retrospectively examined 22 eyes of 22 consecutive patients (18 female and 4 male, average years old) with macular edema due to BRVO at Toyama University Hospital and Ishida Eye Clinic from
Study of Integral Variable Structure Control Method for Stability of SI Engine Idling Speed  [PDF]
Yang Zhang, Nobuo Kurihara
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.38094
Abstract: The intake air control system of a gasoline engine is a typical nonlinear system, and included among the adverse fac-tors that always induce poor idle-speed control stability are dead time and disturbances in the intake air control process. In this paper, to improve the responsiveness when idling with regard to disturbances, a mean-value engine model (MVEM) with dead time was constructed as the control object, and the two servo structures of sliding mode control (SMC) were studied for better idle control performance, especially in transient process of speed change. The simulation results confirmed that under the constraint condition of control input, the robustness of idle speed control that is being subjected to torque disturbances and noise disturbances can be greatly improved by use of the servo structure II.
Adaptive Back-Stepping Control of Automotive Electronic Control Throttle  [PDF]
Nobuo Kurihara, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2017.101003
Abstract: Back-stepping control (BSC), which is deemed effective for a non-holonomic system, is applied to improving both responsiveness and resolution performance of an electronic control throttle (ECT) used in automotive engines. This paper is characterized by the use of a two-step type BSC in a manner that achieves an improvement in responsiveness with the ETC operated in a fully opened state by adding a derivative term in Step 1 and the improvement in resolution performance with the ETC operated in a minutely opened state by adding an adaptive feature in the form of an integral term using the control deviation in Step 2. This paper presents an ECT control expressed as a second-order system including nonlinearities such as backlash of gear train and static friction in sliding area, a BSC system designed based on Lyapunov stability, and a determination method for control parameters. Also, a two-step type BSC system is formulated using Matlab/Simulink with a physics model as a control object. As a result of simulation analyses, it becomes clear that the BSC system can achieve quicker response because the derivative term works effectively and finer resolution because the adaptive control absorbs the error margin of the nonlinear compensation than conventional PID control.
On Canard Homoclinic of a Liénard Perturbation System  [PDF]
Makoto Hayashi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/am.2011.210170
Abstract: The classification on the orbits of some Liénard perturbation system with several parameters, which is relation to the example in [1] or [2], is discussed. The conditions for the parameters in order that the system has a unique limit cycle, homoclinic orbits, canards or the unique equilibrium point is globally asymptotic stable are given. The methods in our previous papers are used for the proofs.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Present status and future prospects of spherical aberration corrected TEM/STEM for study of nanomaterials
Nobuo Tanaka
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials , 2008,
Abstract: The present status of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is described from the viewpoint of the observation of nanomaterials. Characteristic features in TEM and STEM are explained using the experimental data obtained by our group and other research groups. Cs correction up to the 3rd-order aberration of an objective lens has already been established and research interest is focused on correcting the 5th-order spherical aberration and the chromatic aberration in combination with the development of a monochromator below an electron gun for smaller point-to-point resolution in optics. Another fundamental area of interest is the limitation of TEM and STEM resolution from the viewpoint of the scattering of electrons in crystals. The minimum size of the exit-wave function below samples undergoing TEM imaging is determined from the calculation of scattering around related atomic columns in the crystals. STEM does not have this limitation because the resolution is, in principle, determined by the probe size. One of the future prospects of Cs-corrected TEM/STEM is the possibility of extending the space around the sample holder by correcting the chromatic and spherical aberrations. This wider space will contribute to the ease of performing in situ experiments and various combinations of TEM and other analysis methods. High-resolution, in situ dynamic and 3D observations/analysis are the most important keywords in the next decade of high-resolution electron microscopy.
Magnetoresistance of the Double-Exchange Model in Infinite Dimension
Nobuo Furukawa
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.64.2734
Abstract: Double-exchange model in infinite dimension is studied as the strong Hund's coupling limit $J\to\infty$ of the Kondo lattice model. Several quantities such as Green's function and the d.c.\ conductivity are calculated in analytical forms. Magnetoresistance in lightly doped (La,Sr)MnO$_3$ is reproduced very well.
Temperature Dependence of the Conductivity in (La,Sr)MnO$_3$
Nobuo Furukawa
Physics , 1995, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.64.3164
Abstract: Using the Kondo lattice model with classical spins in infinite dimension, conductivity in the perovskite-type $3d$ transition-metal oxide (La,Sr)MnO$_3$ is theoretically studied. Green's functions as well as spontaneous magnetization are obtained exactly on the Bethe lattice as a function of temperature. Conductivity is calculated from the Kubo formula. Below the Curie temperature, resistivity as a function of magnetization is in a good agreement with the experimental data. Anomalous behaviour in the temperature dependence of the optical conductivity observed in (La,Sr)MnO$_3$ is also explained.
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