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Anti HIV-1 and antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of Calotropis procera
Mohanraj Remya,Rakshit Jyotirmoy,Nobre Malcolm
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Calotropis procera R.Br. (Asclepiadiaceae) is an important medicinal plant whose leaves and roots have multiple uses. The plant is a rich source of many bioactive compounds which are of medicinal importance. The study was undertaken to investigate the anti HIV-1 and antibacterial activities of the crude leaf extracts of C. procera. Hot water extract was used for evaluating the efficacy against the growth of HIV. Inhibition of p24 antigen′s expression was used as the method for the study. Antibacterial activity was tested against four different bacteria using agar well diffusion method. Zones of inhibition were measured with different concentrations of the extracts and some of them gave better values than the antibiotics used. The results were presented as the average and standard error of triplicate experiments. The statistical significance was checked at P<0.5. A dose-dependent inhibition of the p24 antigen expression was observed and the extract was found to be efficient against HIV-1. Ethyl acetate extract was effective against all the bacteria tested. The results observed support ancient and traditional medicinal values of C. procera.
Indetermina??o e estabilidade: os 20 anos da Constitui??o Federal e as tarefas da pesquisa em direito
Nobre, Marcos;
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-33002008000300005
Abstract: the constitutional process was characterized by novelties such as an intense participation of the civil society and the inexistence of a hegemonic block. that's the origin of the broad and detailed character of the constitutional text. but it was this "contradictory" aspect that allowed it to be vindicated by different groups and movements. and it was this that built its legitimacy and its vitality.
O filósofo municipal, a Setzung e uma nova coaliz?o lógico-ontológica
Nobre, Marcos;
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-33002011000200004
Abstract: the article offers a critical overview of brazilian philosopher josé arthur giannotti's intellectual trajectory up to li??es de filosofia primeira (lessons on first philosophy, 2011), and attempts to show that, by giving up on the logic of setzung and on the project of formulating a theory of "socially necessary illusions", giannotti cannot find any longer the grounds for critique, a result of the abandonment of a theoretical force field built around kant and hegel for a different one, centered around wittgenstein and heidegger.
Desenvolvimento sustentado e problemática ambiental
Nobre, Marcos;
Lua Nova: Revista de Cultura e Política , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-64451999000200008
Abstract: the political project of the institutionalization of the environmental question is reconstructed against the background of the rio-92 conference. the negotiations towards that institutionalization are examined and the idea of sustained development is analysed from this angle.
Leitura crítica da história: reflex?es sobre a história da matemática
Nobre, Sergio;
Ciência & Educa??o (Bauru) , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-73132004000300015
Abstract: many elements that supply information for the writing of history include directives, which are representative of a specific form of thought - be they of a social, political or philosophical stamp. these elements are elaborated upon in order to present a specific view of history. the objective of the present text is, through some examples, to discuss the fact that there are different forms of analysis of the elements that supply us historical information, with emphasis on the history of science, specifically the history of mathematics. the more information we have about any given historical events, the better able we are to make historical connections among them, on a qualitative basis, that supports the acquired information. if this information is scarce, or comes from doubtful sources, the historical conclusions about the subject under consideration will be fragile and susceptible to different and,frequently, conflicting interpretations. the present text intends to present some historical examples in which, due to a lack of information, or to distorted information, the historical interpretation is subject to differing interpretations.
Teoria crítica: uma nova gera o
Marcos Nobre
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/s0101-33002012000200003
Abstract:
Advances in Neuroscience and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention
Malcolm Dando
Biotechnology Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/973851
Abstract: This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse. 1. Introduction Article I of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC) reads [1]: “Each State Party to this Convention undertakes never in any circumstances to develop, produce, stockpile or otherwise acquire or retain: ( ) Microbial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective or other peaceful purposes, ( ) Weapons, equipment or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict." The sweeping prohibition of the nonpeaceful uses of agents or toxins set out in Article I.1 has become known as the General Purpose Criterion, and the statement “never in any circumstances” indicates that the negotiators in the early 1970s intended the prohibition to apply then, now, and into the future. The wording of Article I.2 “for hostile purposes or in armed conflict” also indicates the wide scope that the negotiators had in mind for the prohibition. However, the BTWC also states in Article XII that: “Five years after the entry into force of this Convention a conference of States Parties to the Convention shall be held at Geneva, Switzerland, to review the operation of the Convention, with a view to assuring that the purposes of the preamble and the provisions of the Convention are being realized. Such review shall take into account any new scientific and technological developments relevant to the Convention." The last sentence of Article XII may perhaps be seen as an indication that already, in the early 1970s, the negotiators had a concern that very rapid advances were being made in the life
Base-Rate Error in the Interpretation of Immunohistochemistry
Malcolm Galloway
Pathology Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/636495
Abstract: Failure to appreciate the importance of the frequency of a disorder in the appropriate population (the base rate) may lead to the misinterpretation of the diagnostic significance of unexpected test results (unexpected test result defined in this context as a test result that is positive in a higher proportion of cases of an alternative diagnosis than in the diagnosis considered most likely before the test). This study aimed to determine whether pathologists are vulnerable to this error. Pathologists were asked to estimate the probability of tumour B in a scenario in which, prior to the immunostaining result, an experienced pathologist considers there to be a 99% chance that the patient has tumour A and a 1% chance that they have tumour B. Antibody X is positive in 80% of cases of tumour B and negative in 90% of cases of tumour A and is positive in the case described in the scenario. The estimates made by consultant pathologists ranged from 0 to 100% (mean 29.7%). The Bayesian answer would be 7.5%. These findings suggest that base-rate error may lead some pathologists to overestimate the implications for the likelihood of a diagnosis in the light of an unexpected immunohistochemical result. 1. Introduction Base-rate error in medical diagnosis refers to the cognitive bias in which doctors may underestimate the importance of the frequency of the relevant disorder in the appropriate population (the pretest probability) when considering the implications for the diagnosis of the result of tests which have less than 100% sensitivity and specificity. An underappreciation of the importance of the base rate has been shown outside medical practice, for example, in the interpretation of fallible witness evidence [1], and has also been shown in relation to the interpretation of diagnostic test results by physicians [1–3]. In the field of base-rate errors in diagnostic interpretation, the most closely studied area thus far has been in relation to mammography. Eddy has previously reported base-rate error in the interpretation of the diagnostic contribution of mammogram results by physicians [3]. In his scenario, 79.2% of patients with breast cancer are assumed to have a malignant result on mammography (sensitivity) and 90.4% of patients without cancer to have a benign mammogram result (specificity). He asked what he described as “an informal group of approximately 100 physicians” what the probability of a patient having breast cancer would be if they had a 1% risk of the disease prior to the mammogram but had a malignant diagnosis on mammography. In this scenario, the
ICU Cornestone: A lecture that changed my practice
Malcolm Fisher
Critical Care , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/cc1536
Abstract: It was in 1972 that I was first rostered to work in an intensive care unit. From the first day, I never wanted to work anywhere else. The list of changes and improvements is enormous, but one particular event and its consequence, more than any other, changed both my practice and my life. The event was a lecture by Professor Joe Civetta in 1982 in Sydney.In 1980, I heard Joe speak in San Antonio about ways of using nurses' time better. I had just begun running a 'Continuing Education Meeting' in Sydney that was to focus on things I believed we had not thought about enough. I invited Joe to speak at this meeting in 1981, and he informed me that the data and work was that of his wife, Judy. She agreed to attend. Joe also wanted to come. I asked what he would like to talk about and he said he had a lecture on 'Stress, Death and Dying'. When I queried why anyone would want to listen to such a lecture, Joe responded by suggesting that if 1% of my patients developed renal failure and 10% died, then maybe I should know as much about dying as I knew about renal failure.Joe's lecture in March 1982 totally changed my practice and that of many others who attended. The message was simple, and is, in a small way, discussed in one of Joe's papers [1]:? Intensive care leads to situations where continuing treatment prolongs dying and suffering without producing survival.? To determine when this point is reached involves consideration of objective data and emotive aspects such as patient wishes.? The patient's wishes could sometimes be ascertained from speaking to the patient's family.? There is a need to create an environment in which both health care providers and consumers could discuss the appropriateness of treatment and a peaceful death could occur when indicated.? There comes a time when the goals of good medical care should be comfort rather than cure.The concepts are not as dramatic now as they were then, because today there is a virtual industry surrounding the dying patien
SAGE profiling of the forelimb and hindlimb
Malcolm Logan
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2002-3-3-reviews1007
Abstract: Patterning of tissues during embryonic development requires the coordination of cell-fate specification with rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis. The developing vertebrate limb is a favored model system for studying the fundamental processes involved in normal embryo development. The developing limb bud consists of multiple cell types that ultimately form the intricate structure of interconnected bones, tendons, muscles and nerves that make up the mature limb. From initial embryological observations and manipulations and more recent molecular techniques, we are beginning to understand the genetic control of limb development.The vast majority of genes known to play a role in limb development are expressed in apparently identical patterns in both the forelimb and hindlimb. In the forelimb, these genes coordinate the patterning of characteristic structures such as fingers, whereas in the hindlimb the same genes lead to the formation of toes. It is only relatively recently that candidate genes have been identified that control this differential response. The limb expression pattern of Tbx5, which encodes a T-box transcription factor, is restricted to the developing forelimb, whereas the closely related T-box gene Tbx4 and the gene encoding the homeodomain transcription factor Pitx1 are restricted to the developing hindlimb [1,2,3,4]. Functional studies have determined that Tbx5, Tbx4 and Pitx1 regulate limb-type identity [5,6].Innis and colleagues [7] have recently reported the use of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to generate a comprehensive gene-expression profile of mouse forelimbs and hindlimbs and to allow identification of genetic differences between them. SAGE involves the production of short sequence tags of around 10 base-pairs (bp) from cDNAs derived from the tissue of interest. Each tag contains sufficient information to identify it as representing a particular transcript. Many transcript tags are concatenated and cloned to generate a SAGE li
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