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Film coating potential of okra gum using paracetamol tablets as a model drug
Ogaji Ikoni,Nnoli Obiageli
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The purpose of this work was to study the film coating potential of okra gum extracted from pods of Abelmoschus esculentus plant using paracetamol as a model drug. Core tablets of paracetamol were obtained from a pharmacy shop in the locality and the physicochemical properties such as weight, hardness, friability, and disintegration time were evaluated. Aqueous coating suspensions of okra gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (0.6%w/v) were prepared and used to coat the tablets in Hi-coater. The coated tablets were evaluated for weight uniformity, diameter, thickness, hardness, friability, disintegration time, and moisture uptake at controlled humidity. The coating remained intact, durable, and resistant to chipping when challenged to catastrophic fall or rubbed on a white paper. The coated tablets had lower friability, increased disintegration time (24 min) compared to the core (3 min) and improved hardness, but there was no difference in the dissolution profile of the samples from the batches containing okra and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose as film formers. Changes were observed in some of the physicochemical properties of the formulations containing okra gum as with the known film former and it was convenient to conclude that these changes were due to the effect of the mechanical properties of the film formers. It was our conclusion that okra gum is a promising natural, biodegradable, cheap and eco-friendly film former in aqueous tablet film coating operation, particularly when masking of taste or objectionable odor in a solid dosage formulation is desired.
Traditional capacity for weather prediction, variability and coping strategies in the front line states of nigeria  [PDF]
Shukurat Adunni Sanni, Kolapo Olatunji Oluwasemire, Nnadozie Okonkwo Nnoli
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.34075
Abstract: This paper is based on the results of a pilot project conducted to strengthen Nigerian Meteorological Agency’s (NIMET) capacity to provide reliable planting date forecast in Nigeria. This aspect of the project aimed at understanding traditional knowledge base and farmers’ prediction methods, community perceptions of impacts of rainfall variability, coping strategies and opportunities in Sokoto, Kano, Jigawa, Kaduna, Bauchi states of Nigeria. Based on prevalence of drought, a community was selected for survey in each of the five states. Semi-structured interview and focus group discussion were used to sources for information. The survey indicates that the farmers had good understanding of weather and climatic dynamics of their community. The farmers in the study locations characterize a year into five seasons based on the atmospheric temperature as felt by the body, changes in wind direction, farming activities, and the behavioral changes of some animal and birds and phenological changes in plant species. Rainfall variability in the community has altered the farming systems, either in terms of changes in cropping pattern, elimination/reduction in the level of producing some crops or introduction of new crop varieties that are drought resistant and early maturing, and diversification of source of livelihood (non-farm activities). Impacts of rainfall variability in the communities were asserted to include; poor yield, low prices of crop/livestock, low dowry for their daughters, high cost of labor as a result of migration to urban centers, inadequate water for dry season farming, low income, low standard of living, and high level of poverty. Farmers recommended an integration of traditional proven methods of rainfall prediction with scientific methods to evolve reliable forecast that will reduce risks in their rainfed farming systems.
Competency Needs of Postgraduate Students of STEM Education in Research Writing in Nigerian Universities  [PDF]
Anthonia N. Ugwu, Florence Obiageli Ifeanyieze, Philomena Ngozi Agbo
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.68071
Abstract: The study identified research competency needs of postgraduate students of Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education in research writing in Nigerian Universities. The study adopted a survey research design and was carried out in South-Eastern Nigeria. Two research questions and a hypothesis guided the study. The population for the study was 372 comprising 222 master and 150 PhD students of STEM Education in nine Universities in south-eastern Nigeria. Proportionate simple random sampling techniques were used to select 50% of the population, which gave a sample size of 186 (111 master and 75 PhD students). Structured questionnaire developed from the literature which was reviewed by the researchers was used to collect data. Each item in the instrument had two columns of needed and difficult with each of the columns assigned a four response options with values 4, 3, 2 and 1. The instrument was validated by specialists. Cronbach alpha method was used to determine the internal consistency of the items and a coefficient of 0.85 was obtained. Data collected were analyzed using mean while the null hypothesis was tested using t-test. The findings revealed that postgraduate students needed 32 competencies in research writing; 25 of the competencies were difficult to employ by the students. The hypothesis tested revealed that there was no significant difference in the responses of the two groups of students on the difficult competencies. It was recommended that lecturers should utilize the 32 competencies while emphasizing the 25 difficult ones to make students competent in producing a quality research work.
Sickle Cell Disease and Pregnancy: Does Outcome Depend on Genotype or Phenotype?  [PDF]
Catherine Berzolla, Neil S Seligman, Aisha Nnoli, Kevin Dysart, Jason K Baxter, Samir K Ballas
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2011.23054
Abstract: Objective: Women with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) who become pregnant are at risk for serious maternal and fetal complications. Our objective was to determine if pregnancy outcome is dependent on phenotype. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of pregnant women with SCD, including hemoglobin (Hb) SS, Hb SC, and Hb Sβ-thalassemia, between January 1999 and December 2008). Antenatal and neonatal outcomes were compared between pregnancies with painful episodes and those without. The primary outcome was preterm birth (PTB) <37 weeks. Secondary outcomes included maternal medical complications, antenatal complications, delivery outcomes, and neonatal outcomes. Results: 31 women were included (18 (58%) with painful episodes, 13 (42%) without painful episodes). The median number of painful episodes was 2.5 (1 - 19) and these women required a median of 13 total days (1 - 59) of inpatient treatment. At delivery, women who had experienced painful episodes had lower Hb levels and were more likely to be taking chronic narcotic pain medications. The overall incidence of PTB <37wks was 55% and was not significantly different between groups (11 [61%] with painful episodes versus 6 [46%] without painful episodes; p = 0.485). Secondary outcomes were also not significantly different between groups. There was one maternal death. Conclusion: Adverse obstetrical out-comes were more common among women with sickle cell disease who experienced painful crises however, in this small sample, the difference were not statistically significant.
Cutaneous Metastatic Disease: Case Series in a Tropical Setting  [PDF]
Maurice E. Asuquo, Aniefon N. Umana, Victor I. C. Nwagbara, Martin Nnoli, Theophilus Ugbem
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2016.51005
Abstract: Background: Cutaneous metastasis is valuable though with infrequent occurrence in clinical practice. It is of esteem value in diagnosis as well as treatment of cancer due to the ease of accessibility for clinical examination and biopsy. Case Series: This is a presentation of 5 consecutive patients with histologic diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic malignancies at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, (UCTH), Calabar, Nigeria from 2010 to 2013. They were studied in an attempt to evaluate the clinical significance of cutaneous metastatic nodules/disease in a tropical setting. This was compared with total cutaneous malignancies and total malignancies seen over the same period. Conclusion: The spectrum in the reported cases ranged from localised and barely noticeable nodules to generalised nodules. Clinicians are urged to show renewed interest in cutaneous nodules in view of the estimable value by subjecting such for histological evaluation.
Quality Assessment of TPB-Based Questionnaires: A Systematic Review
Obiageli Crystal Oluka, Shaofa Nie, Yi Sun
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094419
Abstract: Objective This review is aimed at assessing the quality of questionnaires and their development process based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) change model. Methods A systematic literature search for studies with the primary aim of TPB-based questionnaire development was conducted in relevant databases between 2002 and 2012 using selected search terms. Ten of 1,034 screened abstracts met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for methodological quality using two different appraisal tools: one for the overall methodological quality of each study and the other developed for the appraisal of the questionnaire content and development process. Both appraisal tools consisted of items regarding the likelihood of bias in each study and were eventually combined to give the overall quality score for each included study. Results 8 of the 10 included studies showed low risk of bias in the overall quality assessment of each study, while 9 of the studies were of high quality based on the quality appraisal of questionnaire content and development process. Conclusion Quality appraisal of the questionnaires in the 10 reviewed studies was successfully conducted, highlighting the top problem areas (including: sample size estimation; inclusion of direct and indirect measures; and inclusion of questions on demographics) in the development of TPB-based questionnaires and the need for researchers to provide a more detailed account of their development process.
Enhancement of Insulating Refractory Properties of Selected Nigeria Fire-Clays Using Coconut Shell  [PDF]
Eugenia Obiageli Obidiegwu, David Ehigie Esezobor, Johnson Olumuyiwa Agunsoye, Ganiyu Ishola Lawal
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2015.36048
Abstract: The use of coconut shell particulates to enhance the insulating refractory properties of Ukpor, Osiele and Kankara fireclays in Nigeria was studied in this paper. The chemical analysis of the raw materials was conducted using Atomic Absorption spectrometer. The samples used for different tests were prepared by mixing the clay, bentonite and coconut shell, of grain sizes of 212 - 600 μm. The prepared samples were air and oven dried for 24 hours at room temperature and at 110°C respectively. The samples were then fired at different temperatures in the range of 950°C to 1200°C at 50°C interval and at 2.5°C/min. The fired samples were investigated for their physical, insulating (thermal) and mechanical properties. Micro-structural examination was also carried out. The results indicate that clays with 25 wt% - 30 wt% coconut shell and grain sizes of 212 - 300 μm fired at 1150°C - 1200°C possess enhanced mechanical, physical and insulating (thermal) properties. The SEM micrograph revealed the formation of mullite phase in the bricks fired at 1150°C. Thus, high quality refractory bricks with enhanced insulating properties could be produced from Ukpor, Osiele and Kankara fire-clays blended with coconut shell particulates.
SUB-CHRONIC ORAL TOXICITY PROFILE OF CARPOLOBIA LUTEA LEAF FRACTIONS IN RATS
Lucky L Nwidu1*, M Nnoli2 and Paul A
International Journal of Bioassays , 2012,
Abstract: Carpolobia lutea (CL) (Polygalaceae) leaf is widely reported to be effective for the treatment of diarrheal diseases. The subchronic oral toxicological investigation is yet to be executed with both the crude ethyl acetate extract (CEAE) and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) to verify suitability of plant for the management of diarrhea diseases. The pathological alteration following oral administration of CEAE and EAF of C. lutea leaf were explored in rodents over a period of 60 days adopting Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) conditions. Thirty adult male and female wistar rats were randomized to four treatment groups of 6 rats /sex/group and were administered orally with three doses of CEAE, 192.5, 385.0, 770 mg / kg and one dose of EAF 770.0 mg/kg; while 10ml/kg of 20% Tween 80 was used for the control test. Weekly relative body weight and vital signs were assessed. Blood samples were collected weekly for hematological assessment. At autopsy, the major organs were cautiously excised and weighed. The study showed that both CEAE and EAF do not have significant impact (P > 0.05) on the hematopoietic system rather it impact more on the biochemical parameters which increased significantly (P < 0.05 - 0.001) and dose dependently. These results indicate that oral administration of CEAE and EAF in rats mediates biochemical but not haematopoietic sub-chronic toxicity. Its pharmacological and therapeutic effectiveness is not without toxicity implication and should be used cautiously sub-chronically.
Fine needle aspiration cytology of bone tumours- the experience from the National Orthopaedic and Lagos University Teaching Hospitals, Lagos, Nigeria
Nnodu Obiageli E,Giwa SO,Eyesan Samuel U,Abdulkareem Fatima B
CytoJournal , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6413-3-16
Abstract: Background Due to difficulty in confirming clinical suspicions of malignancy in patients presenting with bone tumours, the cost of surgical biopsies where hospital charges are borne almost entirely by patients, competition with bone setters and healing homes with high rate of loss to follow up; we set out to find if sufficient material could be obtained to arrive at reliable tissue diagnosis in patients with clinical and radiological evidence of bone tumours in our hospitals. Methods After initial clinical and plain radiographic examinations, patients were sent for fine needle aspirations. Aspirations were carried out with size 23G needles of varying lengths with 10 ml syringes in a syringe holder (CAMECO, Sebre Medical, Vellinge, Sweden). The aspirates were air dried, stained by the MGG method and examined microscopically. Histology was performed on patients who had subsequent surgical biopsy. These were then correlated with the cytology reports. Results Out of 96 patients evaluated, [57 males, 39 females, Mean age 31.52 years, Age Range 4–76 years,] material sufficient for diagnosis was obtained in 90 patients. Cytological diagnosis of benign lesions was made in 40 patients and malignant in 47. Of these, 27 were metastases, osteogenic sarcoma 16, giant cell tumour 19, infection 11. Histology was obtained in 41 patients. Correct diagnosis of benignity was made in 17 out of 18 cases, malignancy in 21 out of 22 cases. One non-diagnostic case was malignant. The accuracy of specific cytological diagnosis was 36/41 (87.8%) and incorrect in 5/41 (12.2%). Conclusion We conclude that FNAC can be useful in the pre-operative assessment of bone tumours especially where other diagnostic modalities are unavailable.
Biochemical changes in some trace elements, antioxidant vitamins and their therapeutic importance in prostate cancer patients
Bridget Obiageli Onyema-iloh, Samuel C Meludu, Emmanuel Iloh, Johnkennedy Nnodim, Onyema Onyegbule, Blessing Mykembata
Asian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2015, DOI: 10.3126/ajms.v6i1.10799
Abstract: Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the serum levels of some trace-elements (zinc, copper and selenium) and antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, C and E) in prostate cancer patients. Method: A total of 50 prostate cancer patients aged 50-70 years with PSA > 4.0 ng/dl were recruited for the study while 50 apparently healthy individual were used as control subjects. Zinc, copper and selenium were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer while vitamin A, C and E were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Result: The result showed that the mean levels of Se (0.77±0.26), Zn(147.75±42.05) were significantly lower (p <0.05) when compared with the control (1.47±0.13) and (168.78±59.80) respectively. The serum copper level (187. 76±66.05) was significantly higher (p<0.05) when compared with control (126.40±31.24).The antioxidant vitamin A (0.42±0.19), vitamin C (3.62±1.81) and vitamin E (0.39±0.13) were Significantly lower p(<0.05) when compared with the control (0.68±0.32)(12.16±4.07) and (1.40±0.16) respectively. Concusion: The decreased trace elements and antioxidant vitamins may be associated with high free radicals generated due to oxidative stress in prostate cancer patient. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ajms.v6i1.10799 Asian Journal of Medical Sciences Vol.6(1) 2015 95-97
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