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Nkongolo Mulumba,Ihab H. Farag
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Biodiesel production from algae is a promising technique. Microalgae have the potential to produce 5,000-15,000 gallons of biodiesel/(acre-year). However, there are challenges; these include high yieldof algae biomass with high lipid content and the effective technique to harvest the grown algae, extract the algal oil and transesterify the oil to biodiesel. In this project Tubular PhotoBioReactor (TPBR) was designed and achieved a ten times increase in algae concentration. It produced 1g of dry algal biomass per liter of medium within 12 days, with a lipid content of 12% approximately. Healthy algal culture grew well in the TPBR reaching 56x106 cells/mL of culture medium. The 10 fold increase is higher than those reported for open ponds and helical photobioreactor.
Genetic Variation in Picea mariana × P. rubens Hybrid Populations Assessed with ISSR and RAPD Markers  [PDF]
Ramya Narendrula, Kabwe Nkongolo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.36088
Abstract: Interspecific hybridization can result in significant shifts in allele frequencies. The objective of the present study was to assess the level of genetic variation in populations of P. mariana × P. rubens hybrids derived from artificial crosses. Progenies from backcross populations created through a series of controlled pollinations among P. mariana and P. rubens trees across the hybridization index were analyzed. Several Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers were used to amplify genomic DNA samples from each population. ISSR primers produced from 30% to 52% polymorphic loci. The level of polymorphism was higher with RAPD markers, ranging from 57% to 76%. Overall, the two marker systems generated similar levels of polymorphic loci for P. mariana and P. rubens populations. No significant differences were found among the P. mariana × P. rubens populations analyzed and between the hybrids and the parental populations regardless of the molecular marker used. This confirms the genetic closeness of P. mariana and P. rubens species.
Decrease in Lysine and Tryptophan Content in S2 Inbred Lines from a Quality Protein Maize (QPM) Variety in a Breeding Program  [PDF]
Kabwe Nkongolo, Kankolongo Mbuya
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61021
Abstract: Several countries in Africa, Latin America along with China have incorporated QPM in their Agricultural development plan. A new quality protein maize variety (QPM) was developed by breeders and farmers using the participatory breeding approach in the DR-Congo. It is adapted to all the maize growing regions in the country. Inbred lines from this new variety were produced for further development of maize synthetic populations. The main objective of the present study is to determine the level of amino acid changes in early generations of inbred lines. The results of the study revealed a significant decrease of 33% and 38% of tryptophan in S1 and S2 inbred lines compared to the original parental MUDISHI 3 population, respectively. There was a decrease of 15% of lysine in S2 inbred lines compared to the parental MUDISHI 3. Actually, S2 inbred lines of MUDISHI 3 contain similar level of lysine compared to the genetically improved normal maize (Salongo 2) that is currently released. The development of composite lines is recommended over synthetic populations to maintain the high levels of lysine and tryptophan along with other desirable agronomic characteristics since they involve the intercrossing of open pollinated varieties.
Infraspecific Delimitation of Acacia senegal (Fabaceae) in Uganda  [PDF]
John Wasswa Mulumba, Esezah Kakudidi
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.23039
Abstract: The wide variation in Acacia senegal has presented taxonomic uncertainties and unresolved contradictions in previous studies. In this study numerical taxonomic principles and multivariate analysis (UPGMA PCoA and PCA) were used basing on 69 characters derived from growth form, branchlets, leaves, flowers, pods and seed. Three taxa, namely; variety senegal, leiorhachis and kerensis have been discerned and described significantly improving the delimitations of previous studies. The wide variation within var. senegal has been split into three recognizable variants and that of var. leiorhachis into two. The most important characters for differentiating the taxa include leaf breadth and length, pinna length and its ratio to pinna breadth, number of leaflet pairs, petiolar gland shape, petiolar and rachis gland size, stem and branch bark texture, stem and branchlet colour, under-bark colour for stem and branches, pod apical shape, growth form, crown shape, and prickly state of leaves. An identification key has been constructed which, for the first time, can be used to assign herbarium specimens to their respective taxa.
Self-Adaptive DE Applied to Controller Design  [PDF]
K. A. Folly, T. Mulumba
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2014.29007

Adequate damping is necessary to maintain the security and the reliability of power systems. The most-cost effective way to enhance the small-signal of a power system is to use power system controllers known as power system stabilizers (PSSs). In general, the parameters of these controllers are tuned using conventional control techniques such as root locus, phase compensation techniques, etc. However, with these methods, it is difficult to ensure adequate stability of the system over a wide range of operating conditions. Recently, there have been some attempts by researchers to use Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs) such as Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Particle Swarm Optimization, Differential Evolution (DE), etc., to optimally tune the parameters of the PSSs over a wide range of operating conditions. In this paper, a self-adaptive Differential Evolution (DE) is used to design a power system stabilizer for small-signal stability enhancement of a power system. By using self-adaptive DE, the control parameters of DE such as the mutation scale factor F and cross-over rate CR are made adaptive as the population evolves. Simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Evaluation of Biological Soil Fertility Management Practices for Corn Production in Oxisols  [PDF]
Mupala G. Muyayabantu, Bakach D. Kadiata, Kabwe K. Nkongolo
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.311201
Abstract: Field trials on the management of soil biological fertility with aim to increasing corn production were conducted in a savannah region of the DR-Congo. Three organic matters including fresh biomass of Entada abyssinica, Tithonia diversifolia, Stylosanthes gracilis and a mineral combination of nitrogen and phosphorus (NP) (115-63-0) along with a control (without fertilization) were evaluated for corn crop growth and production. The field trial was a completely randomized design with four replicates. Plant height, basal stem diameter, and yield components were assessed. Irrespective of fertilization treatments and variety, maize showed a similar growth up to 20 days after sowing (DAS), and then two distinct trends were observed. At 60 DAS, plant height and basal diameter were significantly bigger in plots treated with NP, T. diversifolia and E. abyssinica compared to S. gracilis treatment and control (NoF). This pattern was also confirmed with agronomic traits such as cob length, number of kernel per cob, and net grain yield. The local variety was the least productive under any treatment. In general, the response of corn crop to organic and inorganic fertilization showed that the mineral combination (NP) increased the most grain yield and other yield components compared to unfertilized trial, followed by T. divessifolia and E. abyssinica. NP and T. diversifolia treatments increased significantly and equally soil potassium content compared to control and other treatments. Application of T. diversifolia appears a more cost effective approach for small farmers to improving fertility of the oxisol prevailing in Central Africa compared to mineral fertilizers.
Environmental Impacts (ER CO2) of an Improved Multi-Fuel Gasifier Forced Air Cookstove in the City of Kinshasa  [PDF]
Oscar Mulumba Ilunga, Hurtado Pérez Elías José
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.96039
Abstract: Sub-Saharan African countries depend 80% on the biomass-wood to meet their daily needs in terms of cooking foods. Traditional cookstoves are much more used to this effect. Many change programmes for replacing cookstove model have been planned. Yet many of these programmes have not been preceded by environmental impact studies. This work offers high-performance cookstove models and determines their impact on the reduction of CO2 emissions, a very harmful greenhouse gas causing the planet warming and climate change. Replacing the traditional cookstove by an improved stove may lead to an economy in terms of fuel ranging from 33.2% to 75.4% according to the model of cookstoves. Yet the Gasifier using pellets as fuel remains the most beneficial stove in terms of fuel saving (75.4%) and in terms of ER CO2, i.e. 2748 t CO2/Year. An improved gasifier cookstove is multi-fuel. He can use charcoal, pellets and wood. This is an indispensable cooking tool with alternative fuels. In this work, the ER CO2 was evaluated using two methods. The KPT, which is a field method and the CCT which is a laboratory method. By the KPT method a gasifier ICS/GAS/P records up to an ERCO2 of 2748 t CO2/Year, while with the same gasifier, an ERCO2 of 2619 t CO2/year is found by the CCT method. The comparison between the two methods shows the same trend but with very high values of ERCO2 for the KPT method results. The variation between the two methods ranges between 1% approximately to 6.9 percent.
Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Morpho-Agronomic Characteristics of Soybeans (Glycine max L.)  [PDF]
Justin Mudibu, Kabwe K. C. Nkongolo, Adrien Kalonji-Mbuyi, Roger V. Kizungu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.33039
Abstract: Mutation breeding in crop plants is an effective approach in improvement of crop having narrow genetic base such as soybean. The main objective of the present study is to determine the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on different morpho-agronomic characteristics. Agronomic traits that were analyzed included; grain yield, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/plant and weight of 100 seeds and numbers of days to 50% flowering. Morphometric characterization of the descriptive data included plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves/plant, leaflet length, leaflet width, number of ramifications/plant, and pod length and width at 3 lodge stage. The results of the present study revealed that the two gamma irradiation doses used (0.2 kGy and 0.4 kGy) decreased significantly most of agronomic and morphological traits evaluated in M1 populations. Different effects of 0.2 kGy and 0.4 kGy irradiation were observed in M2 populations with significant increase of grain yields and yield components in all the three soybean varieties. In general, a significant decrease or no changes of morphological traits were observed for the two irradiation doses in M2 populations. The levels of changes varied among varieties. Potential high yielding mutants were identified in progenies of irradiated seeds.
Epidemiology of the Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Leaf Spot Disease: Genetic Analysis and Developmental Cycles  [PDF]
L. Tshilenge-Lukanda, K. K. C. Nkongolo, A. Kalonji-Mbuyi, R. V. Kizungu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.35070
Abstract: Groundnut leaf spot is one of the important factors limiting groundnut productivity in Africa particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Early and late leaf spot disease of groundnut caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori and Cercosporidium personatum (Berk & Curt.) Deighton, respectively, can cause considerable yield losses without fungicide management. The main objectives of this research were to analyze plant and disease developmental cycles. Significant differences were observed among the groundnut varieties evaluated for resistance to the leaf spot disease. The results show that plant development cycle can be divided into three developmental stages. A first stage characterized by a low production of leaves, a second stage with a significant leaf development and finally a third stage with a reduction of leaves. Interestingly, the leaf spot disease cycle was also divided in three stages. The disease stage characterized by the highest level of symptom expression was not associated with the plant phase with the highest emerged leaves. Disease symptoms reached the highest pick only after the phase of intense leaf development. The molecular analysis revealed that all the groundnut varieties analyzed were genetically closely related even though they showed different reactions to the leaf spot disease.
Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Morpho-Agronomic Characteristics of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  [PDF]
L. Tshilenge-Lukanda, A. Kalonji-Mbuyi, K. K. C. Nkongolo, R. V. Kizungu
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.411271

Induced mutation in plant improvement has been used in several crops to generate new sources of genetic variations. A study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on different morpho-agronomic characteristics. Agronomic traits that were analyzed included: grain yield, number of pods/plant, number of seeds/plant and weight of 100 seeds and numbers of days to 50% flowering. Morphometric characterisation of the descriptive data included plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves/plant, leaflet length, leaflet width and number of ramification/ plant. Groundnut seeds were treated with various doses of gamma rays (100, 200, 400 and 600 Gy). Among the various dose treatments, gamma rays treatment at 100 Gy resulted in a higher increase of grain yield and other morpho-agronomic parameters especially for the JL24 variety. In fact the gamma irradiation at 100 Gy increased significantly grain yield by 14% for JL24, and 4 % for JL12. The number of pods per plant was increased by 2% for JL12 and 37% for JL24. For the number of seeds per plant, there was a significant increase of 8% for JL12, and 62% for JL24 at 100 Gy. A similar trend was observed for the JL24 at 200 Gy dose. Higher doses of gamma rays (400 and 600 Gy) reduced significantly plant growth and grain yield. The usefulness of the mutants identified in a groundnut breeding program is discussed.

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