This study reports the morphological, anatomical and agar content difference among various species of Gracilaria. The cortex was found 1-2 layered in G. edulis and G. eucheumatoides whereas 5-6 layered in G. foliifera and G. crassa. The medulla was 6-8 layered in G. edulis, 10-11 layered in G. foliifera, 14-15 layered in G. eucheumatoides and 8-10 layered in G. crassa. Similarly, distinct variations were observed in the structure of cystocarp of these taxa. The outer pericarp was 6-8 layered in G. verrucosa (attached type), 8-9 in Graciriopsis megaspora, 12-13 layered cells in G

Abstract:
The
increasing trends in SoCs and SiPs technologies demand integration of large
numbers of buses and metal tracks for interconnections. On-Chip SerDes
Transceiver is a promising solution which can reduce the number of
interconnects and offers remarkable benefits in context with power consumption,
area congestion and crosstalk. This paper reports a design of a new Serializer
and Deserializer architecture for basic functional operations of serialization
and deserialization used in On-Chip SerDes Transceiver. This architecture
employs a design technique which samples input on both edges of clock. The main
advantage of this technique which is input is sampled with lower clock (half
the original rate) and is distributed for the same functional throughput, which
results in power savings in the clock distribution network. This proposed Serializer
and Deserializer architecture is designed using UMC 180 nm CMOS technology and
simulation is done using Cadence Spectre simulator with a supply voltage of 1.8
V. The present design is compared with the earlier published similar works and
improvements are obtained in terms of power consumption and area as shown in
Tables 1-3 respectively. This design also helps the designer for solving
crosstalk issues.

Abstract:
Exact eigenvalue correlation functions are computed for large $N$ hermitian one-matrix models with eigenvalues distributed in two symmetric cuts. An asymptotic form for orthogonal polynomials for arbitrary polynomial potentials that support a $Z_2$ symmetric distribution is obtained. This results in an exact explicit expression for the kernel at large $N$ which determines all eigenvalue correlators. The oscillating and smooth parts of the two point correlator are extracted and the universality of local fine grained and smoothed global correlators is established.

Abstract:
Let $k$ be a field of characteristic not $2$. We give a positive answer to Serre's injectivity question for any smooth connected reductive $k$-group whose Dynkin diagram contains connected components only of type $A_n$, $B_n$ or $C_n$. We do this by relating Serre's question to the norm principles proved by Barquero and Merkurjev. We give a scalar obstruction defined up to spinor norms whose vanishing will imply the norm principle for the non-trialitarian $D_{n}$ case and yield a positive answer to Serre's question for connected reductive $k$-groups whose Dynkin diagrams contain components of non-trialitarian type $D_n$ also. We also investigate Serre's question for reductive $k$-groups whose derived subgroups admit quasi-split simply connected covers.

Abstract:
We give a recursive construction to produce examples of quadratic forms q_n in the n-th power of the fundamental ideal in the Witt ring whose corresponding adjoint groups PSO(q_n) are not stably rational. Computations of the R-equivalence classes of adjoint classical groups by A.S. Merkurjev are used to show that these groups are not R-trivial. This extends earlier results of A.S. Merkurjev and P.Gille where the forms considered have non-trivial and trivial discriminants respectively.

Abstract:
Dice rolling (Emeric,1997) is a useful pedagogical tool (Arthur & Ian,2012; Todd, Clifton, Ingrid, Zdravko,2006)) to introduce students to the concepts and essential features of radioactivity. It can be extended to explain radioactive branching. In the process, the students learn about half life, decay constant and activity of a radioactive substance. Terms like stochastic processes, probability of decay, statistical fluctuations, and mutually exclusive processes; becomes clear in this process.

Abstract:
Luffa aegyptiaca fruit has been assayed for the presence of lignin peroxidase activity using veratryl alcohol as the substrate. The fruit juice contained activity of 3.14 U/ml which was much higher than 0.075 U/ml reported in the culture filtrate of Phanarochaete chrysosporium ATCC-24725. The K_{m} value of the lignin peroxidase using veratryl alcohol as the variable substrate in 50mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5 at 25°C was found to be 50 μM respectively. The pH and temperature optima of the lignin peroxidase were 2.4 and 22°C, respectively. The present article reports viable method to explore rich sources of lignin peroxidase from plants which can be used as a mediator in oxidative organic transformations within green chemistry domain ensuring ecofriendly synthesis of bioorganic molecules of pharmaceutical value.

Abstract:
The present study involves phylogenetic analysis of distinguished bacterial population essentiallygrouped into functional attributes, namely nitrogen fixation and quorum sensing. The basis of this analysisare protein sequences of NifH (nitrogenase reductase), LuxA (Luciferase alpha subunit) and LuxS (Sribosylhomocysteine lyase) from 30, 17, 25 species of bacteria respectively. These bacteria show vastdiversity in terms of habitat mode of survival pathogenicity. Phylogenetic analysis gives an insight into theevolution and interrelationships of these microbial species. GeneBee, ClustalW and Phylip softwares werefound to be satisfactory for the chosen work. Phylogenetic trees were constructed in the form ofCladograms, Phylograms and Unrooted radial trees. According to the results obtained, the most highlyevolved group of organisms with respect to their nitrogenase reductase protein is that of Desulfovibriovulgaris and Chlorobium phaeobacteriodes. Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis hold the most highlyevolved forms of LuxS protein. Also knowledge abtained from the motif pattern analysis betweenBradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum NifH protein sequence are conserved and furtheranalysis may show that there may be quorum sensing mediated gene regulation in host bacteriuminteraction. Phylogenetic analyses, thus, on the basis of highly conserved protein domains, universal in theirexistence, can provide a preamble to the actual 16S-rRNA based phylogeny or genomic analyses ofphylogeny carried out in the wet lab.

Abstract:
The density-of-states (DOS) for a magnetized (B) two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) containing point scatterers of arbitrary strengths, concentration ($n_s$) and distribution is analyzed. It is shown from the first principles that for \(n_s \leq B/\Phi_o \equiv n_B\), the areal density of flux quanta \(\Phi_o \equiv hc/e\), the DOS retains the extensive degeneracy characteristic of the Landau levels, but reduced by a factor \((1 - {n_s}/{n_B})\). This elementary but exact result gives a level condensation for magnetic field \(B > n_s\Phi_o\), as first noted by Br\'{e}zin {\em et al.}. Its implications for the Integral Quantum Hall Effect and for Random Matrix Theory are pointed out.

Abstract:
In this article, the modified Kane-Mele Hamiltonian is derived for graphene with wedge disclination and spin orbit couplings (intrinsic and Rashba). The wedge disclination changes the flat lattice into the conical lattice and hence modifies the spin orbit couplings. The Hamiltonian is exactly solved for the intrinsic spin orbit interaction and perturbatively for the Rashba spin orbit interaction. It is shown that there exists the Kramer's degenerate midgap localized spin separated fluxon states around the defect. These zero energy spin separated states occur at the external magnetic flux value $\Phi\pm\Delta\Phi$. The external magnetic flux $\Phi$ is introduced to make the wave-function periodic when the electron circulates around the defect. It is found that this separation occurs due to the effect of the conical curvature on the spin orbit coupling. Further, we find these results are robust to the addition of the Rashba spin orbit interaction which is important for the application to spintronics and nanoelectronics.