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On Asymptotic Analysis of Packet and Wormhole Switched Routing Algorithm for Application-Specific Networks-on-Chip
Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/216406
Abstract: The application of the multistage interconnection networks (MINs) in systems-on-chip (SoC) and networks-on-chip (NoC) is hottest since year 2002. Nevertheless, nobody used them practically for parallel communication. However, to overcome all the previous problems, a new method is proposed that uses MIN to provide intra-(global) communication among application-specific NoCs in networks-in-package (NiP). For this, four fault-tolerant parallel algorithms are proposed. It allows different NoCs to communicate in parallel using either fault-tolerant irregular Penta multistage interconnection network (PNN) or fault-tolerant regular Hexa multistage interconnection network (HXN). These two are acting as an interconnects-on-chip (IoC) in NiP. Both IoC use packet switching and wormhole switching to route packets from source NoC to destination NoC. The results are compared in terms of packet losses and wormhole switching which comes out to be better than packet switching. The comparison of IoC on cost and MTTR concluded that the HXN has the higher cost than the PNN, but MTTR values of the HXN are low in comparison to the PNN. This signifies that the ability to tolerate faults and online repairing of the HXN is higher and faster than the PNN.
Dynamic Energy Aware Gur Game based Algorithms for Self Optimizing Wireless Sensor Networks
Nitin Nitin
International Journal of Computers & Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This paper presents, Application of Gur Game Based Algorithm on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed to monitor Homogenous and Heterogeneous Grid in order to achieve Quality of Service (QoS) = 0.40 and 0.50. Further, the objectives of all these algorithms are to maximize the coverage of the sensor area while conserving energy consumed by sensor nodes. This is achieved via carefully activating/deactivating the sensors while maximizing the coverage area.
A Mobile Ad-Hoc Routing Algorithm with Comparative Study of Earlier Proposed Algorithms  [PDF]
Kumar Verma Pawan, Gupta Tarun, Rakesh Nitin, Nitin Nitin
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.33037
Abstract: A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous collection of mobile nodes that communicate over bandwidth constrained wireless links. Due to nodal mobility, the network topology may change rapidly and unpredictably over time. The routing protocols meant for wired network cannot be used for mobile ad-hoc network because of mobility of network. A number of routing protocols like Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV), Ad-Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), and Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm have been implemented. The ad-hoc routing protocols can be divided into two classes; Table-Driven and On-Demand. This paper examines two routing protocols for mobile ad-hoc networks—the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), the table-driven protocol and the Ad-Hoc On- Demand Distance Vector routing (AODV), an on-demand protocol and propose an algorithm that facilitates efficient routing of the packet and failure recovery mechanism
Team Spirit Model Using MPEG Standards for Video Delivery  [PDF]
Neetu Singh, Piyush Chauhan, Nitin Rakesh, Nitin Nitin
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2010.34046
Abstract: Today the multimedia content delivery chain faces many challenges. There are increasing terminal diversity, network heterogeneity and pressure to satisfy the user preferences. Therefore, the need of customized contents comes in light to provide users the best possible experience. In this paper, we address the problem of multimedia customization. For the customized content, we suggest the team spirit model (TSM) that uses the web edition content description, MPEG-4 standards and the MPEG-21 multimedia framework. It efficiently implements the video customization.
Incidence of Post-Operative Venous Thromboembolism Using Compression Ultrasonography Following Trauma to Spine and Long Bones of Lower Extremity  [PDF]
Nitin Gupta, Rakesh Bahrgava
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2013.32019

Background: Venous thromboembolism is an important and potentially a fatal complication if not suspected and treated promptly. Various diagnostic modalities are available to detect Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), but each has its merits and demerits. Compression ultrasonography is a non-invasive method to diagnose DVT. This study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of DVT using compression ultrasonography in the patients who underwent surgery of the spine and long bones of lower extremity following trauma. Material & Methods: All patients who underwent surgery following trauma to the spine and long bones of lower extremity were screened using Venous B-mode ultrasonography and color Doppler imaging. None of the patients received prophylaxis against DVT. The patients were selected on the basis of the following findings: 1) Immediately in patients found to have clinical DVT following surgery; 2) Every odd number of patients who underwent surgery and did not show signs and symptoms of DVT on the 7th, 14th post operative day and 6th post operative week. Results: The incidence of DVT using compression ultrasonography in the patients who underwent surgery of the spine and long bones of lower extremity following trauma was 17 percent. The incidence of DVT has no correlation with various clinical variables. Conclusion: The observed incidence of DVT is reasonably high and it is a potential risk factor for the development of pulmonary embolism.

Gold Nanoparticles: Acceptors for Efficient Energy Transfer from the Photoexcited Fluorophores  [PDF]
Debanjana Ghosh, Nitin Chattopadhyay
Optics and Photonics Journal (OPJ) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/opj.2013.31004

The citrate reduction method of synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) is standardized with the assistance of instruments like spectrophotometer and TEM. A correlation has been developed between the particle diameter and the fractional concentration of the reductant. This enables one to assess the diameter of the AuNP to be synthesized, in advance, from the composition of the reaction mixture and the diameter of the synthesized particles can be confirmed simply from spectrophotometry. Further, it has been demonstrated that the synthesized AuNPs serve as excellent acceptors for a super-efficient energy transfer (ET) from the donor coumarin 153, leading to a quenching of fluorescence of the latter. The Stern-Volmer constants determined from the fluorescence lifetimes are in the range 107 - 109 mol-1·dm3 and are orders of magnitude higher than the normal photochemical quenching processes. The energy transfer efficiency increases radically with an increase in the size of the metal nanoparticle. The highly efficient energy transfer and the variation of the efficiency of the ET process with a variation of the particle size is ascribed to a large enhancement in the extinction coefficient and an increase in the spectral overlap between the plasmon absorption band of AuNPs and the fluorescence spectrum of C153 with an increase in the size of the nanoparticles. The impact of the work remains in providing a demonstration of a super quenching effect of the AuNPs and projects that they can be exploited for developing biosensors with high degree of sensitivity, if tagged to the biomacromolecules.

A Review of Price Forecasting Problem and Techniques in Deregulated Electricity Markets  [PDF]
Nitin Singh, S. R. Mohanty
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2015.39001
Abstract: In deregulated electricity markets, price forecasting is gaining importance between various market players in the power in order to adjust their bids in the day-ahead electricity markets and maximize their profits. Electricity price is volatile but non random in nature making it possible to identify the patterns based on the historical data and forecast. An accurate price forecasting method is an important factor for the market players as it enables them to decide their bidding strategy to maximize profits. Various models have been developed over a period of time which can be broadly classified into two types of models that are mainly used for Electricity Price forecasting are: 1) Time series models; and 2) Simulation based models; time series models are widely used among the two, for day ahead forecasting. The presented work summarizes the influencing factors that affect the price behavior and various established forecasting models based on time series analysis, such as Linear regression based models, nonlinear heuristics based models and other simulation based models.
Effect of Probabilistic Pattern on System Voltage Stability in Decentralized Hybrid Power System  [PDF]
Nitin Kumar Saxena, Ashwani Kumar
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.34020
Abstract: This paper presents an proportional integral (PI) based voltage-reactive power control for wind diesel based decentralized hybrid power system with wide range of disturbances to demonstrate the compensation effect on system with intelligent tuning methods such as genetic algorithm (GA), artificial neural network (ANN) and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The effect of probabilistic load and/or input power pattern is introduced which is incorporated in MATLAB simulink model developed for the study of decentralized hybrid power system. Results show how tuning method becomes important with high percentage of probabilistic pattern in system. Testing of all tuning methods shows that GA, ANN and ANFIS can preserve optimal performances over wide range of disturbances with superiority to GA in terms of settling time using Integral of Square of Errors (ISE) criterion as fitness function.
Excited State Proton Transfer of Carbazole. A Convenient Way to Study Microheterogeneous Environments
Nitin Chattopadhyay
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2003, DOI: 10.3390/i4070460
Abstract: Excited state proton transfer of carbazole gives rise to dual fluorescence from the two prototropic species. Simultaneous consideration of the two emissions takes care of many of the instrumental artifacts. The relative intensity of the two emissions of carbazole is sensitive not only to the pH of the bulk medium but also the microenvironment around the probe. Hence, excited state proton transfer of carbazole has been well studied and exploited extensively to study the detail of microheterogeneous liquid environments like aqueous micelles, cyclodextrins etc. Effect of additive like urea has also been monitored via this photoreaction.
Promoter analysis by saturation mutagenesis
Baliga Nitin
Biological Procedures Online , 2001, DOI: 10.1251/bpo24
Abstract: Gene expression and regulation are mediated by DNA sequences, in most instances, directly upstream to the coding sequences by recruiting transcription factors, regulators, and a RNA polymerase in a spatially defined fashion. Few nucleotides within a promoter make contact with the bound proteins. The minimal set of nucleotides that can recruit a protein factor is called a cis-acting element. This article addresses a powerful mutagenesis strategy that can be employed to define cis-acting elements at a molecular level. Technical details including primer design, saturation mutagenesis, construction of promoter libraries, phenotypic analysis, data analysis, and interpretation are discussed.
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