Abstract:
There is a surprising occurrence of some minus signs in the isomorphisms produced in the well-known technique of dimension shifting in calculating derived functors in homological algebra. We explicitly determine these signs. Getting these signs right is important in order to avoid basic contradictions. We illustrate the lemma by some de Rham cohomology and Chern class considerations for compact Riemann surfaces.

Abstract:
For conic bundles on a smooth variety (over a field of characteristic $\ne 2$) which degenerate into pairs of distinct lines over geometric points of a smooth divisor, we prove a theorem which relates the Brauer class of the non-degenerate conic on the complement of the divisor to the covering class (Kummer class) of the 2-sheeted cover of the divisor defined by the degenerate conic, via the Gysin homomorphism in etale cohomology. This theorem is the algebro-geometric analogue of a topological result proved earlier.

Abstract:
Let $S$ be a noetherian scheme, and let $E$ be a coherent sheaf on it. We define a group-valued contravariant functor $GL_E$ on $S$-schemes by associating to any $S$-scheme $T$ the group $GL_E(T)$ of all linear automorphisms of the pullback of $E$ to $T$. This functor is clearly a sheaf in the fpqc topology. We prove that $GL_E$ is representable by a group-scheme over $S$ if and only if the sheaf $E$ is locally free.

Abstract:
Let $X$ be a projective scheme over a noetherian base scheme $S$, and let $F$ be a coherent sheaf on $X$. For any coherent sheaf $E$ on $X$, consider the set-valued contravariant functor $Hom_{E,F}$ on $S$-schemes, defined by $Hom_{E,F}(T) = Hom(E_T,F_T)$ where $E_T$ and $F_T$ are the pull-backs of $E$ and $F$ to $X_T = X\times_S T$. A basic result of Grothendieck ([EGA] III 7.7.8, 7.7.9) says that if $F$ is flat over $S$ then $Hom_{E,F}$ is representable for all $E$. We prove the converse of the above, in fact, we show that if $L$ is a relatively ample line bundle on $X$ over $S$ such that the functor $Hom_{L^{-n},F}$ is representable for infinitely many positive integers $n$, then $F$ is flat over $S$. As a corollary, taking $X=S$, it follows that if $F$ is a coherent sheaf on $S$ then the functor $T\mapsto H^0(T, F_T)$ on the category of $S$-schemes is representable if and only if $F$ is locally free on $S$. This answers a question posed by Angelo Vistoli. The techniques we use involve the proof of flattening stratification, together with the methods used in proving the author's earlier result (see arXiv.org/abs/math.AG/0204047) that the automorphism group functor of a coherent sheaf on $S$ is representable if and only if the sheaf is locally free.

Abstract:
For any flat family of pure-dimensional coherent sheaves on a family of projective schemes, the Harder-Narasimhan type (in the sense of Gieseker semistability) of its restriction to each fiber is known to vary semicontinuously on the parameter scheme of the family. This defines a stratification of the parameter scheme by locally closed subsets, known as the Harder-Narasimhan stratification. In this note, we show how to endow each Harder-Narasimhan stratum with the structure of a locally closed subscheme of the parameter scheme, which enjoys the universal property that under any base change the pullback family admits a relative Harder-Narasimhan filtration with a given Harder-Narasimhan type if and only if the base change factors through the schematic stratum corresponding to that Harder-Narasimhan type. The above schematic stratification induces a stacky stratification on the algebraic stack of pure-dimensional coherent sheaves. We deduce that coherent sheaves of a fixed Harder-Narasimhan type form an algebraic stack in the sense of Artin.

Abstract:
We show that a closed subscheme of a given locally noetherian scheme can be constructed by prescribing it germs at all points of the ambient scheme in a manner consistent with specialization of points, provided the resulting set of all associated points of all the germs is locally finite. More generally, we prove a similar result for constructing a coherent subsheaf of a coherent sheaf by prescribing its stalks at all points in a manner consistent with specializations of points, again provided the set of all associated points of all the corresponding local quotients is locally finite. On any locally noetherian scheme, we show that there exists a unique global section of any coherent sheaf which has a prescribed family of germs which is consistent with specialization of points. It is not clear how to formulate an analogous result for constructing a coherent sheaf in terms of prescribed stalks. Even when the set of all associated points of all the prescribed stalks is locally finite, such a construction need not succeed as we show with an example. This raises the question of how to set up effective descent data for coherent sheaves purely in terms of germs and their specializations.

Abstract:
In characteristic zero, semistable principal bundles on a nonsingular projective curve with a semisimple structure group form a bounded family, as shown by Ramanathan in 1970's using the Narasimhan-Seshadri theorem. This was the first step in his construction of moduli for principal bundles. In this paper we prove boundedness in finite characteristics (other than characteristic 2), when the structure group is a semisimple, simply connected algebraic group of classical type. The main ingredient is an analogue of the Mukai-Sakai theorem (which says that any vector bundle admits a proper subbundle whose degree is `not too small') in the present situation.

Abstract:
This paper solves the global moduli problem for regular holonomic D-modules with normal crossing singularities on a nonsingular complex projective variety. This is done by introducing a level structure (which gives rise to ``pre-D-modules''), and then introducing a notion of (semi-)stability and applying Geometric Invariant Theory to construct a coarse moduli scheme for semistable pre-D-modules. A moduli is constructed also for the corresponding perverse sheaves, and the Riemann-Hilbert correspondence is represented by an analytic morphism between these moduli spaces.

Abstract:
This is an expository account of Grothendieck's construction of Hilbert and Quot Schemes, following his talk `Techniques de construction et theoremes d'existence en geometrie algebriques IV : les schemas de Hilbert', Seminaire Bourbaki 221 (1960/61), together with further developments by Mumford and by Altman and Kleiman. Hilbert and Quot schemes are fundamental to modern Algebraic Geometry, in particular, for deformation theory and moduli constructions. These notes are based on a series of six lectures in the summer school `Advanced Basic Algebraic Geometry', held at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, in July 2003.

Abstract:
The result of Siegel that the Tamagawa number of $SL_r$ over a function field is 1 has an expression purely in terms of vector bundles on a curve, which is known as the Siegel formula. We prove an analogous formula for vector bundles with quasi-parabolic structures. This formula can be used to calculate the Betti numbers of the moduli of parabolic vector bundles using the Weil conjucture.