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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1101 matches for " Nirmalan Raja "
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Incarcerated Gastro-thorax: a rare and delayed presentation of diaphragmatic injury due to multiple stab wounds.
Sanoop Zachariah,Parag Dhamne,Nirmalan Raja
Journal of Surgical Case Reports , 2010,
Abstract: Diaphragmatic injuries due to thoraco-abdominal penetrating trauma may often go unnoticed at the initial admission, especially in patients who are asymptomatic, with stable hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Such occult diaphragmatic perforations can result in latent morbidity and mortality due to delayed trans-diaphragmatic herniation of the abdominal viscera leading to incarceration, strangulation and perforation. Here we report a case of an initially asymptomatic patient who had sustained multiple truncal stab injuries and presented two months later with a trans-thoracic incarceration of the stomach which was accurately diagnosed and successfully repaired at the time of surgery .This case report highlights the importance of exploring thoraco-abdominal penetrating injuries even in the absence initial clinical and radiological signs, so as to promptly identify occult and isolated diaphragmatic perforations and prevent delayed catastrophes. The clinical features, radiological findings, diagnostic difficulties and surgical options are discussed along with review of relevant literature.
Evidence-based medicine in eye care-Relevant research to inform practice!
Shamanna B,Nirmalan Praveen
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2003,
A new curved vitreous cutter for managing phakic retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy
Natarajan S,Malpani Anupam,Nirmalan Praveen
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1998,
Abstract: In the presence of proliferations anteriorly, adequate excision of the vitreous base is essential. To enable a good vitreous base excision, removal of lens often becomes necessary as it may be damaged while attempting to remove peripheral vitreous. To avoid damage or the need to remove the crystalline lens we have used a new modified curved vitreous cutter along with a wide angle observation system binocular indirect ophthalmomicroscope (BIOM). Use of BIOM during vitreous surgery enables easy viewing of the retinal periphery without the need for scleral depression. Sclerotomies are made as for any regular three-port vitrectomy procedure and the vitrectomy is carried out using the curved vitreous cutter, including the vitreous base, avoiding damage to the crystalline lens. The modified curved vitreous cutter is helpful in removing the peripheral vitreous without damaging the crystalline lens, giving the patient the advantage of intraocular lens implantation at a later date.
Protecting Water Quality and Public Health Using a Smart Grid  [PDF]
Ken Thompson, Raja Kadiyala
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2013.22B013
Abstract: After the attacks on September 11, 2001 and the follow-up risk assessments by utilities across the United States, securing the water distribution system against malevolent attack became a strategic goal for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Following 3 years of development work on a Contamination Warning System (CWS) at the Greater Cincinnati Water Works, four major cities across the United States were selected to enhance the CWS development conducted by the USEPA. One of the major efforts undertaken was to develop a process to seamlessly process “Big Data” sets in real time from different sources (online water quality monitoring, consumer complaints, enhanced security, public health surveillance, and sampling and analysis) and graphically display actionable information for operators to evaluate and respond to appropriately. The most significant finding that arose from the development and implementation of the “dashboard” were the dual benefits observed by all four utilities: the ability to enhance their operations and improve the regulatory compliance of their water distribution systems. Challenge: While most of the utilities had systems in place for SCADA, Work Order Management, Laboratory Management, 311 Call Center Management, Hydraulic Models, Public Health Monitoring, and GIS, these systems were not integrated, resulting in duplicate data entry, which made it difficult to trace back to a “single source of truth.” Each one of these data sources can produce a wealth of raw data. For most utilities, very little of this data is being translated into actionable information as utilities cannot overwhelm their staffs with manually processing the mountains of data generated. Instead, utilities prefer to provide their staffs with actionable information that is easily understood and provides the basis for rapid decision-making. Smart grid systems were developed so utilities can essentially find the actionable needle in the haystack of data. Utilities can then focus on rapidly evaluating the new information, compare it known activities occurring in the system, and identify the correct level of response required. Solution: CH2M HILL was engaged to design, implement, integrate, and deploy a unified spatial dashboard/smart grid system. This system included the processes, technology, automation, and governance necessary to link together the disparate systems in real time and fuse these data streams to the GIS. The overall solution mapped the business process involved with the data collection, the information flow requirements, and the system and
A New Clock Gated Flip Flop for Pipelining Architecture  [PDF]
Krishnamoorthy Raja, Siddhan Saravanan
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78119
Abstract: The objective of the work is to design a new clock gated based flip flop for pipelining architecture. In computing and consumer products, the major dynamic power is consumed in the system’s clock signal, typically about 30% to 70% of the total dynamic (switching) power consumption. Several techniques to reduce the dynamic power have been developed, of which clock gating is predominant. In this work, a new methodology is applied for gating the Flip flop by which the power will be reduced. The clock gating is employed to the pipelining stage flip flop which is active only during valid data are arrived. The methodology used in project named Selective Look-Ahead Clock Gating computes the clock enabling signals of each FF one cycle ahead of time, based on the present cycle data of those FFs on which it depends. Similarly to data-driven gating, it is capable of stopping the majority of redundant clock pulses. In this work, the circuit implementation of the various blocks of data driven clock gating is done and the results are observed. The proposed work is used for pipelining stage in microprocessor and DSP architectures. The proposed method is simulated using the quartus for cyclone 3 kit.
A BP Artificial Neural Network Model for Earthquake Magnitude Prediction in Himalayas, India  [PDF]
S. Narayanakumar, K. Raja
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.711294
Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of BP neural network techniques in predicting earthquakes occurring in the region of Himalayan belt (with the use of different types of input data). These parameters are extracted from Himalayan Earthquake catalogue comprised of all minor, major events and their aftershock sequences in the Himalayan basin for the past 128 years from 1887 to 2015. This data warehouse contains event data, event time with seconds, latitude, longitude, depth, standard deviation and magnitude. These field data are converted into eight mathematically computed parameters known as seismicity indicators. These seismicity indicators have been used to train the BP Neural Network for better decision making and predicting the magnitude of the pre-defined future time period. These mathematically computed indicators considered are the clustered based on every events above 2.5 magnitude, total number of events from past years to 2014, frequency-magnitude distribution b-values, Gutenberg-Richter inverse power law curve for the n events, the rate of square root of seismic energy released during the n events, energy released from the event, the mean square deviation about the regression line based on the Gutenberg-Richer inverse power law for the n events, coefficient of variation of mean time and average value of the magnitude for last n events. We propose a three-layer feed forward BP neural network model to identify factors, with the actual occurrence of the earthquake magnitude M and other seven mathematically computed parameters seismicity indicators as input and target vectors in Himalayan basin area. We infer through comparing curve as observed from seismometer in Himalayan Earthquake catalogue comprised of all events above magnitude 2.5 mg, their aftershock sequences in the Himalayan basin of year 2015 and BP neural network predicting earthquakes in 2015. The model yields good prediction result for the earthquakes of magnitude between 4.0 and 6.0.
Perceptions of Eye Diseases and Eye Care Needs of Children among Parents in Rural South India: The Kariapatti Pediatric Eye Evaluation Project (KEEP)
Nirmalan Praveen,Sheeladevi Sethu,Tamilselvi Velayutham,Victor Arockia
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2004,
Abstract: We conducted 24 focus group discussions for parents and grandparents as part of a population-based survey of ocular morbidity to determine awareness and perceptions of eye diseases in children among parents and guardians of children in a rural south Indian population. Focus group discussions were conducted separately for mothers, fathers and grandparents. They were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed to the local language and English. Content analysis of the focus group discussions was done to identify key concepts, and this yielded five broad areas of interest relating to awareness and attitudes towards: 1) eye problems in children, 2) specific eye diseases in children, 3) vision problems in children, 4) existing health practices, and 5) utilization of services. Vision impairment did not figure in the top ten eye problems cited for children. There was a predominant belief that children below 4 years should not wear spectacles. Strabismus was considered as untreatable and was seen as a sign of good luck. Differing advice provided by the medical community for the same condition was an issue. The discussions also brought out that eye doctors were approached last for eye care, after traditional healers and general physicians. The discussions raise several issues of relevance that eye care programs need to address for better community involvement with programs. This will require a far greater focus than the current curative focus adopted by most programs.
Clinico-microbiological profile and visual outcomes of post-traumatic endophthalmitis at a tertiary eye care center in South India
Vedantham Vasumathy,Nirmalan Praveen,Ramasamy Kim,Prakash Karthik
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2006,
Abstract: Purpose: To analyze the clinical and microbiological characteristics of eyes with post-traumatic endophthalmitis and factors influencing the visual outcomes in these cases. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart analysis of the clinical and microbiological data of 97 consecutive patients with post-traumatic endophthalmitis presenting to a tertiary eye care hospital in South India. Results: Thirty-nine (40.2%) cases were culture-positive, Gram-positive cocci (n=24/42, 57.1%) being the commonest isolates. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeuruginosa were the commonest single isolates (n=10; 23.8%). Majority of the organisms were sensitive to chloramphenicol (n=27) or ciprofloxacin (n=26). Susceptibility to vancomycin (n=3) and amikacin (n=4) was poor. Cases with negative cultures at presentation were more likely to have improvement in visual acuity compared with culture-positive cases (on multivariate analysis, OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.0). Conclusions: In this series of post-traumatic endophthalmitis, a high prevalence of resistance of the culture isolates to vancomycin and amikacin was observed.
Roles and responsibilities in the secondary level eye care model
Bindiganavale Ramaswamy Shamanna,Praveen Kumar Nirmalan,Saibaba Saravanan
Community Eye Health Journal , 2005,
Abstract: In any secondary level eye care clinic, a number of tasks must be completed. In different countries and different settings, different people will carry out these tasks. The manager is responsible for ensuring that all the tasks are covered, that people are carefully selected to perform them, and that staff are supported and managed. The International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care (ICARE), within the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI) in India, has evolved an eye care team to provide secondary level eye care services to a population of 0.5 to 1 million. The ICARE model emphasises that all cadres of clinical and non-clinical personnel are equally important. Below is a description of the range of jobs at secondary level centres. The tertiary centre at LVPEI manages leadership and training for this model.
Crystallization and Characterization of a New NonLinear Optical Crystal: L Proline Succinate (LPS)  [PDF]
P. Paramasivam, C. Ramachandra Raja
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology (JCPT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2012.21004
Abstract: In this analysis, the single crystal of L-Proline Succinate (LPS) has been successfully synthesized and the purity of ma- terial has been increased by repeated recrystallization process. Single crystal was grown by adopting the method of growing in a slow evaporation solution using water as solvent at room temperature. The LPS single crystal has been synthesized by taking equimolar quantity of L-Proline and succinic acid, by mixing them thoroughly using deionized water. The prepared concentrated solution was placed in an undisturbed condition, and the solution was inspected regu- larly. The single crystal has been harvested over a period of 1 month. The same crystal was characterized by different techniques for finding its suitability for device fabrications. The grown crystal was characterized by Single crystal XRD, Powder XRD, FTIR, UV-vis-NIR, DTA/TGA and SHG analyses, respectively. The observed results from various char- acterization show the suitability for NLO application. The second harmonic generation of this grown crystal was checked using Kurtz Perry technique which showed positive results. The UV cut-off wavelength and the decomposition temperature of this grown crystal were found to be good when compared with the existing organic crystals.
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