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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 831 matches for " Nikoli? Zora ?. "
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Arterial vascularization of the brain of the small green monkey, Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus
Blagojevi? Zdenka M.,NikoliZora ?.,?eli? Dijana J.,Mrvi? Verica
Acta Veterinaria , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/avb0404319b
Abstract: Cell cultures from the small green monkey are used for the cultivation of poliovirus in the manufacture of vaccines against poliomyelitis. In addition kidney cultures from the same monkey serve for detection of the virus in biological material. This was the main reason that prompted us to undertake a study of one part of the monkey’s cardiosvascular system and thus contribute to a better understanding of the structure of its body.
The subclavian artery and its branches in the small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus)
Blagojevi? Zdenka M.,Blagojevi? M.,NikoliZora ?.,Dreki? Dmitar M.
Acta Veterinaria , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/avb0503237b
Abstract: Within experimental, human and veterinary medicine, more and more attention has been paid to experimental animals. One of them being the small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus). The small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus) has a shod muzzle, small teeth, and is mostly of gray-greenish color; the lower pan of its neck, chest, belly and inner sides of its thoracic limbs being whitish. Its total length is about 110 cm, the tail being 50 cm long. On its head, on both sides, there are white hairs directed towards the neck, reminiscent of whiskers. The monkeys have large buccal sacs. The extremities and tail are more gray than the rest of the body. The skin of the face, ears and fore limbs is black. The digits are very long, whilst the thumb short. Cell cultures from the small green monkey are used for the cultivation of poliovirus in the manufacture of vaccines against poliomyelitis. In addition, kidney cultures from the same monkey serve for detection of the virus in biological material. This was the main reason that prompted us to undertake a study of one part of the monkey's cardiosvascular system and thus contribute to a better understanding of the structure of its body.
In vivo model for research of breast cancer biomarkers
Kanjer Ksenija,Ne?kovi?-Konstantinovi? Zora,Nikoli?-Vukosavljevi? Dragica
Archive of Oncology , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/aoo0604141k
Abstract: The preoperative (neoadjuvant) setting of breast cancer treatment is an optimal in vivo model by which to allow the characterization of biomarker expression pattern with the tumor remaining in situ throughout treatment as an in vivo measure of response to particular therapy. Elucidating surrogate molecular or cellular markers of tumor response to therapy, may provide biological insight into both, the mechanism of tumor growth dynamics and drug sensitivity/resistance. Owing to the knowledge that many drugs are effective on actively proliferating cells and more intriguingly, that many anticancer agents with differing modes of action achieve cytotoxic effects by inducing apoptosis, has lead to a reappraisal of traditional views of tumor response/resistance to cytotoxic drugs in vivo. Accordingly, this review article will focus on discussing apoptosis phenomena and the p53 and bcl-2 protein as its regulators of principal impor-tance; a cell proliferation determined by the Ki-67 expression, as the major counterbalancing process to apoptosis is also considered. This paper reviews the rationale for the use of these proteins as indices of tumor response to therapy, as well as the published literature regarding their clinical relevance. So far, no firm conclusions can be made concerning their predictive utility. .
Extrahepatic and intrahepatic veins of the portal system in the ground squirrel (Citellus citellus)
NikoliZora ?.,Blagojevi? Zdenka M.,Vitorovi? Du?ko,?eli? Dijana J.
Acta Veterinaria , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/avb0301057n
Abstract: From studies of the extrahepatic veins and intrahepatic veins of the portal system in the ground squirrel, using anatomical methods and rentgenography the following can be concluded: The portal vein is formed by the confluence of three venous blood vessels which are present the extrahepatic part of the portal system in the ground squirrel: V. gastropancreaticoduodenalis, V. gastrolienalis and V. mesenterica cranialis. V. portae runs towards the portal fissure and divides, upon entering the liver, into a small right branch which is dispersed in the right lobes and a large left branch which ramifies in the remainder of the liver. V. gastropancreaticoduodenalis receives blood from the greater omentum of the stomach (V. gastroepiploica dextra), the cranial part of the duodenum and the right segment of the pancreas (V. pancreaticoduodenalis cranialis). Truncus gastrolienalis drains the parietal and visceral wall of the stomach (V. gastrica sinistra), the spleen and left portion of the greater omentum (V. lienalis). V. mesenterica cranialis collects blood from the middle part of the duodenum and adjacent part of the pancreas (V. pancreaticoduodenalis media), from the caudal part of the duodenum and the caudal segment of the pancreas (V. pancreaticoduodenalis caudalis), from the jejunum (Vv. jejunales) and from the ileum, cecum and colon (Truncus ileocecocolicus). The extrahepatic veins of the portal system in the ground squirrel are joined through a number of anastomoses. V. portae enters the portal fissure and divides into V. advehens lobi dextri lateralis et processus caudatus, V. advehens lobi dextri medialis, V. advehens processus papillaris, V. advehens lobi quadrati et lobi sinistri medialis and Vv. advehentes lobi sinistri lateralis which branch into a large number of smaller vessels in corresponding lobes of the liver. These veins form the intrahepatic part of the portal system in the ground squirrel.
Changes in myelinisation of neurons in different brain regions in progesterone-treated rats
?eli? Dijana J.,Lozan?e Olivera,NikoliZora ?.,Blagojevi? Zdenka M.
Acta Veterinaria , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/avb0306367d
Abstract: The influence of progesterone on myelin of the brain in adult male Wistar rats was investigated by labelling the myelin of neurons in 5 mm thick brain sections with Nile blue stain. The following nuclei were analysed hypothalamic nucleus arcuatus (ARC) and nucleus paraventricularis (NPV) claustrum (CL), nuclei of the corticomedial part of amygdala: nucleus medialis (NM), nucleus corticalis (NCO) and nucleus centralis (NCE) and in the basolateral part of amygdala, nucleus basolateralis (NBL), nucleus basomedialis (NBM) and nucleus lateralis posterior (NLP). In control male rats sacrificed at 62 days of age a great number of neurons labelled with Nile blue for myelin were detected by stereological analysis.They were observed in; ARC and NPV, in the corticomedial amygdaloid nuclei (NM, NCE NCO) as well as in the basolateral nuclei (NBL, NBM and NLP). In CL there was a smaller number of neurons with labelled myelin than in the other investigated regions. In comparison to the controls, the number of neurons labelled with Nile blue for myelin in progesterone treated male rats was significantly reduced in ARC of hypothalamus and in NCO of amygdala. A significant increase was observed in NPV of hypothalamus, and in NM, NCE NBL and NBM of amygdala. On the other hand, in CL the number of neurons labelled with Nile blue for myelin was not changed.
The subclavian artery and its branches in the ground squirrel, Citellus citellus
NikoliZora ?.,?eli? Dijana J.,Blagojevi? Zdenka M.,Mrvi?-Jovi?i? Verica M.
Acta Veterinaria , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/avb0403227n
Abstract: The subclavian artery (a. subclavia) is the intrathoracic portion of the parent vessel to each thoracic limb in the ground squirrel. It arises on the left side from the arch of the aorta (a. subclavia sinistra) and on the right side subclavia dextra) as a terminal branch of the innominate artery (a. anonyma) not far from the thoracic inlet. Before they leave the thoracic cavity and continue as the axillary arteries (a. axillaris) each subclavian artery forms the following branches: The internal thoracic artery (a. thoracica interna) with its branches (a. musculophrenica, a. epigastrica cranialis, ramus intercostalis and ramus sternalis) supplies the diaphragm the last eight intercostal muscles, the abdominal and intercostal muscles and the thoracic mammary gland with blood. The supreme intercostal artery (a. intercostalis suprema) with its branches (a. intercostalis I, II, III and IV and truncus bronchoesophagicus of the right supreme intercostal artery) supplies the first four intercostal muscles, esophagus, lung and mediastinum. The vertebral artery (a. vertebralis) is the main vessel which supplies the brain. Its branches (rami spinales, a basilaris, a. ethmoidea interna, a. cerebelli nasalis, a. cerebri profunda, a. cerebri media and a. corporis callosi) supply the spinal cord, medulla oblongata, pons, cerebellum, caudal colliculi, mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, mesencephalon, diencephalon cerebral hemispheres and corpus callosum and hemisphere. The omocervical trunk (truncus omocervicalis) is a strong vessel, which with its branches (ramus descendens, a. cervicalis ascendens, a. transversa scapulae and cervicalis superficialis) supplies the deep ventral cervical muscles with associated brown fat tissue and lymphonodes as well as the subscapular and supraspinatus muscles. The transverse colli artery (a. transversa colli) branches into the extrinsic muscle of the shoulder. The deep cervical artery (a. cervicalis profunda) conveys blood to the dorsal cervical muscles. The axillary artery (a. axillaris) is a continuation of the subclavian artery. Its branches (a. thoracoacromialis, a. thoracica externa, a. profunda brachii) supply the lateral and medial shoulder muscles and dorsal antebrachium muscles. The brachial artery (a. brachialis) is a continuation of the axillary artery. Its branches (rami musculares, a. bicipitalis, a. collateralis ulnaris, a. nutritia humeri, a. collateralis radialis proximalis and a. collateralis radialis distalis) conveys blood to the triceps and biceps muscles, humerus and flexor muscle of the antebrachium. The media
High level of EGF-R expression in carcinomatous skin invasion: Does it reflect the tissue characteristics of the breast carcinoma aggressiveness?
Ne?kovi?-Konstantinovi? Zora B.,Nikoli?-Vukosavljevi? Dragica,Kanjer Ksenija,Jovanovi? Danica
Archive of Oncology , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/aoo0203111n
Abstract: Background: The normal function and distribution of EGF-R and its role in breast cancer aggressiveness, prognosis and prediction, have become extremely important in the light of the recently developed methods of EGF-R targeting. In the aim to investigate the relationship between EGF-R and the aggressive tumor behavior, the EGF-R content was analyzed as related to the presence of inflammatory breast skin involvement. Methods: EGF-R, ER and PR content was determined at diagnosis, using the biochemical methods, in the group of 103 unselected breast cancer patients, either in primary tumors (TU), lymph nodes (LN) or skin tissue samples (65, 27 and 11 cases respectively). In 10 patients with inflammatory breast cancers, TU/LN tissue was sampled from 3, and skin from 7 patients. Results: ER and PR content was significantly higher in tumor and LN tissue, compared to the invaded skin the EGF-R content was, on the contrary, significantly higher in skin than in TU or LN tissue. However, no difference was found between TU and LN in all three receptors' content. When the receptor content was analyzed in 10 patients with inflammatory breast cancer, higher levels of both ER and PR were found in tumor biopsies than in skin biopsies, while for the EGF-R the result was opposite. Significantly lower ER content and a trend towards higher EGF-R content was found in the inflammatory breast cancers in comparison to the non-inflammatory ones. Conclusion: Although we examined a small number of patients, our results suggest that the EGF-R could be a marker of breast cancer aggressiveness. However, the influence of the normal skin cells contaminating the biopsied tumor tissue cannot be ruled out. The predictive role of EGF-R deserves to be further investigated especially in locally advanced inflammatory breast cancer patients.
The role of estrogen receptors isoforms in breast cancer
Mandu?i? Vesna,Nikoli?-Vukosavljevi? Dragica,Ne?kovi?-Konstantinovi? Zora,Tani? Nikola
Archive of Oncology , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/aoo0604106m
Abstract: Background: Estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status is an accepted predictive marker in breast cancer. It is well known that breast tumors, which are ER(+) are more likely to respond to endocrine therapy. However, certain percentage of ER(+)/PR(+) tumors do not respond to endocrine therapy. Identification of the second estrogen receptor, named estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), as well as the existence of numerous isoforms/splice variants of both ERα and ERβ, suggests that complex regulation of estrogen action exists. In this study, we analyze does the expression of two ERβ isoforms correlates with ERα/PR status. Methods: Sixty samples of primary operable breast carcinomas were analyzed for ERα and PR protein levels and for mRNA expression of two ERβ isoforms (ERβ1 and ERβΔ5). ERα and PR proteins were measured by classical biochemical techniques, and ERβ mRNAs were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Results: Tumors are divided in three groups according to relative level of mRNA for ERβ1 and ERβΔ5. We found that there is no correlation of ERβ1 mRNA expression with ERα and PR protein levels. We confirmed the existence of inverse correlation of ERβΔ5 with PR and of ERβΔ5 with ERα in the group of postmenopausal patients. In the subsets of tumors defined by ERα/PR status, we found that percentage of tumors, which concomitantly expressed high levels of both transcripts, are parallel with those that do not response to tamoxifen treatment. Conclusion: Inverse correlation of ERα with ERβΔ5 and PR with ERβΔ5isoform suggests that ERβΔ5 may have inhibitory effect on ERα activity in postmenopausal patients. In addition, we point out that determination of expression profiles of ERα and ERβ isoforms in the defined groups of patient are necessary for elucidating its involvement in endocrine resistance. .
Cross-talk between ER and HER2 in breast carcinoma
Todorovi?-Rakovi? Nata?a,Ne?kovi?-Konstantinovi? Zora,Nikoli?-Vukosavljevi? Dragica
Archive of Oncology , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/aoo0604146t
Abstract: In tumors in which estrogen receptor (ER) and growth factor signaling pathways are simultaneously active, there is a bidirectional cross-talk that results in a positive feedback cycle of cell survival and proliferation stimuli. Beside the postulated inverse correlation between ER and HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) as a consequence of repressive feedback signaling loop, there are also other mechanisms regarding ER-HER2 interactions. It seems that MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathway has a central role in synergistic action between ER and HER2 in normal mammary gland development, as well in the breast cancer. MAPK pathway is hyperstimulated in cells that overexpress HER2 as a consequence of HER2 gene amplification. In ER+ tumors, MAPK phosphorylates and activates either ER itself or ER coregulators, enhancing the transcriptional activation potential of ER. ER and HER2 signaling could interact on multiple levels (genomic or non-genomic) and therefore might induce reduced ER expression or might increase ER function. Based on our own research, dominant effect of postulated cross-talk was not related to HER2-induced reduced expression of ER (no difference in quantitative levels of ER in ER+ tumors regarding their HER2 status and no difference in progression-free time between ER+HER2- and ER+HER2+ patients) as presented. The importance of understanding ER-HER2 cross-talk is not only because of its significance in breast cancer progression, but because it seems to be fundamental factor in endocrine resistance that can improve treatment strategies, especially targeting MAPK pathway. .
Estrogen-regulated proteins cathepsin D and pS2 in breast carcinoma
Marki?evi? Milan,Vujasinovi? Tijana,Ne?kovi?-Konstantinovi? Zora,Nikoli?-Vukosavljevi? Dragica
Archive of Oncology , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/aoo0604151m
Abstract: In addition to classical prognostic/predictive factors, significant biological markers have been identified to provide potentially relevant information regarding natural or clinical course of breast cancer. Steroid receptor status of the primary breast cancer have been proven to be a predictor of response to endocrine therapy since up to 80 % of patients with steroid receptor-positive tumors respond to endocrine treatment. In order to improve the predictive value of steroid receptor status, attention has been paid to estrogen-regulated proteins, including pS2 and cathepsin D among others that may be indicators of a functional signal transduction pathway through which tumor cells respond to estrogen stimulation. It has been shown that pS2 protein may be constitutive product as well as estrogen-regulated product in breast carcinoma. pS2 appears to be positively correlated with ER, associated with a good prognosis and a predictor of response to endocrine treatment of primary and metastatic breast cancer. The expression cathepsin D may be both constitutive and overexpressed as a result of estrogen-induced transcription. It was believed that the main role of cathepsin D was to degrade protein, but many other biological functions of cathepsin D were recognized. Cathepsin D level in primary breast cancer has been demonstrated as an independent marker of poor prognosis associated with increased risk for metastasis and shorter survival times. Our recent results show direct correlation of cathepsin D positivity with pS2 expression. Additionally, we found that cathepsin D is statistically significantly associated with pS2 both in node-negative and node-positive patients bearing tumors smaller than 2 cm. .
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