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Comparative evaluation of surface characteristics of dentinal walls with and without using plastic finishing file
Singh Smita,Nigam Neeraj
Journal of Conservative Dentistry , 2010,
Abstract: Aim: The aim of this in vitro research is to evaluate the debris present on the dentinal walls after instrumentation in mesiobuccal root of maxillary molar with Hand Protapers, Hand Profiles, Hand Hero Shapers, and finishing the dentinal walls with and without rotary plastic files using stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human maxillary first molar teeth were divided into two groups of 30 teeth each (group A and B). Both the groups were divided into three subgroups of 10 teeth each (group A had subgroups A1, A2, and A3) and (group B had subgroups B1, B2 and B3). In group A, all the 30 canals were subjected to cleaning and shaping with three different instruments system and kept unfinished. This group was named as unfinished group. In group B, all the 30 canals were subjected to cleaning and shaping with three different instruments system followed by finishing with plastic files. This group was named as finished group. The crown of each tooth was sectioned at the cementoenamel junction. Canals were prepared following conventional principles of crown down technique. After splitting the roots longitudinally, the dentinal debris of each root canal was evaluated in three areas (coronal, middle and apical thirds of the root) by means of numerical evaluation scale, using a stereomicroscope. Results: Stereomicroscopic evaluations showed that there was no significant difference in the debris scores between the subgroups when the canals were instrumented with hand Protaper, hand Profile and hand Hero Shaper in all the thirds. There was no significant difference in scores between the unfinished group and the finished group in the coronal third but significant differences were seen in middle third and apical third. Conclusions: After instrumentation with different hand instruments, the use of plastic finishing files showed cleaner canal walls.
Tool for Automatic Discovery of Ambiguity in Requirements
Ayan Nigam,Neeraj Arya,Bhawna Nigam,Deepika Jain
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: Requirements are the foundation for delivering quality software. Often it is found that the short development cycle lead teams to cut short the time they will spend on Requirement Analysis. In this work we developed a tool which can quickly review requirements by identifying ambiguous words and provide us the possible sources of wrong interpretation. Currently tool supports identification of Lexical, Syntactic and Syntax ambiguities. The tool will assist requirement analysis personnel while reviewing specifications, highlighting ambiguous words and providing graphical snapshot to gauge the correctness of documents.
Anisotropic magnetic and superconducting properties of pure and Co-doped CaFe$_2$As$_2$ single crystals
Neeraj Kumar,R. Nagalakshmi,R. Kulkarni,P. L. Paulose,A. K. Nigam,S. K. Dhar,A. Thamizhavel
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.012504
Abstract: We report anisotropic dc magnetic susceptibility $\chi(T)$, electrical resistivity $\rho(T)$, and heat capacity $C(T)$ measurements on the single crystals of CaFe$_{2-x}$Co$_x$As$_2$ for $x$ = 0 and 0.06. Large sized single crystals were grown by the high temperature solution method with Sn as the solvent. For the pure compound with $x$ = 0, a high temperature transition at 170 K is observed which is attributed to a combined spin density wave (SDW) ordering and a structural phase transition. On the other hand, for the Co-doped samples for $x$ = 0.06, the SDW transition is suppressed while superconductivity is observed at $\simeq$17 K. The superconducting transition has been confirmed from the magnetization and electrical resistivity studies. The $^{57}$Fe M\"ossbauer spectrum in CaFe$_2$As$_2$ indicates that the SDW ordering is incommensurate. In the Co-doped sample, a prominent paramagnetic line at 4.2 K is observed indicating a weakening of the SDW state.
Evolution of the bulk properties, structure, magnetic order, and superconductivity with Ni doping in CaFe2-xNixAs2
Neeraj Kumar,Songxue Chi,Ying Chen,Gaurav Rana,A. K. Nigam,A. Thamizhavel,William Ratcliff II,S. K. Dhar,Jeffrey W. Lynn
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.80.144524
Abstract: Magnetization, susceptibility, specific heat, resistivity, neutron and x-ray diffraction have been used to characterize the properties of single crystalline CaFe2-xNixAs2 as a function of Ni doping for x varying from 0 to 0.1. The combined first-order structural and magnetic phase transitions occur together in the undoped system at 172 K, with a small decrease in the area of the a-b plane along with an abrupt increase in the length of the c-axis in the orthorhombic phase. With increasing x the ordered moment and transition temperature decrease, but the transition remains sharp at modest doping while the area of the a-b plane quickly decreases and then saturates. Warming and cooling data in the resistivity and neutron diffraction indicate hysteresis of ~2 K. At larger doping the transition is more rounded, and decreases to zero for x=0.06. The susceptibility is anisotropic for all values of x. Electrical resistivity for x = 0.053 and 0.06 shows a superconducting transition with an onset of nearly 15 K which is further corroborated by substantial diamagnetic susceptibility. For the fully superconducting sample there is no long range magnetic order and the structure remains tetragonal at all temperature, but there is an anomalous increase in the area of the a-b plane in going to low T. Heat capacity data show that the density of states at the Fermi level increases for x > 0.053 as inferred from the value of Sommerfeld coefficient. The regime of superconductivity is quite restrictive, with a maximum TC of 15 K and an upper critical field Hc2=14 T. Superconductivity disappears in the overdoped region.
Botulinum toxin
Nigam P,Nigam Anjana
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 2010,
Abstract: Botulinum toxin, one of the most poisonous biological substances known, is a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. C. botulinum elaborates eight antigenically distinguishable exotoxins (A, B, C 1 , C 2 , D, E, F and G). All serotypes interfere with neural transmission by blocking the release of acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle paralysis. The weakness induced by injection with botulinum toxin A usually lasts about three months. Botulinum toxins now play a very significant role in the management of a wide variety of medical conditions, especially strabismus and focal dystonias, hemifacial spasm, and various spastic movement disorders, headaches, hypersalivation, hyperhidrosis, and some chronic conditions that respond only partially to medical treatment. The list of possible new indications is rapidly expanding. The cosmetological applications include correction of lines, creases and wrinkling all over the face, chin, neck, and chest to dermatological applications such as hyperhidrosis. Injections with botulinum toxin are generally well tolerated and side effects are few. A precise knowledge and understanding of the functional anatomy of the mimetic muscles is absolutely necessary to correctly use botulinum toxins in clinical practice.
Investigation of Crystallization Kinetics in Glassy Se and Binary Se98M2 (M=Ag, Cd, Zn) Alloys Using DSC Technique in Non-Isothermal Mode  [PDF]
Chandrabhan Dohare, Neeraj Mehta
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology (JCPT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2012.24025
Abstract: The crystallization kinetics of glassy Se and binary Se98M2 (M=Ag, Cd, Zn) alloys have been studied at different heating rates (5, 10, 15, 20 Kmin-1) using Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) technique. The crystallization temperature (Tc) is determined from exothermic peak obtained in DSC scans of present samples. The variation in peak crystallization temperature (Tc) with the heating rate (β) has been used to investigate the growth kinetics using Kissinger, Augis-Bennet and Matusita-Sakka models. The activation energy of crystallization (Ec) has been found to increase with Ag additive and to decrease with Zn and Cd additive. The value of various kinetic parameters such as rate constant (Kp), Avrami index (n), thermal stability (S) and Hruby number (Hr) have been calculated under non-isothermal mode. The maximum change in different kinetic parameters has been found after the incorporation of Ag additive.
Hypergammaglobulinemic purpura of waldenstorm associated with sjogren’s syndrome in a young female responding to rituximab treatment  [PDF]
Neeraj Jain, Lalit Duggal
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.22034

Hypergammaglobulinemic Purpura of Waldenstorm is one of the uncommon conditions with purpura and is often associated with collagen vascular disease. It is difficult to treat and sometimes needs anti CD 20 molecules for resistant cases.

Science education through open and distance learning at Higher Education level
Amrita NIGAM
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2007,
Abstract: The changes faced by the society in the past few decades brought revolution in all areas. The job requirements have undergone change tremendously. The emergence of e-culture, e-education, e-governance, e-training, e-work sites and so on questioned the capacity of conventional face to face education in catering to all and relevance of existing job related skills to a great extent in the emerging global society. Today, every one has to update his/her educational and/or professional skills and competencies to cope up with the emerging work challenges. This is more so in the field of science and technology. At the same time, it is impossible to cater to educational and training opportunities to one and all those who aspire for it through the conventional set up. The distance and open learning (ODL) seems to be one of the viable alternatives. Today, the success and viability of ODL is accepted globally. Coulter (1989), through a study demonstrated that ODL is a cost-effective medium in providing educational opportunities. Similarly Holmberg (1981) also mentioned ODL as a systematic teaching-learning medium by using variety of medium for imparting learning. The present study is an attempt to study the experiences of the open science learners of IGNOU on different aspect of the science higher education. Here a questionnaire was used to collect the data and responses from 81 students enrolled for B. Sc. from IGNOU were collected. The findings of the study reported that society has undergone drastic changes in the last few decades. The revolution led due to Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have widely affected all aspects of society. The emerging jobs require entirely new skills and competencies i.e., employment in BPOs or switching over to e-governance, e-Banking and e- based sectors. Even e-learning has made numerous expectations from teachers and other personnel. The use of ICTs in almost every field needs adequately trained workers so that they can work efficiently and effectively. The training and retraining avenues in the conventional system is grossly inadequate to cope up with the present and future demands. In this situation open and distance education is the available alternative.
Serum zinc and copper levels and Cu: Zn ratio in psoriasis
Nigam P
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2005,
Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing
Nigam P
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2009,
Abstract: Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.
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