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Association of Obesity with Infertility among Pakistani Men: A Case Control Study  [PDF]
Nida Zahid, Sarah Saleem, Iqbal Azam, Tariq Moatter
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.53025
Abstract: Background: The reported prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 21% of which 35% is contributed by male factor. Male infertility has multifactorial etiologies ranging from modifiable to genetic risk factors. Among all the risk factors that may account for male infertility, obesity is one of the emerging public health problems. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the association of obesity with infertility in Pakistani men. Methods: We conducted a case control study. Cases were men with impaired semen parameters and controls did not have impaired semen parameters. Results: The final multivariable logistic regression model after adjusting for the effect of other variables revealed that with every 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI the odds of being infertile was 6% higher as compared to being fertile (aOR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.11). Moreover the odds of having education of higher secondary or above was 3 times greater among cases as compared with the controls (OR = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.66, 5.77). Furthermore the odds of having previous medical conditions increasing the risk of infertility was higher among cases as compared with the controls (OR = 3.07; 95% CI = 1.63, 5.79). Conclusion & recommendations: This study indicates that obesity is an important risk factor for male infertility. Moreover our findings also indicate that higher educational status and previous medical conditions are also associated with male infertility. Thus awareness can be raised through treating physicians and public health messages.
Peer Pressure and Family Smoking Habits Influence Smoking Uptake in Teenage Boys Attending School: Multilevel Modeling of Survey Data  [PDF]
Shafquat Rozi, Sadia Mahmud, Gillian Lancaster, Nida Zahid
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2016.63018
Abstract: Introduction: Among young teens, about one in five smokes worldwide. Adolescents spend a considerable amount of their time in school, and the school environment is therefore important for child health practices and outcomes. Objectives: We aimed to investigate the impact on smoking behavior of the school environment and the personal characteristics of male teenage students attending schools in Pakistan, taking into account the survey sampling structure. Methods: A two-stage cluster sampling with stratification was employed, and we interviewed 772 male secondary school students. We adopted random effect and generalizing estimating equation models. Results: Peer pressure in particular had a strong influence on adolescents smoking; those whose friends smoked were up to 6 times more likely to smoke. Family smoking was also significantly associated with adolescents smoking, but those students whose mother was educated were 50% less likely to smoke. The fitted random effect model indicated that the between school variability was significant (p-value < 0.01), indicating differences in smoking habits between schools. A random coefficient model showed that variability among schools was not significantly different for public and private schools. Conclusion: Public health campaigns for smoking cessation should target not only the individual but also the families of adolescents attending schools.
Association between Asthma and Dental Caries amongst 12 - 15 Years Old Children: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Karachi, Pakistan  [PDF]
Wajeeha Zahid, Shafquat Rozi, Farhan Raza Khan, Nida Zahid, Masood Kadir
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2019.91010
Abstract: Objective: The study aimed to determine an association between dental caries and asthma among 12 to 15 years old children. Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study conducted from January to February 2016. A random sample of 544 children aged 12 - 15 years were enrolled from five private schools of Karachi. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT Index (Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth). The main exposure variable was asthma and information on it was collected through the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Results: The data was analyzed using Cox Proportional Hazard algorithm. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% CI were reported. Total 554 children, 306 (56.3%) boys and 43.7% girls participated in the study. Mean age of children was 13.2 ± 0.05 years. Total number of children with DMFT > 0 was 30.5%. The decayed component contributed largely (22.8%) to the DMFT score. Overall prevalence of asthma was 20%. Prevalence of caries in asthmatic children was 28.4% as compared to 31% among non-asthmatic children. Adjusted prevalence ratio of dental caries in asthmatic children was 0.8 (95% CI 0.6 - 1.3) after adjusting for carious food intake, age, oral hygiene index and dentist visit; the association between asthma and dental caries turned out to be in-significant. Conclusions: There was no association observed between asthma and dental caries among the children examined in this study.
Association of Depression and Life Satisfaction with Low Resilience among Married Women of Karachi, Pakistan  [PDF]
Shireen Shehzad Bhamani, Nida Zahid, Iqbal Azam, Nargis Asad, Rozina Karmaliani, Omrana Pasha
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.54029
Abstract: Background: The concept of resilience is very crucial in promoting positive psychological well-being. However, this construct was never looked among married women of Karachi, Pakistan. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and the associated risk factors of resilience in Pakistan. Methods: It was a cross-sectional survey, using the Wagnild Resilience Scale (RS) to assess resilience, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) for measuring depression and Trait Wellbeing Inventory for determining Life Satisfaction. Systematic sampling was employed to enroll 636 participants of aged 20 to 40 years living in two urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Prevalence ratio was computed with their 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 636 married women participated in the study. The average age of females with low resilience was 29.8 (5.7) whereas the mean age of females with high resilience was 31.1 (5.7). Around 90% of all the participants could speak in Urdu. The prevalence of low resilience among women was 21.9%. Moreover, the prevalence of depression among low resilience group was 43.9% whereas the mean life satisfaction score among females with low resilience was lower than females with high resilience. The females who had low resilience were younger and had no formal/informal education as compared to their counterparts. After controlling for other variables, the prevalence of low resilience was 1.78 times more among depressed females as compared to the non-depressed with a 95% CI: (1.27-2.51). Moreover with every one unit increase in the life satisfaction scores, the prevalence of low resilience decreased 9%. Furthermore, age and informal schooling were also found to be significantly associated with resilience. Conclusion: Depression and life satisfaction are the potential modifiable risk factors for resilience and hence we can improve resilience through interventions that may focus on reducing depression and improving satisfaction towards life. Our study also recommends that health care professionals should be educated about these modifiable risk factors to bring about a change in the society and reduce the mental health illness by promoting constructive adaptation.
A Systematic Review of Observational Studies, Demonstrating Smoking among School Going Adolescents  [PDF]
Shafquat Rozi, Gillian Lancaster, Sadia Mahmud, Zahid Ahmad Butt, Talat Roome, Nida Zahid
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2019.92015
Abstract: Objective: To characterize the methods of design and analysis currently adopted in survey research of school-based observational studies for smoking, and to identify the common pitfalls made by researchers. Methods: The systematic review was conducted in 2009 and consisted of observational studies in school settings published between January 2005 and January 2009. Smoking status was the main outcome of interest. Following Cochrane style, five steps were followed: setting selection criteria for studies and conducting a literature search; review of abstracts; review of complete articles; data extraction and quality assessment of included studies; and, finally, synthesis of studies. Results: Of the 292 abstracts retrieved, 45 (15.4%) articles were selected for the final review. Inconsistencies were found in the definition of smoking behaviour which impeded generalisability. Individual-level factors had importance, but environmental level factors were also important in studying the aetiology of smoking. Results showed that studies inappropriately reported sample size estimation and important confounding factors. Hierarchical linear modelling, random effects modelling and structural equation modelling were employed in comparatively few studies. Conclusions: There were concerns regarding data analysis of complex surveys. Fifty five percent of reviewed studies ignored environmental effects which may have produced unreliable inferences. Multi-level analysis assisted in understanding school-level effects.
Photoelectrochemical Studies at CdS/PTTh Nanoparticles Interfaces  [PDF]
Kasem K. Kasem, Nida Zia
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2012.310105
Abstract: Photo-activities at Inorganic/Organic/Interfaces (IOI) consisting of CdS/ Polyterthiophine (PTTh) assemblies were investigated in nanoparticle suspension and in thin solid film forms. The effects PTTh modifier cause on the photoelec-trochemical behavior of the IOI were investigated using [Fe(CN)6]4- as photoactive hydrated electron donor agent. Results show that the adsorption process of [Fe(CN)6]3- (photolysis product) control the photoactivity outcome of IOI assemblies. CdS/PTTh shows lower heterogeneous photochemical response than native CdS. Native CdS amorphous nanoparticles adsorb more [Fe(CN)6]3- with very steady adsorption /desorption process than the modified ones. The interface activities were explained by analyzing the IOI junctions’ characteristics, such as electron affinity, work function and hole/electrons barrier heights. The aqueous nano-systems retained moderate stability as indicated by the reproducibility of their photocatalytic activities. Both [Fe(CN)6]4- and PTTh contributed to the stability of native CdS surfaces.
Metadiscourse in Linguistics Master’s Theses in English L1 and L2. Metadiskursas magistro darbuose, para ytuose gimt ja ir negimt ja angl kalba
Nida Burneikait?
Kalbotyra , 2008,
Abstract: Nema ai pastarojo de imtme io akademinio diskurso tyrin jim orientuojasi tarpasmenin s kal-bos funkcijos ir metadiskurso analiz . Nustatyta, jog tarpasmenini ra ytojo ir skaitytojo santyki pobūdis bei metadiskurso strategij vartojimas akademiniuose tekstuose gerokai varijuoja d l kultūrinio-kalbinio konteksto, disciplinos ir anro ypatum . Mokslinis straipsnis yra bene da niausiai tyrin jamas akademinis anras, o kitiems anrams skiriama ma iau d mesio. iame straipsnyje ana-lizuojama tarpasmenin kalbos funkcija magistro darbo (MA thesis) anre. Lyginamos metadiskurso strategijos tekstuose, sukurtuose skirtinguose edukaciniuose kontekstuose – Anglijos ir Lietuvos universitetuose. Tyrimo tikslais sukaupti du tekstynai: 20 gimtakalbi ir 20 negimtakalbi (lietuvi ) student darb angl kalba i kalbotyros srities. Nustatyta, jog MA darbuose gausiai vartojamas tekst organizuojantis metadiskursas, saikingai – diskurso dalyvius orientuotas metadiskursas, re-tai – vertinamasis metadiskursas. Gretinamoji analiz parod , jog metadiskurso ymen santykinis da numas yra gana pana us gimtakalbi ir negimtakalbi tekstuose. Ta iau pasteb ta, jog skiriasi tam tikr ma esni , specifini kategorij vartojimas: negimtakalbiai (lietuviai) studentai vartoja daug daugiau teksto jungtuk ir daug ma iau endoforini , skaitytoj orientuot bei vertinam j ymen . Straipsnyje taip pat aptariama edukacini institucij tradicij bei individualaus ra ymo stiliaus svarba kuriant tarpasmeninius ra ytojo ir skaitytojo santykius akademiniame diskurse.
Metadiscoursal connectors in linguistics MA theses in English L1 & L2. Teksto konektoriai kalbotyros magistro darbuose
Nida Burneikait?
Kalbotyra , 2009,
Abstract: It is now commonly agreed that written academic texts are dialogic and interactive. How do academic writers increase interactivity of discourse? How do they organise texts and communicate with readers? Text-connectors is one of the many metadiscoursal categories used by writers to arrange their arguments and involve their readers. This paper considers the use of text-connectors in the Master’s thesis genre in Linguistics and analyses 70 theses by native and non-native (Lithuanian) students of English. The aim of the study is to work out a methodological framework for the analysis of text-connectors in the MA thesis genre and to compare the frequencies of text-connectors in native speaker (L1) and non-native speaker (L2) English theses as well as with frequencies in other genres. The classification of text-connectors developed in the study includes nine functional categories: addition, attitude, concession, contrast/comparison, illustration, restatement, result, sequence and summary; the procedural considerations cover the problems of reflexivity, multifunctionality, clustering and double use of text-connectors; the comparison of L1 and L2 theses shows an enormous overuse of text-connectors in L2 texts. ------ Straipsnyje bandoma tyrin ti kaip realizuojama tarpasmenin kalbos funkcija moksliniame diskurse, kaip sustiprinamas ra ytinio teksto interaktyvumas, kaip struktūruojamas tekstas ir kuriamas dialogas su skaitytoju. Metadiskurso strategij vartojimas yra vienas i būd teksto paveikumui sustiprinti. Teksto konektoriai – tai metadiskurso kategorija, padedanti tinkamai sud lioti argumentus tekste bei traukti skaitytoj diskurso proces . Tyrimu siekiama apibūdinti teksto konektori vartojim lingvistikos magistro darbuose. Tyrimo med iaga – 70 magistro darb , para yt gimt ja ir negimt ja angl kalba Britanijos ir Lietuvos universitetuose.Straipsnyje pateikiami tyrimo pirmosios dalies rezultatai: (1) magistro darbo anro teksto konektori analiz s metodologiniai metmenys: teksto konektori funkcin klasifikacija, susidedanti i devyni kategorij , j lingvistin s rai kos pavyzd iai bei tyrimo proceso problemini aspekt analiz ; (2) statistin s analiz s rezultatai: teksto konektori santykinis da numas magistro darbuose (0,77) bei da num palyginimas gimtakalbi ir negimtakalbi student tekstuose (0,56:0,90), rodantis, jos negimtakalbiai (Lietuvos universitet ) angl kalbos studentai vartoja daug daugiau teksto konektori magistro darbuose (+355,06) nei gimtakalbiai. Tik tina tokio gausaus teksto konektori vartojimo prie astis – perd tas d mesys t
Impact of Performance Evaluation Systems on Employee Behaviour in Banks
Nida Jamil
Market Forces , 2006,
Effect of High Fidelity Simulation on Nursing Students’ Knowledge in Palestine  [PDF]
Nida Jawabreh, Ahmad Ayed, Ahmad Batran
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2019.94033
Abstract: Simulation-based teaching ingredients actual patient encounters with high fidelity simulators, mimicking real-time patient scenarios in a realistic, controlled environment. This study examined the effect of the simulation on nursing students’ knowledge of adult nursing course before and after simulation sessions. An experimental, one-group (pretest-posttest) design was used. A convenience sample of nursing students enrolled in adult nursing course (n = 102) attended the 8 simulation scenarios. A paired t-test indicated that posttest mean knowledge of adult nursing course was higher than pre-course; however, simulation is significantly effective in helping to improve nursing students’ knowledge.
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