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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144430 matches for " Nicoline F. Tanih "
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Evaluation of the Acetone and Aqueous Extracts of Mature Stem Bark of Sclerocarya birrea for Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties
Nicoline F. Tanih,Roland N. Ndip
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/834156
Abstract: We assayed the antimicrobial activity of acetone and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea on some selected bacteria and fungi species including; Streptococcus pyogenes, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, Salmonella typhimurium, Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida glabrata, Trichosporon mucoides, and Candida krusei using both agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. Based on the levels of activity, the acetone extract was examined for total polyphenolic content, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Total phenols of the extract were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH, ABTS and reducing power. All the bacteria and fungi species were susceptible to the plant extracts. The acetone extract was the most active for the bacterial species with MIC (0.156–0.625 mg/mL) while the aqueous extract was the most active for the fungi species with MIC (0.3125–1.25 mg/mL). The polyphenolic compounds were found as 27.2 mg/g tannic acid equivalent, 25.2 mg/g quercetin equivalent, 9.1 mg/g quercetin equivalent for phenols, flavonoid and flavonols respectively. The acetone extract exhibited a remarkable ability to scavenge radicals, strong reducing ability and a potential source of natural antioxidants. Both the acetone and aqueous extracts of S. birrea may provide a target for drug discovery.
DNA Sequence Analysis of South African Helicobacter pylori Vacuolating Cytotoxin Gene (vacA)
Nicoline F. Tanih,Lucy M. Ndip,Roland N. Ndip
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12117459
Abstract: Sequence diversity and population structures can vary widely among pathogenic bacteria species. In some species, all isolates are highly similar, whereas in others most of the isolates are distinguished easily. H. pylori is known for its wide genetic diversity amongst the various strains most especially in the genes involved in virulence. The aim of this study was to evaluate by PCR and sequence analysis, the genetic profile of H. pylori vacA gene (s1, s2, m1 and m2). We sequenced small DNA segments from 13 vacAs1, 10 vacAm2, 6 vacAm1 and 6 vacAs2 strains which were amplified with amplicon size of 259/286 bp, 290 bp and 352 bp for vacAs1/s2, m1 and m2 respectively. Based on similarities among our strains accession numbers were provided for seven vacAs1 (HQ709109–HQ709115), six vacAs2 (JN848463–JN848468), six vacAm1 (JN848469–JN848474) and six vacAm2 (HQ650801–HQ650806) strains. Amongst the strains studied, 98.07%, 98.58%, 97.38% and 95.41% of vacAs1, vacAs2, vacAm1 and vacAm2 of the strains were conserved respectively. Findings of this study underscores the importance of understanding the virulence composition and diversity of H. pylori in South Africa for enhanced clinico-epidemiological monitoring and pathophysiology of disease.
Current Status of Antibiograms of Listeria ivanovii and Enterobacter cloacae Isolated from Ready-To-Eat Foods in Alice, South Africa
Mirriam E. Nyenje,Nicoline F. Tanih,Ezekiel Green,Roland N. Ndip
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9093101
Abstract: This study assessed the antimicrobial susceptibility of 51 Listeria ivanovii and 33 Enterobacter cloacae strains isolated from various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Isolates were identified using standard microbiological tests and further confirmed using API 20E and API Listeria kits. The disc diffusion technique was used to screen for antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 antimicrobials; minimum inhibitory concentration of five antibiotics was determined by the broth dilution method. All the strains of E . cloacae (100%) and 96% of L. ivanovii isolates were resistant to at least four or more of the antibiotics; nineteen antibiotypes were obtained based on the antibiotics used in the study. Antibiotype A5: A R PG R VA R E R AP R was predominant in both L. ivanovii (23.5%) and E. cloacae (57.5%) isolates. Marked susceptibility of Listeria ivanovii was observed against chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (100%) each while E. cloacae registered 100% susceptibility to ciprofloxacin only. Various percentages of susceptibility was reported to chloramphenicol and gentamicin (91%) each, nalidixic acid (97%) and streptomycin (94%). The MIC 90 ranged from 0.004–7.5 μg/mL with E. cloacae being the most susceptible organism. The study demonstrated the presence of multi-resistant strains of bacteria in ready-to-eat-foods and speculates that these foods could serve as important vehicles transmitting multi-resistant bacteria to humans.
Foodborne Pathogens Recovered from Ready-to-Eat Foods from Roadside Cafeterias and Retail Outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Public Health Implications
Mirriam E. Nyenje,Collins E. Odjadjare,Nicoline F. Tanih,Ezekiel Green,Roland N. Ndip
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9082608
Abstract: This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp . (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference ( p < 0.05) in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections.
N,N-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ethylamine
Nicoline Cloete,Hendrik G. Visser,Andreas Roodt,William F. Gabrielli
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2009, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536809045978
Abstract: In the title compound, C26H25NP2, the diphenylphosphino groups are staggered relative to the PNP backbone, even though the ethyl substituent coordinated to the N atom is not sterically bulky. The N atom adapts an almost planar geometry with two P atoms and a C atom of the allyl group attached to it in order to accommodate the steric bulk of the phenyl groups and the alkyl group. The distortion of the trigonal-pyramidal geometry of the nitrogen is further illustrated by the bond angles which range between 114.0 (1) and 123.7 (1)°. There are no classical intermolecular interactions.
In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of Lycopodium cernuum (Linn) Pic. Serm
RN Ndip, AN Ajonglefac, SM Mbullah, NF Tanih, JFTK Akoachere, LM Ndip, HN Luma, C Wirmum, F Ngwa, SMN Efange
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori, a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium is a major etiological agent in duodenal, peptic and gastric ulcers. In this study, gastric biopsy samples were obtained from patients presenting with gastroduodenal complications. H. pylori was isolated from the specimens following standard microbiology procedures, and isolates subjected to pure fractions of Lycopodium cernuum extracts for antimicrobial assays. Extracts were fractionated by partition chromatography with solvents of increasing polarity to obtain pure fractions. The disk diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of 15 strains of H. pylori to the fractions. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) for the most active fraction was also determined by the broth dilution method. Results were analyzed by the Fisher’s exact test. All the fractions tested demonstrated antimicrobial activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 - 30 mm. Of the 5 fractions obtained, the hexane (Hex) fraction was the most active. The lowest MIC and MBC recorded for the hexane (Hex) fraction were 0.016 and 0.125 mg/mL, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in the potency of the fraction on the different bacterial strains tested, both for the MIC and MBC. It is concluded that this plant may contain compounds with therapeutic activity, which may be found in the Hex fraction (100%).
Together or Separate in the Neighbourhood?: Contacts Between Natives and Turks in Amsterdam
Peer Smets and Nicoline Kreuk
The Open Urban Studies Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.2174/1874942900801010035]
Abstract: The integration of non-Western migrants and especially Muslims is an issue of hot public debate in the Netherlands. This debate has been largely dominated by stereotypical images of Muslims and natives, which only serve to reinforce ‘we-they’ configurations. However, one gets a rather different view if one looks at the daily encounters between natives and Turks in an ethnically mixed neighbourhood in Amsterdam. The interactions between natives and Turks have thus been examined to gain insight into the dynamics of the interethnic contacts. This study reveals that contact between native born and Turks, and mutual judgements are manifold. In particular, the examination of the everyday interaction between Turks and natives can enrich the debate on Turks (Muslims) and integration.
The strategic importance of identifying knowledge-based and intangible assets for generating value, competitiveness and innovation in sub-Saharan Africa
Nicoline Ondari-Okemwa
South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science , 2011, DOI: 10.7553/77-2-56
Abstract: This article discusses the strategic importance of identifying intangible assets for creating value and enhancing competitiveness and innovation in science and technology in a knowledge economy with particular reference to the sub- Saharan Africa region. It has always been difficult to gather the prerequisite information to manage such assets and create value from them. The paper discusses the nature of intangible assets, the characteristics of a knowledge economy and the role of knowledge workers in a knowledge economy. The paper also discusses the importance of identifying intangible assets in relation to capturing the value of such assets, the transfer of intangible assets to other owners and the challenges of managing organizational intangible assets. Objectives of the article include: underscoring the strategic importance of identifying intangible assets in sub-Saharan Africa; examining the performance of intangible assets in a knowledge economy; how intangible assets may generate competitiveness, economic growth and innovation; and assess how knowledge workers are becoming a dominant factor in the knowledge economy. An extensive literature review was employed to collect data for this article. It is concluded in the article that organizations and governments in sub-Saharan Africa should look at knowledge-based assets as strategic resources, even though the traditional accounting systems may still be having problems in determining the exact book value of such assets. It is recommended that organizations and government departments in sub-Saharan Africa should implement a system of the reporting of the value of intangible organizational assets just like the reporting of the value of tangible assets; and that organizations in sub-Saharan Africa should use knowledge to produce “smart products and services” which command premium prices.
Increasing trend of metronidazole resistance in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: A global challenge
N Buta, NF Tanih, RN Ndip
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Helicobacter pylori are gram negative spiral bacteria that colonize the human stomach. Infection with H. pylori is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Antibiotic resistance is an ever increasing problem with the treatment of most microbial infections including H. pylori; and has become a growing problem worldwide with the eradication of this organism. In recent years, several treatment regimens have been proposed for H. pylori eradication. However, the only conditions for which such treatment is strongly recommended on the basis of unequivocal supporting evidence are peptic ulcer disease and low grade gastric MALT lymphoma. Success of antimicrobial regimens for H. pylori eradication depends on patient compliance and lack of antimicrobial resistance. Metronidazole (Mtz) containing regimens have been shown to limit effectiveness because of increasing prevalence of resistance to this drug. A high prevalence (> 90%) of Mtz resistance in H. pylori has been reported especially in developing countries. Mtz resistance may be mediated through an inability of Mtz-resistant strains to remove oxygen from the site of Mtz reduction, thereby preventing Mtz activation. This has been attributed to a mutation on the frxA and/or rdxA genes resulting in strains of the organism with defective nitro-reductases coded by these genes. Infection by Mtz or amoxicillin resistant strains is an important factor leading to treatment failure; subjecting all H. pylori clinical isolates to susceptibility testing most especially to Mtz is recommended. If not possible, a program to survey the prevalence of resistance should be implemented in a given area or population. This increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistance in H.pylori treatment posses serious public health problems and is therefore necessary that new drug regimens be examined.
Stem cells can form gap junctions with cardiac myocytes and exert pro-arrhythmic effects
Nicoline W. Smit,Ruben Coronel
Frontiers in Physiology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2014.00419
Abstract: Stem cell therapy has been suggested to be a promising option for regeneration of injured myocardium, for example following a myocardial infarction. For clinical use cell-based therapies have to be safe and applicable and are aimed to renovate the architecture of the heart. Yet for functional and coordinated activity synchronized with the host myocardium stem cells have to be capable of forming electrical connections with resident cardiomyocytes. In this paper we discuss whether stem cells are capable of establishing functional electrotonic connections with cardiomyocytes and whether these may generate a risk for arrhythmias. Application of stem cells in the clinical setting with outcomes concerning arrhythmogenic safety and future perspectives will also briefly be touched upon.
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