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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6836 matches for " Nicole Meyer-Morse "
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Distinct TLR- and NLR-Mediated Transcriptional Responses to an Intracellular Pathogen
Jess H Leber,Gregory T Crimmins,Sridharan Raghavan,Nicole P Meyer-Morse,Jeffery S Cox,Daniel A Portnoy
PLOS Pathogens , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0040006
Abstract: How the innate immune system tailors specific responses to diverse microbial infections is not well understood. Cells use a limited number of host receptors and signaling pathways to both discriminate among extracellular and intracellular microbes, and also to generate responses commensurate to each threat. Here, we have addressed these questions by using DNA microarrays to monitor the macrophage transcriptional response to the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. By utilizing combinations of host and bacterial mutants, we have defined the host transcriptional responses to vacuolar and cytosolic bacteria. These compartment-specific host responses induced significantly different sets of target genes, despite activating similar transcription factors. Vacuolar signaling was entirely MyD88-dependent, and induced the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The IRF3-dependent cytosolic response induced a distinct set of target genes, including IFNβ. Many of these cytosolic response genes were induced by secreted cytokines, so we further identified those host genes induced independent of secondary signaling. The host response to cytosolic bacteria was reconstituted by the cytosolic delivery of L. monocytogenes genomic DNA, but we observed an amplification of this response by NOD2 signaling in response to MDP. Correspondingly, the induction of IFNβ was reduced in nod2?/? macrophages during infection with either L. monocytogenes or Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Combinatorial control of IFNβ induction by recognition of both DNA and MDP may highlight a mechanism by which the innate immune system integrates the responses to multiple ligands presented in the cytosol by intracellular pathogens.
Suppression of Cell-Mediated Immunity following Recognition of Phagosome-Confined Bacteria
Keith S. Bahjat equal contributor ,Nicole Meyer-Morse equal contributor,Edward E. Lemmens,Jessica A. Shugart,Thomas W. Dubensky Jr.,Dirk G. Brockstedt ?,Daniel A. Portnoy ?
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000568
Abstract: Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of inducing a robust cell-mediated immune response to sub-lethal infection. The capacity of L. monocytogenes to escape from the phagosome and enter the host cell cytosol is paramount for the induction of long-lived CD8 T cell–mediated protective immunity. Here, we show that the impaired T cell response to L. monocytogenes confined within a phagosome is not merely a consequence of inefficient antigen presentation, but is the result of direct suppression of the adaptive response. This suppression limited not only the adaptive response to vacuole-confined L. monocytogenes, but negated the response to bacteria within the cytosol. Co-infection with phagosome-confined and cytosolic L. monocytogenes prevented the generation of acquired immunity and limited expansion of antigen-specific T cells relative to the cytosolic L. monocytogenes strain alone. Bacteria confined to a phagosome suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and led to the rapid MyD88-dependent production of IL-10. Blockade of the IL-10 receptor or the absence of MyD88 during primary infection restored protective immunity. Our studies demonstrate that the presence of microbes within a phagosome can directly impact the innate and adaptive immune response by antagonizing the signaling pathways necessary for inflammation and the generation of protective CD8 T cells.
Listeriolysin O Is Necessary and Sufficient to Induce Autophagy during Listeria monocytogenes Infection
Nicole Meyer-Morse,Jennifer R. Robbins,Chris S. Rae,Sofia N. Mochegova,Michele S. Swanson,Zijiang Zhao,Herbert W. Virgin,Daniel Portnoy
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008610
Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that autophagy is utilized by cells as a protective mechanism against Listeria monocytogenes infection.
On the charge of nanograins in cold environments and Enceladus dust
Nicole Meyer-Vernet
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.icarus.2013.06.014
Abstract: In very-low energy plasmas, the size of nanograins is comparable to the distance (the so-called Landau length) at which the interaction energy of two electrons equals their thermal energy. In that case, the grain's polarization induced by approaching charged particles increases their fluxes and reduces the charging time scales. Furthermore, for grains of radius smaller than the Landau length, the electric charge no longer decreases linearly with size, but has a most probable equilibrium value close to one electron charge. We give analytical results that can be used for nanograins in cold dense planetary environments of the outer solar system. Application to the nanodust observed in the plume of Saturn's moon Enceladus shows that most grains of radius about 1 nm should carry one electron, whereas an appreciable fraction of them are positively charged by ion impacts. The corresponding electrostatic stresses should destroy smaller grains, which anyway may not exist as crystals since their number of molecules is close to the minimum required for crystallization.
Complications, Reoperations, and Nutrient Deficiencies Two Years after Sleeve Gastrectomy
Nicole Pech,Frank Meyer,Hans Lippert,Thomas Manger,Christine Stroh
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/828737
Abstract: Background. The aim of this study was to investigate patient outcomes and nutritional deficiencies following sleeve gastrectomy (SG) during a follow-up of two years. Methods. Over a period of 56 months, all consecutive patients who underwent SG were documented in this prospective, single-center, observational study. The study endpoints included operative time, complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL). Results. From September 26, 2005 to May 28, 2009, 82 patients (female : male = 48 : 34) with a mean age of 43.3 years (range: 22–64) and a preoperative BMI of 52.5 kg/m² (range: 36.8–77.0) underwent SG. Major complications were observed in 9.8% of the patients, with 1 death. During follow up 51.2% of patients were supplemented with iron, 36.6% with zinc, 37.8% with calcium, 26.8% with vitamin D, 46.3% with vitamin B12 and 41.5% with folic acid. %EWL was 54.3, 65.3 and 62.6% after 6, 12 and 24 months. Conclusion. SG as a single step procedure is an effective bariatric intervention. Nutritional deficiencies after SG can be detected by routine nutritional screening. Our results show that Vitamin B12 supplementation should suggest routinely after SG.
Complications and nutrient deficiencies two years after sleeve gastrectomy
Nicole Pech, Frank Meyer, Hans Lippert, Thomas Manger, Christine Stroh
BMC Surgery , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2482-12-13
Abstract: Over a period of 56?months, all consecutive patients who underwent SG were documented in this prospective, single-center, observational study. The study endpoints included complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL).From September 26, 2005 to May 28, 2009, 100 patients (female: male?=?59:41) with a mean age of 43.6?years (range: 22–64) and a preoperative BMI of 52.3?kg/2 (range: 36–77) underwent SG. The mean operative time was 86.4?min (range: 35–275). Major complications were observed in 8.0?% of the patients. During the follow-up period, 25 patients (25.0?%) underwent a second bariatric intervention (22 DS and 3 RYGBP). Out of the total 100 patients, 48?% were supplemented with iron, 33?% with zinc, 34?% with a combination of calcium carbonate and cholecalciferol, 24?% with vitamin D, 42?% with vitamin B12 and 40?% with folic acid. The patients who received only a SG (n?=?75) had %EWL of 53.6, 65.8 and 62.6?% after 6, 12 and 24?months, respectively.SG is a highly effective bariatric intervention for morbidly obese patients. Nutritional deficiencies resulting from the procedure can be detected by routine nutritional screening. Results of the study show that Vitamin B12 supplementation should suggested routinely.Obesity has developed into an epidemic. Approximately 1.7 billion people are overweight, and 312 million are obese [1,2]. In Germany in 2009, 60.1?% of male and 42.9?% of female population was overweight [3]. There are currently no conservative treatments that produce the %EWL results and stable courses observed following bariatric surgery. Obesity is associated with an increased mortality risk [4]. Obesity is also associated with increased health costs. A BMI?=?35?kg/2 is associated with a 200?% increase in health care costs compared the normal weight range [5].As a result of the obesity epidemic bariatric and metabolic surgeries have grown in popularity in recent years, resulting that the number of operations is
Complications, Reoperations, and Nutrient Deficiencies Two Years after Sleeve Gastrectomy
Nicole Pech,Frank Meyer,Hans Lippert,Thomas Manger,Christine Stroh
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/828737
Abstract: Background. The aim of this study was to investigate patient outcomes and nutritional deficiencies following sleeve gastrectomy (SG) during a follow-up of two years. Methods. Over a period of 56 months, all consecutive patients who underwent SG were documented in this prospective, single-center, observational study. The study endpoints included operative time, complication rates, nutritional deficiencies and percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL). Results. From September 26, 2005 to May 28, 2009, 82 patients (female?:?male = 48?:?34) with a mean age of 43.3 years (range: 22–64) and a preoperative BMI of 52.5?kg/m2 (range: 36.8–77.0) underwent SG. Major complications were observed in 9.8% of the patients, with 1 death. During follow up 51.2% of patients were supplemented with iron, 36.6% with zinc, 37.8% with calcium, 26.8% with vitamin D, 46.3% with vitamin B12 and 41.5% with folic acid. %EWL was 54.3, 65.3 and 62.6% after 6, 12 and 24 months. Conclusion. SG as a single step procedure is an effective bariatric intervention. Nutritional deficiencies after SG can be detected by routine nutritional screening. Our results show that Vitamin B12 supplementation should suggest routinely after SG. 1. Introduction Obesity has developed an epidemic way. Approximately 1.7 billion people are overweight, and 312 million are obese [1, 2]. In Germany in 2009, 60.1% of male and 42.9% of female population was overweight [3]. There are currently no conservative treatments having long-term effect on weight loss and amelioration of comorbidities. Obesity is associated with an increased mortality risk [4]. Obesity is also associated with increased health costs. A BMI ≥ 35?kg/m2 is associated with a 200% increase in health care costs compared to the normal weight range [5]. An indication for bariatric surgery is a BMI ≥ 40?kg/m2 or a BMI ≥ 35??kg/m2 accompanied by obesity-associated diseases. As a result of new technologies with lower risks and better long-term results, bariatric and metabolic surgeries have grown in popularity in recent years. The number of operations performed is rapidly increasing. After the Magenstrasse and Mill procedure, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy was performed as the single-step procedure for surgically induced weight loss in 2000 [6]. Two-stage procedures are especially necessary for multi morbid patients with BMI above 50?kg/m2 due to the rising risks of RYGBP or duodenal switch (DS). Considering the high mortality rate of 6% following biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) with DS, SG is to be preferred as a first-step operation for these patients
On the unconstrained expansion of a spherical plasma cloud turning collisionless : case of a cloud generated by a nanometer dust grain impact on an uncharged target in space
F Pantellini,Simone Landi,Arnaud Zaslavsky,Nicole Meyer-Vernet
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1088/0741-3335/54/4/045005
Abstract: Nano and micro meter sized dust particles travelling through the heliosphere at several hundreds of km/s have been repeatedly detected by interplanetary spacecraft. When such fast moving dust particles hit a solid target in space, an expanding plasma cloud is formed through the vaporisation and ionisation of the dust particles itself and part of the target material at and near the impact point. Immediately after the impact the small and dense cloud is dominated by collisions and the expansion can be described by fluid equations. However, once the cloud has reached micro-m dimensions, the plasma may turn collisionless and a kinetic description is required to describe the subsequent expansion. In this paper we explore the late and possibly collisionless spherically symmetric unconstrained expansion of a single ionized ion-electron plasma using N-body simulations. Given the strong uncertainties concerning the early hydrodynamic expansion, we assume that at the time of the transition to the collisionless regime the cloud density and temperature are spatially uniform. We do also neglect the role of the ambient plasma. This is a reasonable assumption as long as the cloud density is substantially higher than the ambient plasma density. In the case of clouds generated by fast interplanetary dust grains hitting a solid target some 10^7 electrons and ions are liberated and the in vacuum approximation is acceptable up to meter order cloud dimensions. ...
Nano dust impacts on spacecraft and boom antenna charging
Filippo Pantellini,Soraya Belheouane,Nicole Meyer-Vernet,Arnaud Zaslavsky
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s10509-012-1108-4
Abstract: High rate sampling detectors measuring the potential difference between the main body and boom antennas of interplanetary spacecraft have been shown to be efficient means to measure the voltage pulses induced by nano dust impacts on the spacecraft body itself (see Meyer-Vernet et al, Solar Phys. 256, 463 (2009)). However, rough estimates of the free charge liberated in post impact expanding plasma cloud indicate that the cloud's own internal electrostatic field is too weak to account for measured pulses as the ones from the TDS instrument on the STEREO spacecraft frequently exceeding 0.1 V/m. In this paper we argue that the detected pulses are not a direct measure of the potential structure of the plasma cloud, but are rather the consequence of a transitional interruption of the photoelectron return current towards the portion of the antenna located within the expanding cloud.
Proyecto Marfa: Marfa, EE.UU.
Morse,Steve;
ARQ (Santiago) , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-69962008000300006
Abstract: in the desert landscape of marfa, texas sit 6 buildings that contain an installation of fluorescent light tubes by dan flavin. part of his work is described and explained by the director and studio technician, goes into depth over this work that arises from a combination of extreme situations of light and color.
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