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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 39517 matches for " Nicolas Van Wambeke "
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Introducing a Collaborative Congestion Control Based on TFRC
Francois Armando,Nicolas Van Wambeke,Christophe Chassot
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract:
Introduction to the Biogeochemistry from the Oligotrophic to the Ultraoligotrophic Mediterranean (BOUM) experiment
T. Moutin, F. Van Wambeke,L. Prieur
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2012,
Abstract: The overall goal of the BOUM (Biogeochemistry from the Oligotrophic to the Ultraoligotrophic Mediterranean) experiment was to obtain a better representation of the interactions between planktonic organisms and the cycle of biogenic elements in the Mediterranean Sea (MS), in the context of global climate change and, more particularly, on the role of the ocean in carbon sequestration through biological processes. The BOUM experiment was organized around three main objectives: (1) to give a longitudinal description of the biogeochemistry and the biological diversity of the MS during the strongest stratified period, (2) to study processes at the centre of three anticyclonic eddies, and (3) to obtain a representation of the main biogeochemical fluxes and the dynamics of the planktonic trophic network. The international BOUM cruise took place between 16 June and 20 July 2008, involved 32 scientists on board, and covered around 3000 km in the MS from the south of Cyprus to Marseilles (France). This paper describes in detail the objectives of the BOUM experiment, the implementation plan of the cruise before giving an introduction of the 25 other papers published in this special issue.
Relationships between cytometric characteristics of high and low nucleic-acid bacterioplankton cells, bacterial production and environmental parameters along a longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean Sea
F. Van Wambeke,P. Catala,P. Lebaron
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-7-8245-2010
Abstract: Heterotrophic bacterioplankton abundance and production were determined along vertical (down to bathypelagic layers) and latitudinal (from 4.9° E to 32.7° E) gradients across the Mediterranean Sea in early summer 2008. Abundance and flow cytometric characteristics (green fluorescence and side scatter signals) of high nucleic acid (HNA) and low nucleic acid (LNA) bacterial cells were investigated using flow cytometry. Contrarily to what is generally observed, the percentage of total bacteria represented by HNA cells (%HNA, range 30–69%) decreased with increased bacterial production (range 0.15–44 ng C l 1 h 1) although this negative relation was poorly explained (log-log regression r2=0.19). The %HNA as well as the mean side scatter of this group increased significantly with depth in the meso and bathypelagic layers. Our results demonstrated that vertical stratification with regard to chlorophyll distribution above, within or below the deep chlorophyll maximum plays an important role in influencing the distribution of cells, and in the relationships between the flow cytometric parameters and environmental variables such as chlorophyll a or bacterial production. Relationships between green fluorescence and side scatter of both HNA and LNA cells depended largely on chlorophyll distribution over the water column, suggesting that the dynamic link between HNA and LNA cells differs vertically.
The Biogeochemistry from the Oligotrophic to the Ultraoligotrophic Mediterranean (BOUM) experiment
T. Moutin,F. Van Wambeke,L. Prieur
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-8-8091-2011
Abstract: The overall goal of the BOUM (Biogeochemistry from the Oligotrophic to the Ultraoligotrophic Mediterranean) experiment was to obtain a better representation of the interactions between planktonic organisms and the cycle of biogenic elements in the Mediterranean Sea (MS), in the context of global climate change and, more particularly, on the role of the ocean in carbon sequestration through biological processes. The BOUM experiment was organized around three main objectives which are: (1) to give a longitudinal description of the biogeochemistry and the biological diversity of the MS during the strongest stratified period, (2) to study processes at the centre of three anticyclonic eddies, and (3) to obtain a representation of the main biogeochemical fluxes and the dynamics of the planktonic trophic network. The international BOUM cruise took place between 16 June and 20 July 2008, involved 32 scientists on board, and covered around 3000 km in the MS from the South of Cyprus to Marseilles (France). This paper describes in detail the objectives of the BOUM experiment, the implementation plan of the cruise, the water masses and general biogeochemical trends encountered, and lays particular emphasis on description of the sections and the main physical characteristics of the three anticyclonic eddies studied, before concluding with first order biogeochemical budgets and a general overview of the 24 other papers published in this special issue.
Growth and specific P-uptake rates of bacterial and phytoplanktonic communities in the Southeast Pacific (BIOSOPE cruise)
S. Duhamel,T. Moutin,F. Van Wambeke,B. Van Mooy
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Predicting heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton growth rates (μ) is of great scientific interest. Many methods have been developed in order to assess bacterial or phytoplankton μ. One widely used method is to estimate μ from data obtained on biomass or cell abundance and rates of biomass or cell production. According to Kirchman (2002), the most appropriate approach for estimating μ is simply to divide the production rate by the biomass or cell abundance estimate. Most of the methods using this approach are expressed using carbon (C) data. Nevertheless it is also possible to estimate μ using phosphate (P) data. We showed that particulate phosphate (PartP) can be used to estimate biomass and that the phosphate uptake rate to PartP ratio can be employed to assess μ. Contrary to other methods using C, this estimator does not need conversion factors and provides an evaluation of μ for both autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. We report values of P-based μ in three size fractions (0.2–0.6; 0.6–2 and >2 μm) along a Southeast Pacific transect, over a wide range of P-replete trophic status. P-based μ values were higher in the 0.6–2 μm fraction than in the >2 μm fraction, suggesting that picoplankton-sized cells grew faster than the larger cells, whatever the trophic regime encountered. Picoplankton-sized cells grew significantly faster in the deep chlorophyll maximum layer than in the upper part of the photic zone in the oligotrophic gyre area, suggesting that picoplankton might outcompete >2 μm cells in this particular high-nutrient, low-light environment. P-based μ attributed to free-living bacteria (0.2–0.6 μm) and picoplankton (0.6–2 μm) size-fractions were relatively low (0.11±0.07 d 1 and 0.14±0.04 d 1, respectively) in the Southeast Pacific gyre, suggesting that the microbial community turns over very slowly.
Diel variability of heterotrophic bacterial production and UV doses in the South East Pacific
F. Van Wambeke,M. Tedetti,S. Duhamel,R. Sempéré
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2008,
Abstract: Diel variability of heterotrophic bacterial production (BP) was investigated in the South East Pacific from October to December 2004 during the BIOSOPE cruise. Three sites differing by their trophic status were studied: Marquesas Islands (MAR; 08° S, 141° W), the centre of the South Pacific Gyre (SPG) (GYR; 26° S, 114° W) and the eastern part of the SPG (EGY; 32° S, 91° W). At the three sites, diel variability of BP ranged from 17 to 40% and from 13 to 22% for volumetric surface (5 m) and integrated (to Ze and Zm) data, respectively. The main feature we observed was at 5 m, an abrupt increase (×2 to ×4) in leucine activity during the afternoon-sunset period (12:00–18:00 at the site MAR and 15:00–21:00 at the site GYR) and lowest activities recorded between 10:00 and 14:00. To assess the potential influence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR: 280–400 nm) on this BP diel variability, we determined, from in situ optical measurements, the mean tri-hourly ultraviolet B (UVB, 305 nm) and ultraviolet A (UVA, 380 nm) doses (irradiances integrated over time) within the mixed layer (Hm(UVB) and Hm(UVA), respectively). The wavelengths 305 nm and 380 nm were used as biologically effective wavelengths for the induction of DNA damages (cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers: CPDs) and photoenzymatic repairs (PERs), respectively. In the SPG, daily Hm(UVB) and Hm(UVA) were 0.6 and 14 kJ m 2 nm 1, respectively. The latter were probably the highest daily doses ever measured in the marine environment. The Hm(UVB)/Hm(UVA) ratio (Q) increased by 58, 117 and 46% from 06:00–09:00 to 12:00–15:00, and decreased by 36, 26 and 16% from 12:00–15:00 to 15:00–18:00 at the sites MAR, GYR and EGY, respectively. The relationship between Q and BP suggested a significant influence of UVR on the diel variability of BP (BP decreased when Q increased) at the site GYR from the surface waters to Zm, likely in relation with its hyper-oligotrophic status. Therefore, possible alternance of CPD and PER periods attributed to Q ratio, as well as a strong lags between process of autotrophic production with their associated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release and heterotrophic utilization of organic matter could explain such diel variations.
The effects of nutrient additions on particulate and dissolved primary production in surface waters of three Mediterranean eddies
A. Lagaria,S. Psarra,D. Lefèvre,F. Van Wambeke
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-7-8919-2010
Abstract: The effects of additions of nitrogen (+N), phosphorus (+P), alone and in combination, were assessed during three microcosm experiments performed with surface waters of three anticyclonic eddies, located in the Western, Central and Eastern Mediterranean. We examined the effects of nutrient additions on rates of dissolved and particulate primary production and on metabolic rates of the osmotrophic community (phytoplankton and heterotrophic prokaryotes). The experiments were performed in June/July 2008 during the BOUM (Biogeochemistry from the Oligotrophic to the Ultra-oligotrophic Mediterranean) cruise. In all three experiments, particulate primary production was significantly stimulated by the additions of nitrogen (+N, +NP) while no effect was observed with the addition of phosphorus alone. Percent extracellular release (PER) showed an inverse relation with total primary production (PPtotal), displaying the lowest values (4–8%) in the +NP treatment. Among the three treatments, the +NP had the strongest effect on the community metabolic rates leading to positive net community production values (NCP>0). These changes of NCP were mainly due to enhanced gross community production (GCP) rather than lower respiration rates (CR). In +NP treatments autotrophic production (whether expressed as GCP or PPtotal) was high enough to fulfil the carbon requirements of the heterotrophic prokaryotes, with phytoplankton and heterotrophic prokaryote production positively correlated. Addition of nitrogen alone (+N) had a smaller effect on community production, resulting in metabolically balanced systems (NCP≈0). Finally, heterotrophic conditions persisted in the +P treatment at the central and eastern stations, and gross production was not sufficient to supply bacterial carbon demand, evidence of a decoupling of phytoplankton production and consumption by heterotrophic prokaryotes.
The impact of anticyclonic mesoscale structures on microbial food webs in the Mediterranean Sea
U. Christaki,F. Van Wambeke,D. Lefevre,A. Lagaria
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-8-185-2011
Abstract: The abundance and activity of the major members of the heterotrophic microbial community – from viruses to ciliates – were studied along a longitudinal transect across the Mediterranean Sea in the summer of 2008. The Mediterranean Sea is characterized by a west to the east gradient of deepening of DCM (deep chlorophyll maximum) and increasing oligotrophy reflected in gradients of heterotrophic microbial biomass and production. However, within this longitudinal trend, hydrological mesoscale features exist and likely influence microbial dynamics. We show here the importance of mesoscale structures by a description of the structure and function of the microbial food web through an investigation of 3 geographically distant eddies within a longitudinal transect. Three selected sites each located in the center of an anticyclonic eddy were intensively investigated: in the Algero-Provencal Basin (St. A), the Ionian Basin (St. B), and the Levantine Basin (St. C). The 3 geographically distant eddies showed the lowest values of the different heterotrophic compartments of the microbial food web, and except for viruses in site C, all stocks were higher in the neighboring stations outside the eddies. During our study the 3 eddies showed equilibrium between GCP (Gross Community Production) and DCR (Dark Community Respiration); moreover, the west-east (W-E) gradient was evident in terms of heterotrophic biomass but not in terms of production. Means of integrated PPp values were higher at site B (~190 mg C m 2 d 1) and about 15% lower at sites A and C (~160 mg C m 2 d 1). Net community production fluxes were similar at all three stations exhibiting equilibrium between gross community production and dark community respiration.
Ecology of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea
D. Lamy,C. Jeanthon,J. Ras,F. Van Wambeke
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-8-323-2011
Abstract: Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes able to use both light and organic substrates for energy production. They are widely distributed in coastal and oceanic environments and may contribute significantly to the carbon cycle in the upper ocean. To better understand questions regarding links between the ecology of these photoheterotrophic bacteria and the trophic status of water masses, we examined their horizontal and vertical distribution and the effects of nutrient additions on their growth along an oligotrophic gradient in the Mediterranean Sea. Concentrations of bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a) and AAP bacterial abundance decreased from the western to the eastern basins of the Mediterranean Sea and were linked with concentrations of chlorophyll-a, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon. Inorganic nutrient and glucose additions to surface seawater samples along the oligotrophic gradient revealed that AAP bacteria were nitrogen- and carbon-limited in the ultra-oligotrophic eastern basin. The intensity of the AAP bacterial growth response generally differed from that of the total bacterial growth response. BChl-a quota of AAP bacterial communities was significantly higher in the eastern basin than in the western basin, suggesting that reliance on phototrophy varied along the oligotrophic gradient and that nutrient and/or carbon limitation favors BChl-a synthesis.
Specific rates of leucine incorporation by marine bacterioplantkon in the open Mediterranean Sea in summer using cell sorting
A. Talarmin,F. Van Wambeke,P. Catala,C. Courties
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/bgd-7-6545-2010
Abstract: Cell-specific leucine incorporation rates were determined in early summer across the open stratified Mediterranean Sea along vertical profiles from 0 to 200 m. During the period of our study, the bulk leucine incorporation rate was on average 5.0 ± 4.0 (n=31) pmol leu l 1 h 1. After 3H-radiolabeled leucine incorporation and SyBR Green I staining, populations were sorted using flow cytometry. Heterotrophic prokaryotes (Hprok) were divided in several clusters according to the cytometric properties of side scatter and green fluorescence of the cells: the low nucleic acid content cells (LNA) and the high nucleic acid content cells (HNA), with high size and low size (HNA-hs and HNA-ls, respectively). LNA cells represented 45 to 63% of the Hprok abundance between surface and 200 m, and significantly contributed to the bulk activity, from 17 to 55% all along the transect. The HNA/LNA ratio of cell-specific activities was on average 2.1 ± 0.7 (n=31). Among Hprok populations from surface samples (0 down to the deep chlorophyll depth, DCM), HNA-hs was mostly responsible for the leucine incorporation activity. Its cell-specific activity was up to 13.3 and 6.9-fold higher than that of HNA-ls and LNA, respectively, and it varied within a wide range of values (0.9–54.3×10 21 mol leu cell 1 h 1). At the opposite, ratios between the specific activities of the 3 populations tended to get closer to each other, below the DCM, implying a potentially higher homogeneity in activity of Hprok in the vicinity of nutriclines. Prochlorococcus cells were easily sorted near the DCM and displayed cell-specific activities equally high, sometimes higher than the HNA-hs group (2.5–55×10 21 mol leu cell 1 h 1). We then showed that all the sorted populations were key-players in leucine incorporation into proteins. The mixotrophic feature of certain photosynthetic prokaryotes and the non-negligible activity of LNA cells all over Mediterranean were reinforced.
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