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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 170738 matches for " Nicola E Stanczyk "
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Study protocol of a Dutch smoking cessation e-health program
Nicola E Stanczyk, Catherine Bolman, Jean WM Muris, Hein de Vries
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-847
Abstract: Respondents who smoked at the time of the study inclusion, who were motivated to quit within the following six months and who were aged 18 or older were included in the program. The study is a randomized control trial with a 2 (video/text) * 2(LSES/HSES) design. Respondents were assigned either to one of the intervention groups (text versus video tailored feedback) or to the control group (non-tailored generic advice). In all three conditions participants were asked to fill in the baseline questionnaire based on the I-Change model. The questionnaire assessed socio-demographics, attitude towards smoking, knowledge, self-efficacy, social influence, depression, level of addiction, action planning, goal actions, intention to quit smoking, seven-day point prevalence and continued abstinence. Follow-up measurements were conducted at six and twelve months after baseline.The present paper describes the development of the two computer-tailored smoking cessation programs, their components and the design of the study. The study results reveal different working mechanisms of multiple tailored smoking cessation interventions and will help us to gain more insight into effective strategies to target different subgroups, especially smokers with a lower socio-economic status.Dutch Trial Register NTR3102Smoking tobacco is one of the most preventable causes of illness and premature death in the world [1]. The development of effective smoking cessation programs is essential to prevent illnesses [2].One effective strategy for health promotion that has been developed during the last decades concerns computer-tailored interventions [3,4]. CT has developed since the 1990s as a new technique for health promotion, as it provides the individual with personalized information and feedback on health behaviour. Tailored health messages are based on knowledge of a person generated from his or her answers to a questionnaire on issues related to health behaviour (in the case of smoking, for example,
The temporal reliability of serum estrogens, progesterone, gonadotropins, SHBG and urinary estrogen and progesterone metabolites in premenopausal women
Andrew E Williams, Gertraud Maskarinec, Adrian A Franke, Frank Z Stanczyk
BMC Women's Health , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-2-13
Abstract: Using data from a longitudinal study of 34 women with a mean age of 42.3 years (SD = 2.6), we calculated the minimum number of measurement occasions required to obtain reliable estimates of 12 analytes (8 in blood, 4 in urine). Five samples were obtained over 1 year: at baseline, and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. We also calculated the percent of true variance accounted for by a single measurement and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between measurement occasions.Only 2 of the 12 analytes we examined, SHBG and estrone sulfate (E1S), could be adequately estimated by a single measurement using a minimum reliability standard of having the potential to account for 64% of true variance. Other analytes required from 2 to 12 occasions to account for 81% of the true variance, and 2 to 5 occasions to account for 64% of true variance. ICCs ranged from 0.33 for estradiol (E2) to 0.88 for SHBG. Percent of true variance accounted for by single measurements ranged from 29% for luteinizing hormone (LH) to 92% for SHBG.Experimental designs that take the natural variability of these analytes into account by obtaining measurements on a sufficient number of occasions will be rewarded with increased power and accuracy.Several active research programs are investigating the risk associated with serum estrogens, gonadotropins and urinary sex hormone metabolites for a variety of diseases including breast cancer [1], endometrial cancer [2], and osteoporosis [3]. The results of the few published studies suggest that the natural temporal variability (true variation over time, not variation due to storage or other factors) of some serum estrogens, gonadotropins and urinary sex hormone metabolites is sufficiently great that a single measurement occasion may be inadequate to ensure a reliable estimate [4-6]. Published intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) vary between 0.06 and 0.62 for estradiol (E2) and between 0.52 and 0.69 for estrone (E1) [4]. Only the percent of free E2 and of
Strichartz Estimates in Wiener Amalgam Spaces for the Schr?dinger equation
E. Cordero,F. Nicola
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: We study the dispersive properties of the Schr\"odinger equation. Precisely, we look for estimates which give a control of the local regularity and decay at infinity {\it separately}. The Banach spaces that allow such a treatment are the Wiener amalgam spaces, and Strichartz-type estimates are proved in this framework. These estimates improve some of the classical ones in the case of large time.
Developing a school-based drug prevention program to overcome barriers to effective program implementation: The CLIMATE schools: Alcohol module  [PDF]
Laura E. Vogl, Maree Teesson, Nicola C. Newton, Gavin Andrews
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.23059
Abstract: Although effective school-based alcohol prevention programs do exist, the overall efficacy of these programs has been compromised by implementation failure. The CLIMATE Schools: Alcohol Module was developed to overcome some of the obstacles to high fidelity program implementation. This paper details this development of the CLIMATE Schools: Alcohol Module. The development involved two stages, both of which were considered essential. The first stage, involved reviewing the literature to ensure the program was based on the most effecttive pedagogy and health promotion practice and the second stage involved collaborating with teachers, students and specialists in the area of alcohol and other drugs, to ensure these goals were realised. The final CLIMATE Schools: Alcohol Module consists of computer-driven harm minimisation program which is based on a social influence approach. The program consists of six lessons, each with two components. The first component involves students completing an interactive computer-based program, with the second consisting of a variety of individual, small group and class-based activities. This program was developed to provide an innovative new platform for the delivery of drug education and has proven to be both feasible and effective in the school environment. The success of this program is considered to be testament to this collaborative development approach.
Levels of Mercury and Polychlorobiphenyls in Bluefin Tuna from the Western Mediterranean Sea: A Food Safety Issue?  [PDF]
Monia Renzi, Alessandro Cau, Nicola Bianchi, Silvano E. Focardi
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.52014
Abstract:

In this paper, the presence and amount of mercury and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 23 bluefin tuna samples collected in the spring of 2012 in Porto Scuso (South West Sardinia, Italy) and Villa Putzu (South East Sardinia, Italy) in order to assess the current levels of these two contaminants in fish muscle and the consequent risk to humans consuming said fish. Values of polychlorobiphenyls in bluefin tuna muscle vary between 0.155 and 1.403 mg/kg f.w.; the average of PCBs in tuna muscle is 0.732 mg/kg f.w. With regard to PCBs the presence of more elevated concentrations is confirmed in larger fish. The results regarding mercury in muscle show an average of 0.660 mg/kg f.w. and mercury values vary between 0.140 f.w. and 2.211 mg/kg f.w.; for mercury as well, the highest concentrations were found in the largest bluefin tuna. Six samples, 26% of total, contained more than 1 mg/kg f.w., which is the maximum level set by the European Commission (EC, Regulation n. 1881/2006) for this species. Mercury, in particular methylmercury, poses a risk to public health, therefore, taking into account the important nutritional contribution that tuna fish makes to the diet, it is advisable that women of childbearing age, pregnant and breastfeeding women as well as young children strictly limit their consumption of tuna from this area of the Mediterranean.

Development of a Universal Internet-Based Prevention Program for Ecstasy and New Psychoactive Substances  [PDF]
Katrina E. Champion, Maree Teesson, Nicola C. Newton
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.51003
Abstract: In recent years, the Internet has received increasing recognition as an effective means of facilitating public health interventions. In particular, delivering prevention for substance use to school students via the Internet appears to be an area of great potential. The Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module, a school-based prevention program, facilitated by the Internet, was developed to address the use of ecstasy and new and emerging drugs (Emerging Psychoactive Substances or Novel Psychoactive Substances). This four-lesson course was designed to be delivered to Australian adolescents (aged 15 to 16 years) during their standard health education classes at school, and is based on a harm-minimisation and social influence approach. The program was developed in response to the important public health challenge of new and emerging drugs as well as to address the prevention of ecstasy use among young people. To our knowledge, this will be the first school- and Internet-based prevention program specifically targeting these substances. This paper describes the process involved in developing this new Internet-based substance use prevention program.
Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes
Ivano E. Castelli,Nicola Ferri,Giovanni Onida,Nicola Manini
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/24/10/104019
Abstract: Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab-initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2: The First Decade
Nicola E. Clarke,Anthony J. Turner
International Journal of Hypertension , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/307315
Abstract: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a critical regulator of hypertension, primarily through the actions of the vasoactive peptide Ang II, which is generated by the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mediating an increase in blood pressure. The discovery of ACE2, which primarily metabolises Ang II into the vasodilatory Ang-(1-7), has added a new dimension to the traditional RAS. As a result there has been huge interest in ACE2 over the past decade as a potential therapeutic for lowering blood pressure, especially elevation resulting from excess Ang II. Studies focusing on ACE2 have helped to reveal other actions of Ang-(1-7), outside vasodilation, such as antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects. Moreover, investigations focusing on ACE2 have revealed a variety of roles not just catalytic but also as a viral receptor and amino acid transporter. This paper focuses on what is known about ACE2 and its biological roles, paying particular attention to the regulation of ACE2 expression. In light of the entrance of human recombinant ACE2 into clinical trials, we discuss the potential use of ACE2 as a therapeutic and highlight some pertinent questions that still remain unanswered about ACE2.
Association between growth rates, age at first calving and subsequent fertility, milk production and survival in Holstein-Friesian heifers  [PDF]
Jessica S. Cooke, Zhangrui Cheng, Nicola E. Bourne, D. Claire Wathes
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2013.31001
Abstract: Age at first calving (AFC) affects the profitability of dairy enterprises. This study examined the relationships between AFC and subsequent fertility, milk production and survival up to third calving in UK Holstein-Friesian heifers; Study 1 comprised 134 consecutively born heifers from the same herd (AFC 764 ± 8 days) and Study 2 contained 445 heifers born on 17 farms (AFC 796 ± 6 days). Growth rates and fertility during rearing were monitored and animals were subsequently divided into four AFC groups for analysis: <23 months, 23 - 25 months, 26 - 30 months and >30 months. The actual AFC reflected both growth rate and heifer fertility, with later calving heifers already lighter by 6 months of age. The proportion conceiving to first service was highest (93% and 84% for Studies 1 and 2, respectively) for the youngest AFC group. Fertility in the first lactation was best in cows calving at 23 - 25 months and worst in the oldest AFC group. Milk production parameters in the first and second lactations were broadly similar between AFC groups but significantly more heifers with an AFC < 26 months calved for a third time. These younger calving animals therefore achieved more days in milk over 5 years, with >44% of their days alive spent in milk production compared with only 18% - 40% in cows calving at ≥26 months. Hence cows with an AFC < 26 months produced the most milk in their first 5 years of life. These results indicate that an AFC of <26 months=\"\" required=\"\" both=\"\" a=\"\" growth=\"\" rate=\"\">0.75 kg/d up to 15 months and good heifer fertility and resulted in the best subsequent performance.
A Bayesian approach to estimate the prevalence of low height-for-age from the prevalence of low weight-for-age
Reichenheim, Michael E.;Best, Nicola G.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2000000200022
Abstract: victora et al. (1998) proposed the use of low weight-for-age prevalence to estimate the prevalence of height-for-age deficit in brazilian children. this procedure was justified by the need to simplify methods used in the context of community health programs. from the same perspective, the present article broadens this proposal by using a bayesian approach (based on markov chain monte carlo (mcmc) methods) to deal with the imprecision resulting from victora et al.'s model. in order to avoid invalid estimated prevalence values which can occur with the original linear model, truncation or a logit transformation of the prevalences are suggested. the bayesian approach is illustrated using a community study as an example. imprecision arising from methodological complexities in the community study design, such as multi-stage sampling and clustering, is easily handled within the bayesian framework by introducing a hierarchical or multilevel model structure. since growth deficit was also evaluated in the community study, the article may also serve to validate the procedure proposed by victora et al.
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