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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2010 matches for " Nicol Moreland "
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Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin
Nicol Moreland, Linda La Grange, Rebecca Montoya
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-2-10
Abstract: We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% ethanol derived calories (EDC) throughout the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin was co administered with EtOH to a separate experimental group. We tested the offspring for laterality preference at age 12 weeks. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later corpus callosum extraction.We observed incomplete development of the splenium in the EtOH-only offspring. Callosal development was complete in all other treatment groups. Rats from the EtOH-only group displayed a left paw preference; whereas control rats were evenly divided between right and left paw preference. Inexplicably both SY groups were largely right paw preferring.The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet did confer some ameliorative effects upon the developing fetal rat brain.Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) children do not display the normal hemispheric dominance patterns observed in non-FAS children [1]. Dominance has been disrupted or is, in some cases, completely absent, depending on the amount of tissue loss in the corpus callosum. Morphological abnormalities, one of which is corpus callosum hypoplasia, has been observed in children with FAS [2]. Archibald et al. [3], using structural magnetic imaging (sMRI), also noted that there were corpus callosum abnormalities in children who had experienced prenatal exposure to ethanol. In a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of adult FAS males, callosal morphological data, when compared with landmark data, differed significantly from that of control males [4].Agenesis of the corpus callosum occurs as a consequence of early embryonic insult. The exact time of the insult usually determines the extent of commissural agenesis. Jeeves et al. [5] reported a timetable in which, if the insult occurs before the tenth embryonic week (in humans), all forebrain commissures will be absent. Miller [6] observed that in utero exposu
Unmet needs in rheumatoid arthritis
Larry Moreland
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/ar1736
Abstract: Current treatment guidelines suggest that early diagnosis and initial treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are necessary to limit early joint damage and functional loss and to reduce mortality associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) [1]. The earlier use of methotrexate alone and in combination with other DMARDs is now the standard of care and has yielded better outcomes for patients with RA.However, RA is a heterogeneous disease, and patient responses to standard treatments are variable. Most recent clinical trials of newer DMARDs alone and in combination with methotrexate have shown that ACR50 response – which includes reducing the signs and symptoms of disease by 50%, according to criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) – was achieved in less than two-thirds of the patients [2-5]. That leaves at least one-third of the most seriously affected patients with RA without an effective long-term treatment strategy. Until we are able to identify which patients will respond to which treatment, the availability of a variety of agents with different therapeutic targets offers the best opportunity to optimize clinical outcomes.Rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has emerged as a potential treatment for RA via selective targeting of B lymphocytes, has been used extensively in the treatment of B cell malignancies. There is a growing body of evidence for the pathophysiologic role of B cells. Silverman and Carson [6] described that B lymphocytes can present immune-complexed antigens to autoreactive T cells; express adhesion and other co-stimulatory molecules that promote T cell activation; synthesize chemokines that induce leukocyte infiltration; produce factors that initiate and sustain angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation; and release autoantibodies that are directly or indirectly destructive to tissues and maintain a memory response to autoantigens. Apart from B cells and T cells, populations o
B cell targeted therapy: a new approach to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
Larry Moreland
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/ar1744
Abstract: The precise role played by B cells in RA is not fully understood, but potential mechanisms include an antigen-presenting function, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, production of rheumatoid factor, and co-stimulation of T cells. The chimeric monoclonal antibody rituximab, which targets the CD20 antigen on B lymphocytes, has been used extensively in the treatment of B cell malignancies. More than 300,000 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and other B cell diseases have been treated with rituximab, and more recently the agent has emerged as a potential treatment for RA via selective B lymphocyte depletion.Clinical experience in the oncology setting shows that rituximab is well tolerated, with mild-to-moderate infusion reactions – most often during the first infusion phase – being the most common adverse event. Rare serious adverse events do occur but, because they are often related to circulating tumor loads or to the disease itself, it can be expected that these events will arise to a lesser extent with RA.B cell targeted therapies represent an innovative approach to the treatment of RA. Ongoing research continues to evaluate the critical roles of B cells in sustaining the chronic inflammatory process of RA. These findings have contributed to the development of other targeted therapies that delete B cells, such as belimumab, an inhibitor of B lymphocyte stimulation. In a phase I trial belimumab treatment significantly reduced CD20+ levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.The ultimate therapeutic goal in the treatment of any disease is a cure. Until the pathophysiology/etiology of RA is better understood, treatment strategies must focus on disease management. Early diagnosis and treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are necessary to reduce early joint damage, functional loss, and mortality. However, choosing which patients should receive combination DMARDs, and which combinations, remains one
Intra-articular hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid) and hylans for the treatment of osteoarthritis: mechanisms of action
Larry W Moreland
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/ar623
Abstract: Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis, is a chronic disease characterized by the slow degradation of cartilage, pain, and increasing disability. The disease can have an impact on several aspects of a patient's life, including functional and social activities, relationships, socioeconomic status, body image, and emotional well-being [1]. Currently available pharmacological therapies target palliation of pain and include analgesics (i.e. acetaminophen, cyclooxygenase-2-specific inhibitors, nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tramadol, opioids), intra-articular therapies (glucocorticoids and hyaluronan [hyaluronic acid] [HA]), and topical treatments (i.e. capsaicin, methylsalicylate) [2].Intra-articular treatment with HA and hylans (see Table 1 for definitions) has recently become more widely accepted in the armamentarium of therapies for OA pain [2]. HA is responsible for the viscoelastic properties of synovial fluid. This fluid contains a lower concentration and molecular weight (MW) of HA in osteoarthritic joints than in healthy ones [3]. Thus, the goal of intra-articular therapy with HA is to help replace synovial fluid that has lost its viscoelastic properties. The efficacy and tolerability of intra-articular HA for the treatment of pain associated with OA of the knee have been demonstrated in several clinical trials [4-14]. Three (hylan G-F 20) to five (sodium hyaluronate) injections can provide relief of knee pain from OA for up to 6 months [6,7,11]. Intra-articular hylan or HA is also generally well tolerated, with a low incidence of local adverse events (from 0% to 13% of patients) [5,6,8,11,12] that was similar to that found with placebo [6,11].Because the residence time of exogenously administered HA in the joint is relatively short, HA probably has physiological effects in the joint that contribute to its effects in the joint over longer periods. The exact mechanism(s) by which intra-articular HA or hylans relieve pain is cur
Multi-criteria Assessment of Innovative Technology in the Beef Industry
Hayley Moreland,Paul Hyland
Modern Applied Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v4n12p17
Abstract: In Australia rural research and development corporations and companies expended over $AUS500 million on agricultural research and development. A substantial proportion of this is invested in R&D in the beef industry. The Australian beef industry exports almost $AUS5billionof product annually and invest heavily in new product development to improve the beef quality and improve production efficiency. Review points are critical for effective new product development, yet many research and development bodies, particularly publicly funded ones, appear to ignore the importance of assessing products prior to their release. Significant sums of money are invested in developing technological innovations that have low levels and rates of adoption. The adoption rates could be improved if the developers were more focused on technology uptake and less focused on proving their technologies can be applied in practice. Several approaches have been put forward in an effort to improve rates of adoption into operational settings. This paper presents a study of key technological innovations in the Australian beef industry to assess the use of multiple criteria in evaluating the potential uptake of new technologies. Findings indicate that using multiple criteria to evaluate innovations before commercializing a technology enables researchers to better understand the issues that may inhibit adoption.
A binomial Laurent phenomenon algebra associated to the complete graph
Stella Gastineau,Gwyneth Moreland
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper we find the exchange graph of the rank n binomial Laurent phenomenon algebra associated to the complete graph on n vertices. More specifically, we prove that this exchange graph is isomorphic to that of the rank n linear Laurent phenomenon algebra associated to the complete graph on n vertices discussed in arxiv.org/abs/1206.2612.
The Applied Sociology of Tourism. The Up Skills of the Facilitator in the Italian Hospitality Industry  [PDF]
Nicolò Costa
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.31001
Abstract: The sociology of tourism can be considered applied sociology. Therefore, it is necessary to ascertain the up skills of the sociologist in the process of tourism planning. The present paper refers to the idea of philosophic practitioner as a theoretical model and considers the sociologist as a facilitator of local tourism development. To this purpose, I discuss some topics and working tools that can be used when the sociologist is asked to help local stakeholders create significant involvement of the local community. In particular, I propose some self-assessment tools to be included in a tourism process centred on local participation. The paper focuses on fundamental questions concerning the techniques of bottom up regulation and the techniques to facilitate the passage from individualism to collaborative marketing in order to attract visitors suitable to the destination. The discussions are based inductively on tourism economic policies initiated inItalyto create collaboration between local institutions and enterprises aimed at integrating local resources (accommodation structures, transport, gastronomy, art and archaeology, etc.) and creating districts or systems of Made inItalyhospitality. The results indicate the sociologist of tourism as a facilitator of the collaborative partnership in support of the destination management. Many difficulties in creating tourism districts or systems are due to the absence of this type of professional figure.


Remembering Guido Martinotti as an Applied Sociologist to the Urban Mobilities and Local Community  [PDF]
Nicolò Costa
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2015.51006
Abstract: Guido Martinotti (M) has been one of the most relevant representatives of the applied sociology in Italy. The paper explains the origins ad developments of his ideas and researches on the links between urban transformations, tourism/hospitality and human mobilities and the application to the reform of the Italian academic system with the introduction of new courses on tourism (1999-2001). M and John Urry (U) are the pioneers in the new intersectorial and interdisciplinary approach to the study of tourism included in the broader context of advanced-economy cities, of the cities of information flows, intense exchanges and accelerated mobilities. M stressed a new direction in planning the local community and “hospitable city” between urban marketing and bottom-up regulation. In 1999 he pushed for the bill dealing with the nascent specialist degree in “Planning and Management of Tourism Systems” to be discussed in the Italian parliament, which in 2001 passed Law 135 establishing “local tourist systems”. M constructed the degree “Tourist Sciences and Local Community” (University of Milano Bicocca) with an educational mix of territorial, social, economic, business, literary and technological disciplines.
Some Diophantine equations related to positive-rank elliptic curves
Gwyneth Moreland,Michael E. Zieve
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We give conditions on the rational numbers a,b,c which imply that there are infinitely many triples (x,y,z) of rational numbers such that x+y+z=a+b+c and xyz=abc. We do the same for the equations x+y+z=a+b+c and x^3+y^3+z^3=a^3+b^3+c^3. These results rely on exhibiting families of positive-rank elliptic curves.
Interleukin-6 inhibition for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: A review of tocilizumab therapy
Aarat M Patel, Larry W Moreland
Drug Design, Development and Therapy , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S14099
Abstract: terleukin-6 inhibition for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: A review of tocilizumab therapy Review (8815) Total Article Views Authors: Aarat M Patel, Larry W Moreland Published Date October 2010 Volume 2010:4 Pages 263 - 278 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S14099 Aarat M Patel1,2, Larry W Moreland1 1Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The dawn of the biologic era has been an exciting period for clinical research and patient care in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Targeted biologic therapies have changed the outcome of this disease and made remission a realistic outcome for many patients. Tocilizumab (TCZ, Actemra ), is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin 6 receptor and has been approved in many countries for the treatment of moderate to severe RA. There have been a number of important clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy of TCZ in active rheumatoid arthritis. This review summarizes the data on efficacy, patient-reported outcomes, adverse events, and safety from some of these trials. Current trends in clinical practice will be discussed. It is difficult to place TCZ and many new medications in the algorithm of treatment at present. However, the next few years will hopefully reveal their role as we better define abnormal immune processes in individuals with RA.
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