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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5141 matches for " Nicholas Twohill "
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THE BRITISH WORLD AND ITS ROLE IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEW ZEALAND AND THE SOUTHERN CONE COUNTRIES OF SOUTH AMERICA, 1820-1914
Twohill,Nicholas;
Historia (Santiago) , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-71942010000100004
Abstract: this research article traces the little-known relationship between new zealand and the southern cone countries of south america that existed between 1820 and the first world war. while new zealanders were found throughout latin america in many occupations, undoubtedly because of the established british presence in the region, the links with the southern cone were particularly extensive. the basis of the relationship, which promised then to be on-going, was the movement of ships, goods, people, animals, plants, know-how, technology and capital across the pacific, rather than any inter-state relationship.
THE BRITISH WORLD AND ITS ROLE IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NEW ZEALAND AND THE SOUTHERN CONE COUNTRIES OF SOUTH AMERICA, 1820-1914
Nicholas Twohill
Historia (Santiago) , 2010,
Abstract: This research article traces the little-known relationship between New Zealand and the Southern Cone countries of South America that existed between 1820 and the First World War. While New Zealanders were found throughout Latin America in many occupations, undoubtedly because of the established British presence in the region, the links with the Southern Cone were particularly extensive. The basis of the relationship, which promised then to be on-going, was the movement of ships, goods, people, animals, plants, know-how, technology and capital across the Pacific, rather than any inter-state relationship. Este trabajo de investigación se refiere a las poco conocidas relaciones existentes entre Nueva Zelanda y los países del Cono Sur americano entre 1820 y la Primera Guerra Mundial. Aunque encontramos muchos neozelandeses trabajando en las más diversas ocupaciones en toda América Latina, lo que sin duda fue posible gracias a la presencia británica ya establecida, los lazos que se dieron en el Cono Sur fueron intensos. La base de la relación, que en ese entonces parecía ser permanente, fue el movimiento tanto de barcos, mercaderías, personas, animales, plantas, know-how, y tecnología, como de capitales que cruzaban el Pacífico de un lado al otro, más que relaciones entre países propiamente tales.
Three Philosophical Problems about Consciousness and their Possible Resolution  [PDF]
Nicholas Maxwell
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2011.11001
Abstract: Three big philosophical problems about consciousness are: Why does it exist? How do we explain and understand it? How can we explain brain-consciousness correlations? If functionalism were true, all three problems would be solved. But it is false, and that means all three problems remain unsolved (in that there is no other obvious candidate for a solution). Here, it is argued that the first problem cannot have a solution; this is inherent in the nature of explanation. The second problem is solved by recognizing that (a) there is an explanation as to why science cannot explain consciousness, and (b) consciousness can be explained by a different kind of explanation, empathic or “personalistic” explanation, compatible with, but not reducible to, scientific explanation. The third problem is solved by exploiting David Chalmers“principle of structural coherence”, and involves postulating that sensations experienced by us–visual, auditory, tactile, and so on–amount to minute scattered regions in a vast, multi dimensional “space” of all possible sensations, which vary smoothly, and in a linear way, throughout the space. There is also the space of all possible sentient brain processes. There is just one, unique one-one mapping between these two spaces that preserves continuity and linearity. It is this which provides the explanation as to why brain processes and sensations are correlated as they are. I consider objections to this unique-matching theory, and consider how the theory might be empirically confirmed.
Origins and Mechanisms in the Development of Major Mental Disorders: A Clinical Approach  [PDF]
Nicholas Pediaditakis
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.22030
Abstract: This paper considers the following collective significance of the shared, clinical characteristics of the major mental disorders (MMDs), their co-morbidities, overlaps and pharmacological responses with the following conclusions: 1) These disorders have a common, initial, neurodevelopmental origin. 2) They can occur probabilistically on susceptible individuals, on account of pre-existing, extreme, temperamental variances-signifying underlying structural variance. 3) Each of these syndromes can be considered the expression of disturbances in the overall, common, operating mode of brain function which normally ensures the synchrony, coordination, elegance and subtlety in the expression of all the brain’s higher faculties. 4) Lastly, this function is a complex, emergent phenomenon based on the individual’s temperamental/structural underlying makeup, switching intermittently from a normal phase to a pathologically, ordered one-the latter phase expressing itself with symptoms made up of expressing either/or, antithetical substitutes for each of the MMDs-similar to the fluctuations found in patient’s with Parkinson’s disease.
Origins and Mechanisms in the Development of Major Mental Disorders: A Clinical Approach  [PDF]
Nicholas Pediaditakis
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.22030
Abstract: This paper considers the following collective significance of the shared, clinical characteristics of the major mental disorders (MMDs), their co-morbidities, overlaps and pharmacological responses with the following conclusions: 1) These disorders have a common, initial, neurodevelopmental origin. 2) They can occur probabilistically on susceptible individuals, on account of pre-existing, extreme, temperamental variances-signifying underlying structural variance. 3) Each of these syndromes can be considered the expression of disturbances in the overall, common, operating mode of brain function which normally ensures the synchrony, coordination, elegance and subtlety in the expression of all the brain’s higher faculties. 4) Lastly, this function is a complex, emergent phenomenon based on the individual’s temperamental/structural underlying makeup, switching intermittently from a normal phase to a pathologically, ordered one-the latter phase expressing itself with symptoms made up of expressing either/or, antithetical substitutes for each of the MMDs-similar to the fluctuations found in patient’s with Parkinson’s disease.
Three Criticisms of Newton’s Inductive Argument in the Principia  [PDF]
Nicholas Maxwell
Advances in Historical Studies (AHS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ahs.2014.31002
Abstract: In this paper, I discuss how Newton’s inductive argument of the Principia can be defended against criticisms leveled against it by Duhem, Popper and myself. I argue that Duhem’s and Popper’s criticisms can be countered, but mine cannot. It requires that we reconsider, not just Newton’s inductive argument in the Principia, but also the nature of science more generally. The methods of science, whether conceived along inductivist or hypothetico-deductivist lines, make implicit metaphysical presuppositions which rigorously require us to make them explicit within science so that they can be critically assessed, alternatives being developed and assessed, in the hope that they can be improved. Despite claiming to derive his law of gravitation by induction from phenomena without resource to hypotheses, Newton does nevertheless acknowledge in the Principia that his rules of reasoning make metaphysical presuppositions. To this extent, Newton has a more enlightened view of scientific method than most 20th and 21st century scientists and historians and philosophers of science.
Modelling Impacts of Socio-Economic Factors on Temporal Diffusion of PV-Based Communal Grids  [PDF]
Nicholas Opiyo
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2015.612026
Abstract: Impacts of socio-economic factors on temporal diffusions of solar electricity microgeneration systems in a rural developing community are modelled and simulated using an agent-based model (ABM). ABMs seek to capture the overall macro-effects of different micro-decisions in a virtual world; they model individual entities within a complex system and the rules that govern them to capture the overall effects of their interactions. Results showed that falling PV costs coupled with generally increasing grid electricity costs would lead to increased uptake of PV systems in such communities. On the other hand, high lending rates in most developing nations would stifle use of credit facilities in purchases of PV systems and thus diminishing their uptakes. Results also showed that introduction of favourable government policies in forms of subsidies would strongly stimulate PV installations in such communities. Social acceptance is important for diffusion of any new technology into a given market and more so with solar systems; results show that neighbourhood influence plays major roles in PV diffusions with many households installing PV systems if their neighbours within a given sensing radius do the same. Results also showed that requiring a certain percentage of neighbours to have installed PV before a household considered doing the same could have negative effects on PV installations as decisions to install PV are influenced by many independent and dependent factors and not by neighbourhood threshold alone.
Power Electronics for PV-Based Communal Grids  [PDF]
Nicholas Opiyo
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2016.72004
Abstract: In this paper power electronics used in PV power generation systems have been reviewed and modelled. PV systems need converters for maximum power point tracking, power conditioning, voltage step-up/down as necessary, and for storage charge-controlling. Inverters are needed for AC loads and for utility grid interfacing. The four basic DC-DC converters commonly used with PV systems have been reviewed and modelled. Different DC-AC inverter types and operational architectures have also been reviewed with the two-stage DC-AC inverter, with the point of common coupling (PCC) at the inverter input, suggested as the most cost-effective and efficient architecture for PV-based communal grids. This is because only one inverter is used for the entire system as opposed to an inverter for every module string, resulting in higher efficiencies, low cost, and low harmonic distortions when compared to systems with PCC at AC terminal. The aim of power conversion/inversion is to extract maximum power possible from the PV system and where necessary, to invert it at close to 100% as possible. Highlight: 1) DC-DC converters are necessary for power conditioning in PV systems; 2) DC-AC inverters are necessary for AC loads and for utility grid interfacing; 3) DC-AC inverters are also used to control the PV systems when grid connected; 4) Best inverter configuration cost-effectively and efficiently allows easy system modifications.
Revisiting the Major Mental Disorders and Updating the Nosological Schema: A Synthesis  [PDF]
Nicholas Pediaditakis
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2016.62010
Abstract: Recently, conciliating findings from molecular genetics, evolutionary biology, along with empirical clinical evidence regarding the major mental disorders (MMDs) namely bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), the anxieties with depression, autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) all point to a common neural-developmental origin. Genetic loci associated with schizophrenia do not directly lead to the disorder; instead, they code for the expression of lopsided, temperamental, variants in individuals that originate mainly from one part of our human nature which applies also, to the rest of the MMDs. These individuals contribute to the flexibility, robustness, and creative input of our species, concomitantly, they incur vulnerability to the development of a MMD as an evolutionary trade off. MMDs initially, are expressed as periodic epiphenomena on the underlying temperamental extreme variants of brain function. Their expressions tend to become permanent. Underlying, aberrant traits remain unaltered. Their clinical expressions are characterized by “either-or”, antithetical substitutes, in addition to co-occurring psychosis. The latter is a common occurrence to other assaults on brain function. Characteristic, “ether-or” symptoms are the result of a disturbed, overall, coordinating property of brain function, normally responsive to the smooth, synchronizing expression of all higher mental faculties. Clinical findings point to the need of modifying the current schema in order to better reflect their collective significance in order to help guide research to a new, more promising direction in elucidating their triggers, development, and mechanisms whereby opening a new horizon for therapy and treatment.
Environmental Standards and Trade Volume  [PDF]
Nicholas Mangee, Bruce Elmslie
Modern Economy (ME) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/me.2010.12010
Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the effects of environmental regulation on bilateral trade volume. We use a gravity model of trade flows and find weak evidence that differences in regulation are a source of comparative advantage. We also find evidence against the racetothebottom hypothesis in that increases in standards in both high and low standard countries increase bilateral trade volume. We use 1999 data on GDP, population, and environmental stringency for 39 countries.
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