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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5893 matches for " Nicholas Griffin "
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Nicholas Griffin
Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy , 2013, DOI: 10.4148/jhap.v2i1.1709
Abstract: Russell’s rejection in 1898 of the doctrine of internal relations — the view that all relations are grounded in the intrinsic properties of the terms related — was a decisive part of his break with Hegelianism and opened the way for his turn to analytic philosophy. Before rejecting it, Russell had given the doctrine little thought, though it played an essential role in the most intractable of the problems facing his attempt to construct a Hegelian dialectic of the sciences. I argue that it was Russell’s early reading of Leibniz, in preparation for his lectures on Leibniz given at Cambridge in 1899, that most probably alerted him to the role the doctrine was playing in his own philosophy. Leibniz defended a similar doctrine and extricated it from difficulties like those faced by Russell by means of devices that were not open to Russell. Russell would have come across these views of Leibniz in writings by Leibniz that he read in the summer of 1898, just before he rejected the doctrine of internal relations.
In the "I" of the storm
Jesse Chandler,Tiffany M. Griffin,Nicholas Sorensen
Judgment and Decision Making , 2008,
Abstract: People prefer their own initials to other letters, influencing preferences in many domains. The ``name letter effect'' (Nuttin, 1987) may not apply to negatively valenced targets if people are motivated to downplay or distance themselves from negative targets associated with the self, as previous research has shown (e.g., Finch and Cialdini, 1989). In the current research we examine the relationship between same initial preferences and negatively valenced stimuli. Specifically, we examined donations to disaster relief after seven major hurricanes to test the influence of the name letter effect with negatively valenced targets. Individuals who shared an initial with the hurricane name were overrepresented among hurricane relief donors relative to the baseline distribution of initials in the donor population. This finding suggests that people may seek to ameliorate the negative effects of a disaster when there are shared characteristics between the disaster and the self.
A statistical framework for quantifying clinical equipoise for individual cases during randomized controlled surgical trials
Nicholas R Parsons, Yuri Kulikov, Alan Girling, Damian Griffin
Trials , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-12-258
Abstract: We describe a statistical framework for the assessment of uncertainty prior to patient recruitment to a clinical trial using a panel of expert clinical assessors and techniques for eliciting, pooling and modelling of expert opinions. The methodology is illustrated using example data from the UK Heel Fracture Trial. The statistical modelling provided results that were clear and simple to present to clinicians and showed how decisions regarding recruitment were influenced by both the collective opinion of the expert panel and the type of decision rule selected.The statistical framework presented has potential to identify eligible patients and assist in the simplification of eligibility criteria which might encourage greater participation in clinical trials evaluating surgical interventions.There is an increasing demand for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in surgery to provide high quality evaluation of new interventions; we use the word intervention synonymously with treatment, procedure or surgical procedure. In a background of ever evolving and improving healthcare, differences between interventions for the same condition are often small, substantially increasing the risk of biased estimation of treatment effects in simple (uncontrolled) observational studies of the interventions [1]. The need for the kind of high level evidence provided by RCTs for surgical interventions is clear [2], although a number of methodological issues have been raised for surgical trials [1,3]. One of the most important issues being recruitment, and specifically identifying whether patients are eligible for entry into a trial.The existing tremendous diversity in practice patterns across institutions coupled with an ever increasing range of available interventions suggests a low level of agreement between clinicians about both the value of many interventions and the appropriate choice of intervention [4]. A present or imminent controversy in the expert medical community about a choice b
A translational framework for public health research
David Ogilvie, Peter Craig, Simon Griffin, Sally Macintyre, Nicholas J Wareham
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-116
Abstract: Our framework redefines the objective of translation from that of institutionalising effective interventions to that of improving population health by influencing both individual and collective determinants of health. It incorporates epidemiological perspectives with those of the social sciences, recognising that many types of research may contribute to the shaping of policy, practice and future research. It also identifies a pivotal role for evidence synthesis and the importance of non-linear and intersectoral interfaces with the public realm.We propose a research agenda to advance the field and argue that resources for 'applied' or 'translational' public health research should be deployed across the framework, not reserved for 'dissemination' or 'implementation'.The translation of health research is increasingly regarded as important – not only in the UK but also across Europe and North America – in order to maximise the population health benefits of investment in research and health care delivery [1]. However, 'translation' and 'translational research' mean different things to different people. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) define 'knowledge translation' in terms of exchange, synthesis, dialogue and interaction between researchers and users – a 'radically different' model from the unidirectional flow of knowledge sometimes implied by terms such as 'dissemination' or 'knowledge transfer' [2]. It is also recognised that many contemporary health challenges require a more fundamental and wide-ranging societal response than those that can be offered through established systems of delivering health care [3]. This is the domain of public health, the nature and scope of which is not universally understood [4].In this paper, we therefore propose a translational framework for public health research. Although our framework is presented in the context of a case study of the current situation in the UK, the issues we address are general and equally applica
Evolution of the chicken Toll-like receptor gene family: A story of gene gain and gene loss
Nicholas D Temperley, Sofia Berlin, Ian R Paton, Darren K Griffin, David W Burt
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-62
Abstract: The chicken TLR repertoire consists of ten genes. Phylogenetic analyses show that six of these genes have orthologs in mammals and fish, while one is only shared by fish and three appear to be unique to birds. Furthermore the phylogeny shows that TLR1-like genes arose independently in fish, birds and mammals from an ancestral gene also shared by TLR6 and TLR10. All other TLRs were already present prior to the divergence of major vertebrate lineages 550 Mya (million years ago) and have since been lost in certain lineages. Phylogenetic analysis shows the absence of TLRs 8 and 9 in chicken to be the result of gene loss. The notable exception to the tendency of gene loss in TLR evolution is found in chicken TLRs 1 and 2, each of which underwent gene duplication about 147 and 65 Mya, respectively.Comparative phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate TLR genes provides insight into their patterns and processes of gene evolution, with examples of both gene gain and gene loss. In addition, these comparisons clarify the nomenclature of TLR genes in vertebrates.Toll-like receptors (TLRs) perform a vital role as sentinels of the innate immune system in their host organism through the recognition of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PAMP recognition is achieved through binding to the extracellular leucine rich repeat (LRR) containing domain, specific to each receptor type [1]. In response to ligand binding, signalling is activated by the cytoplasmic Toll/interleukin I resistance (TIR) domain resulting in an inflammatory response and release of inflammatory cytokines. This is an evolutionarily highly conserved domain, present in a wide range of taxa from plants to animals indicating the first Toll-like gene existed in the unicellular ancestor of plants and animals over 1 billion years ago [2-6,1].The first Toll gene to be discovered was in Drosophila melanogaster, which encodes a receptor involved in developmental patterning, but more importantly also in resistance to fu
Powering Renewable Programs: The Utility Perspective  [PDF]
Nicole Griffin, Athens Gomes Silaban
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2016.54013
Abstract: In order to make renewable energy projects successful, there are many factors that utilities need to consider. These include policy drivers, assessing what renewable technologies it will employ, identifying the rates and pricing incentives that could be made available, and how customers can be better engaged. Utilities have created renewable programs with varying degrees of customer participation: some have taken the initiative to provide customers with 100% renewable generated power, others rely exclusively on customers to participate to meet renewable energy goals and the last alternative is a blend of both in which utilities offer customers the option to purchase renewable power matches or install and generate their own renewable power. Overall, the economics of solar and wind technologies are trending in the upward direction—the costs of the technologies are decreasing and the yields are getting higher. Better still, predictive modeling, energy storage and the plethora of research in this area will only make the prospects of integrating renewables more viable.
Industrialization: Different Approaches and Case Studies Industrialization: Different Approaches and Case Studies
Keith Griffin
Revista de Análisis Económico (RAE) , 1987,
Abstract: Industrialization: Different Approaches and Case Studies This paper enquires whether an industrialisation policy designed by the state might be successful in achieving industrialisation and development in the third world. Three common approaches to industrialisation are analysed in terms of their structural features and consequences: import substitution, capital goods sector promotion, and manufacturing export promotion. Associating these strategies to Brazil, India and South Korea, respectively, a detailed comparison of their characteristics and achievements is carried out. The paper concludes by ranking these country experiences, arguing that their relative achievements might be independent from their political regimes
An overview of the key changes in public administration in the United Kingfom from 1970 to 2002
Rosarii Griffin
Pyramides : Revue du Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches en Administration Publique , 2011,
Abstract: Cet article montre qu’il n’y a eu rien moins qu’une révolution dans l’administration publique au Royaume-Uni durant la période allant de 1970 à nos jours. Les quatre principaux secteurs des services publics abordés sont : la sécurité sociale, la santé, la sécurité et tout particulièrement, l’éducation. L’article aborde tout d’abord le r le des autorités locales qui furent instituées à la fin du dix-neuvième siècle pour assurer les services publics et virtuellement abolies sous les ères Thatcher et Major des années 80 et 90. Les conséquences de ces réformes drastiques sur l’administration publique y sont discutées, ainsi que le r le des nouveaux organes de contr le (Quangos et NDPBs). Ces derniers sont destinés à : a) maintenir et améliorer les normes des services publics ; b) assurer les r les traditionnels des autorités locales. Cet article s’achève par une brève discussion de la démarche du New Labour vis-à-vis du secteur public et les réalisations générales (ou autres) des différents gouvernements des années 1970 à nos jours.
Tradition and Imitation in Spenser’s The Faerie Queene
Jonathan Griffin
Journal of Arts and Humanities , 2013,
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to discuss Spenser’s use of imitation as a literary device in his allegorical epic poem The Faerie Queene, originally published in 1590. The paper begins with a synopsis of Spenser’s general intent behind the poem, as well as his use of the theoretical models of literary excellence proposed by his contemporary Sir Phillip Sidney. The paper then follows Spenser’s reinterpretation of Ariosto, his treatment of Virgil and Ovid, and chronicles his attempts to parody these imperious influences to create an epic that would give synthesis to the poetic tradition to which he belonged with his religious ethic and fervent nationalism, while paying tribute to his monarch, Elizabeth I.
Theory of excitations of the condensate and non-condensate at finite temperatures
Allan Griffin
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We give an overview of the current theory of collective modes in trapped atomic gases at finite temperatures, when the dynamics of the condensate and non-condensate must both be considered. A simple introduction is given to the quantum field formulation of the dynamics of an interacting Bose-condensed system, based on equations of motion for the condensate wavefunction and single-particle Green's functions for the non-condensate atoms. We discuss the nature of excitations in the mean-field collisionless region, including the Beliaev second-order approximation for the self-energies. We also sketch the derivation of coupled two-fluid hydrodynamic equations using a simple kinetic equation which includes collisions between condensate and non-condensate atoms.
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